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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 254-267, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000784

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to analyze contemporary practice patterns in breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) and assess longitudinal changes over five years in Korea. @*Methods@#In 2022, a nationwide survey was conducted among board-certified radiation oncologists. The survey consisted of 44 questions related to six domains: hypofractionated (HypoFx) whole breast RT, accelerated partial breast RT (APBI), regional nodal irradiation (RNI), RT for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), postmastectomy RT (PMRT), and tumor bed boost. @*Results@#Seventy radiation oncologists from 61 (out of 101; 60%) institutions participated in the survey. HypoFx RT was used by 62 respondents (89%), a significant increase from 36% in 2017. HypoFx RT is commonly administered at 40–42.5 Gy in 15–16 fractions. APBI was used by 12 respondents (17%), an increase from 5% in 2017. The use of RNI did not change significantly: ≥ pN2 (6%), ≥ pN1 (33%), and ≥ pN1 with pathological risk factors (61%).However, indications for internal mammary lymph node (IMN) irradiation have expanded.In particular, the rates of routine treatment of IMN (11% from 6% in 2017) and treatment in cases of ≥ pN2 (27% from 14% in 2017) have doubled; however, the rate of treatment for only IMN involvement, identified on imaging, has decreased from 47% in 2017 to 31%. For DCIS, the use of HypoFx RT increased from 25% in 2017 to 75%, and the rate of RT omissions after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) decreased from 48% in 2017 to 38%. The use of HypoFx RT for PMRT increased from 8% in 2017 to 36%. @*Conclusion@#The adoption of HypoFx RT after BCS for invasive breast cancer and DCIS has increased significantly, whereas the use of HypoFx PMRT has increased moderately since 2017. However, further studies are required to determine the optimal use of RNI.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 592-602, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976706

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The utility of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is highly controversial. This study evaluated the impact of PMRT according to pathologic nodal status after modern NAC. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 682 patients with clinical stage II-III breast cancer who underwent NAC and mastectomy from 2013 to 2017. In total, 596 patients (87.4%) received PMRT, and 86 (12.6%) did not. We investigated the relationships among locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and various prognostic factors. Subgroup analyses were also performed to identify patients who may benefit from PMRT. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 67 months. In ypN+ patients (n=368, 51.2%), PMRT showed significant benefits in terms of LRRFS, DFS, and OS (all p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, histologic grade (HG) III (p=0.002), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p=0.045), and ypN2-3 (p=0.02) were significant risk factors for poor LRRFS. In ypN1 patients with more than two prognostic factors among luminal/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2–negative subtype, HG I-II, and absence of LVI, PMRT had no significant effect on LRRFS (p=0.18). In ypN0 patients (n=351, 48.8%), PMRT was not significantly associated with LRRFS, DFS, or OS. However, PMRT showed better LRRFS in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients (p=0.03). @*Conclusion@#PMRT had a major impact on treatment outcomes in patients with residual lymph nodes following NAC and mastectomy. Among ypN0 patients, PMRT may be beneficial only for those with TNBC.

3.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 209-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002779

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to evaluate the time and cost of developing prompts using large language model (LLM), tailored to extract clinical factors in breast cancer patients and their accuracy. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected data from reports of surgical pathology and ultrasound from breast cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy from 2020 to 2022. We extracted the information using the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) for Sheets and Docs extension plugin and termed this the “LLM” method. The time and cost of developing the prompts with LLM methods were assessed and compared with those spent on collecting information with “full manual” and “LLM-assisted manual” methods. To assess accuracy, 340 patients were randomly selected, and the extracted information by LLM method were compared with those collected by “full manual” method. @*Results@#Data from 2,931 patients were collected. We developed 12 prompts for Extract function and 12 for Format function to extract and standardize the information. The overall accuracy was 87.7%. For lymphovascular invasion, it was 98.2%. Developing and processing the prompts took 3.5 hours and 15 minutes, respectively. Utilizing the ChatGPT application programming interface cost US $65.8 and when factoring in the estimated wage, the total cost was US $95.4. In an estimated comparison, “LLM-assisted manual” and “LLM” methods were time- and cost-efficient compared to the “full manual” method. @*Conclusion@#Developing and facilitating prompts for LLM to derive clinical factors was efficient to extract crucial information from huge medical records. This study demonstrated the potential of the application of natural language processing using LLM model in breast cancer patients. Prompts from the current study can be re-used for other research to collect clinical information.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 478-487, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925682

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the impact of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in de novo metastatic breast cancer (dnMBC) patients undergoing planned primary tumor resection (PTR) and to identify the subgroup of patients who would most benefit from PORT. @*Materials and Methods@#This study enrolled 426 patients with dnMBC administered PTR alone or with PORT. The primary and secondary outcomes were overall and progression-free survival (OS and PFS), respectively. @*Results@#The median follow-up time was 53.7 months (range, 3.1 to 194.4). The 5-year OS and PFS rates were 73.2% and 32.0%, respectively. For OS, clinical T3/4 category, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), postoperative chemotherapy alone were significantly poor prognostic factors, and administration of PORT failed to show its significance. Regarding PFS, PORT was a favorable prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.82; p < 0.001), in addition to T1/2 category, ≤ 5 metastases, and non-TNBC. According to the multivariate analyses of OS in the PORT group, we divided the patients into three groups (group 1, T1/2 and non-TNBC [n=193]; group 2, T3/4 and non-TNBC [n=171]; and group 3, TNBC [n=49]), and evaluated the effect of PORT. Although PORT had no significance for OS in all subgroups, it was a significant factor for good prognosis regarding PFS in groups 1 and 2, not in group 3. @*Conclusion@#PORT was associated with a significantly better PFS in patients with dnMBC who underwent PTR. Patients with clinical T1/2 category and non-TNBC benefited most from PORT, while those with TNBC showed little benefit.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 497-504, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925667

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the role of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in patients with node-negative breast cancer of 5cm or larger tumors undergoing mastectomy @*Materials and Methods@#Medical records of 274 patients from 18 institutions treated with mastectomy between January 2000 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 202 patients underwent PMRT, while 72 did not. Two hundred and forty-one patients (88.0%) received systemic chemotherapy, and 172 (62.8%) received hormonal therapy. Patients receiving PMRT were younger, more likely to have progesterone receptor-positive tumors, and received adjuvant chemotherapy more frequently compared with those without PMRT (p <0.001, 0.018, and <0.001, respectively). Other characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. @*Results@#With a median follow-up of 95 months (range, 1-249), there were 9 locoregional recurrences, and 20 distant metastases. The 8-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rates were 98.0% with PMRT and 91.3% without PMRT (p=0.133), and the 8-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 91.8% with PMRT and 73.9% without PMRT (p=0.008). On multivariate analysis incorporating age, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and PMRT, the absence of lymphovascular invasion and the receipt of PMRT were associated with improved DFS (p=0.025 and 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Locoregional recurrence rate was very low in node-negative breast cancer of 5cm or larger tumors treated with mastectomy regardless of the receipt of PMRT. However, PMRT was significantly associated with improved DFS. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.

6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925168

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy for patients with pN1mi or pN1 disease breast cancer undergoing mastectomy has been debated for a long time. Even in low metastatic burden in sentinel node biopsy, occult non-sentinel axillary nodal involvement can exist. Radiotherapy can sterilize axillary metastatic burden and seems to contribute a very low local recurrence rate in mastectomy patients with minimally involved lymph nodes. However, it should be considered that systemic therapy is evolving and the local recurrence difference between radiotherapy and no radiotherapy is relatively small. Regarding postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients pN1mi or pN1 cancer, published prospective clinical trial results should be considered; however, there are no such relevant results of clinical trials yet. Consideration of postmastectomy radiation therapy in pN1mi or pN1 patients should be based on identifying the high-risk group in terms of recurrence, stage, or tumor biology. When radiotherapy is determined, radiation oncologists should attempt individualized treatment approaches, such as irradiation field, and consider specific settings, such as neoadjuvant therapy. In this review, the role of radiotherapy in mastectomy patients with minimally involved lymph nodes and the relevant considerations are discussed.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1240-1252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902421

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the accuracy for detecting breast cancer in the diagnostic setting between the use of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), defined as DBT alone or combined DBT and digital mammography (DM), and the use of DM alone through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, Cochrane Library and five Korean local databases were searched for articles published until March 25, 2020. We selected studies that reported diagnostic accuracy in women who were recalled after screening or symptomatic. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A bivariate random effects model was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between DBT and DM alone using meta-regression and subgroup analyses by modality of intervention, country, existence of calcifications, breast density, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category threshold, study design, protocol for participant sampling, sample size, reason for diagnostic examination, and number of readers who interpreted the studies. @*Results@#Twenty studies (n = 44513) that compared DBT and DM alone were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86–0.93) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.94), respectively, for DBT, which were higher than 0.76 (95% CI 0.68–0.83) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.89), respectively, for DM alone (p < 0.001). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for DBT and 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.88) for DM alone. The higher sensitivity and specificity of DBT than DM alone were consistently noted in most subgroup and meta-regression analyses. @*Conclusion@#Use of DBT was more accurate than DM alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women with clinical symptoms or abnormal screening findings could be more effectively evaluated for breast cancer using DBT, which has a superior diagnostic performance compared to DM alone.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1240-1252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894717

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the accuracy for detecting breast cancer in the diagnostic setting between the use of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), defined as DBT alone or combined DBT and digital mammography (DM), and the use of DM alone through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, Cochrane Library and five Korean local databases were searched for articles published until March 25, 2020. We selected studies that reported diagnostic accuracy in women who were recalled after screening or symptomatic. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A bivariate random effects model was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between DBT and DM alone using meta-regression and subgroup analyses by modality of intervention, country, existence of calcifications, breast density, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category threshold, study design, protocol for participant sampling, sample size, reason for diagnostic examination, and number of readers who interpreted the studies. @*Results@#Twenty studies (n = 44513) that compared DBT and DM alone were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86–0.93) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.94), respectively, for DBT, which were higher than 0.76 (95% CI 0.68–0.83) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.89), respectively, for DM alone (p < 0.001). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for DBT and 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.88) for DM alone. The higher sensitivity and specificity of DBT than DM alone were consistently noted in most subgroup and meta-regression analyses. @*Conclusion@#Use of DBT was more accurate than DM alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women with clinical symptoms or abnormal screening findings could be more effectively evaluated for breast cancer using DBT, which has a superior diagnostic performance compared to DM alone.

9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903249

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms. @*Results@#Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.

10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms. @*Results@#Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 279-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic factors associated with distant metastasis (DM) and post-recurrence overall survival (OS) after salvage treatments for isolated locoregional recurrence (ILRR) of breast cancer and identify long-term surviving patients for providing a more personalized therapy. @*Methods@#We analyzed 125 patients who underwent salvage local treatments for ILRR after initial curative breast surgery. @*Results@#Fifty-two (41.6%) patients experienced secondary recurrence or disease progression, of which 20 (38.5%) experienced a secondary locoregional recurrence and 40 (76.9%) experienced DM as the first site of failure. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and post-recurrence OS, the initial pN2-3 stage, a disease-free interval of < 36 months, and non-curative resection for recurrent disease were independently poor prognosticators. The score for patients stratified according to the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 3; the corresponding 5-year DMFS rates were 91.4%, 53.0%, 35.9%, and 0% and the 5-year OS rates were 97.3%, 70.4%, 32.7%, and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.001).Systemic chemotherapy reduced DM in patients with a score of 2–3, but it did not in those with a score of 0-1. @*Conclusion@#Our collective stratification can help with prognosis prediction for ILRR of breast cancer. Depending on the DM risk of patients, the potential combination of systemic therapy should be discussed further.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 314-319, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914812

ABSTRACT

The current study evaluated the impact of the Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS) on the patterns of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in node-negative, hormone receptor-positive/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. Totally, 339 patients from 4 institutions were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent breastconserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation; only 2 patients received regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The RS was 25 in 43. Sixty-two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. All patients except 4 received hormonal therapy. During a 62-month median follow-up, local recurrence was observed in 1 patient; regional recurrence, 3; and distant metastasis, 7. All LRRs were observed among patients with a RS > 25, resulting in a 5-year LRR rate of 7.3% in this subgroup. Regional recurrences developed in patients did not receive RNI initially. Thus, RNI might be effective for patients with a high RS.

13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 194-204, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835602

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes of ipsilateral cervical lymph node (CLN)-positive breast cancer without other distant metastasis and compare the outcomes with those of supraclavicular lymph node (SCL)-positive breast cancer. @*Methods@#Seventy-eight patients with breast cancer and ipsilateral CLN metastasis above the supraclavicular fossa (CLN[+] group) were treated at 7 institutions (2000–2014). Seventy-four patients received systemic chemotherapy and breast surgery followed by locoregional radiotherapy. Outcomes of the CLN(+) group were compared with those of the SCL(+) group, which included 183 patients with SCL involvement. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 55.9 months. Twenty-two regional failures were found in 15 patients—axillary lymph node (LN) in 8, SCL in 6, internal mammary LN in 3, previously involved CLN in 4, and previously uninvolved ipsilateral CLN in one patient. The 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 68.6%, 46.7%, 68.4%, and 57.0%, respectively. Neck dissection did not improve LRRFS and DFS (p = 0.86 and p = 0.26, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that hormone receptor negativity and the presence of extracapsular extension were prognostic factors for poor DFS. On comparison with stage IIIC using propensity score matching, survival outcomes of the CLN(+) and SCL(+) groups were not different (5-year OS, p = 0.75; DFS, p = 0.88; LRRFS, p = 0.86; and DMFS, p = 0.45). @*Conclusion@#The comparable clinical outcomes indicate that patients with breast cancer who have ipsilateral CLN metastasis without other distant metastasis may benefit from locoregional treatment of the ipsilateral breast and systemic therapies, as do those with N3c disease.

14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 120-130, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of central nervous system (CNS) failure in Korean patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched breast cancer treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: A total of 749 patients from eight institutions were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent surgery followed by postoperative RT from 2003 to 2011; 246 (32.8%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 649 (81.7%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant trastuzumab was administered to 386 patients (48.6%). RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 84 (range, 8–171) months. The 7-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 79.0% and 84.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, mastectomy, nodal involvement, and presence of lymphatic invasion were correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.004, 0.022, and 0.011, respectively), whereas T stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Regarding CNS failures, 30 brain metastases, 2 leptomeningeal metastases, and 8 brain and leptomeningeal metastases were noted. The 7-year CNS relapse-free survival rates in patients receiving and not receiving trastuzumab were 91.2% and 96.9%, respectively (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the administration of adjuvant trastuzumab was the only prognostic factor in predicting a higher CNS failure rate (hazard ratio, 2.260; 95% confidence interval, 1.076–4.746; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant trastuzumab was associated with higher CNS failure rate in Korean patients with HER2-enriched breast cancer. Close monitoring and reasonable approaches such as CNS penetrating HER2 blockades combined with the current standard therapy could contribute to improving intracranial tumor control and quality of life in patients with CNS metastasis from HER2-enriched breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Quality of Life , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 326-336, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719331

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the non-inferiority of omitting radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for hormone receptor (HR)‒positive T1N0 breast cancer in elderly women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2004 to 2014, HR-positive T1N0 breast cancer patients aged 50 years or older and receiving BCS were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End RESULTS: 18 database. After propensity score matching between the no-RT and RT groups, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Identified prognostic factors were used to stratify the risk groups. In each risk group, 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were compared between the no-RT and RT groups. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, the numbers of patients in the no-RT and RT groups were both 18,586. For patients who satisfied both a tumor size of 1-10 mm and a tumor grade of 1-2, omitting RT did not decrease the CSS rate at any age group, ranging from ≥ 50 to ≥ 85 years; for patients aged ≥ 50 years, the 10-year CSS rates in the no-RT and RT groups were 97.2% and 96.8%, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.862; p=0.312). However, for patients with a tumor size of 11-20 mm or tumor grade of 3-4, RT significantly increased the CSS rate irrespective of age. CONCLUSION: RT after BCS for HR-positive T1N0 breast cancer in elderly women might be omitted without causing a decrease in the CSS rate, but only in patients who satisfy both a small tumor size (≤ 10 mm) and low tumor grade (1-2).


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Epidemiology , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Receptors, Estrogen , Receptors, Progesterone
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1324-1335, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating spinal metastasis with epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2013-2016, 149 regions of spinal metastasis in 105 patients treated with singlefraction (12-24 Gy) spinal SRS were reviewed. Cord compression of Bilsky grade 2 (with visible cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) or 3 (no visible CSF) was defined as ESCC. Local progression (LP) and vertebral compression fracture (VCF) rates after SRS were evaluated using multivariate competing-risk regression analysis. RESULTS: The 1-year cumulative incidences of LP for Bilsky grades 0 (n=80), 1 (n=39), 2 (n=21), and 3 (n=9) were 3.0%, 8.4%, 0%, and 24.9%, respectively. Bilsky grade 2 ESCC did not significantly increase the LP rate (no LP for grade 2). The 1-year cumulative incidences of VCF for Bilsky grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 6.6%, 5.2%, 17.1%, and 12.1%, respectively. ESCC may increase VCF risk (subhazard ratio [SHR] for grade 2, 5.368; p=0.035; SHR for grade 3, 2.215; p=0.460). Complete or partial pain response rates after SRS were 79%, 78%, 53%, and 63% for Bilsky grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p=0.008). No neurotoxicity of grade ≥ 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: Spinal SRS for spinal metastasis with Bilsky grade 2 ESCC did not increase the LP rate, was not associated with severe neurotoxicity, and showed moderate VCF and pain response rates. Bilsky grade 3 had a high LP rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Disease Progression , Fractures, Compression , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiosurgery , Spinal Cord Compression , Spine
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1500-1508, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763211

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer with ipsilateral supraclavicular (SCL) and/or internal mammary (IMN) lymph node involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 353 patients from 11 institutions were included. One hundred and thirty-six patients had SCL involvement, 148 had IMN involvement, and 69 had both. All patients received neoadjuvant systemic therapy followed by breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy, and postoperative RT to whole breast/chest wall. As for regional lymph node irradiation, SCL RT was given to 344 patients, and IMN RT to 236 patients. The median RT dose was 50.4 Gy. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range, 7 to 173 months). In-field progression was present in SCL (n=20) and/or IMN (n=7). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 57.8% and 75.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, both SCL/IMN involvement, number of axillary lymph node ≥ 4, triple-negative subtype, and mastectomy were significant adverse prognosticators for DFS (p=0.022, p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.004, respectively). Regarding the impact of regional nodal irradiation, SCL RT dose ≥ 54 Gy was not associated with DFS (5-year rate, 52.9% vs. 50.9%; p=0.696) in SCL-involved patients, and the receipt of IMN RT was not associated with DFS (5-year rate, 56.1% vs. 78.1%; p=0.099) in IMN-involved patients. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and postoperative RT achieved an acceptable in-field regional control rate in patients with SCL and/or IMN involvement. However, a higher RT dose to SCL or IMN RT was not associated with the improved DFS in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1041-1051, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the oncologic outcomes of breast-conserving surgery plus radiation therapy (BCS+RT) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) under anthracycline plus taxane-based (AT) regimens and investigated the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in patients with pathologic N1 (pN1) breast cancer treated by mastectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,011 patients with pN1 breast cancer who underwent BCS+RT or MRM alone at 12 institutions between January 2006 and December 2010. Two-to-one propensity score matching was performed for balances in variables between the groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration for the total cohort was 69 months (range, 1 to 114 months). After propensity score matching, 1,074 patients (676 in the BCS+RT group and 398 in the MRM-alone group) were analyzed finally. The overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional failure-free survival, and regional failure-free survival (RFFS) curves of the BCS+RT group vs. MRM-alone group were not significantly different. The subgroup analysis revealed that in the group with both lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and histologic grade (HG) III, the BCS+RT showed significantly superior RFFS (p=0.008). Lymphedema (p=0.007) and radiation pneumonitis (p=0.031) occurred more frequently in the BCS+RT group than in the MRM-alone group, significantly. CONCLUSION: There are no differences in oncologic outcomes between BCS+RT and MRM-alone groups under the AT chemotherapy regimens for pN1 breast cancer. However, BCS+RT group showed superior RFFS to MRM-alone group in the patients with LVI and HG III. Adjuvant RT might be considerable for pN1 breast cancer patients with LVI and HG III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphedema , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Mastectomy, Segmental , Medical Records , Propensity Score , Radiation Pneumonitis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1316-1323, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717737

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the treatment outcomes of breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy (RT) versus mastectomy for patients with pT1-2N1 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using two multicenter retrospective studies on breast cancer, a pooled analysis was performed among 320 patients with pT1-2N1 TNBC. All patients who underwent BCS (n=212) receivedwhole breast RTwith orwithoutregional nodal RT,while nonewho underwent mastectomy (n=108)received it. All patients received taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up periods were 65 months in the BCS+RT group, and 74 months in the mastectomy group. RESULTS: The median age of all patients was 48 years (range, 24 to 70 years). Mastectomy group had more patients with multiple tumors (p < 0.001), no lymphovascular invasion (p=0.001), higher number of involved lymph node (p=0.028), and higher nodal ratio ≥ 0.2 (p=0.037). Other characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The 5-year locoregionalrecurrence-free, disease-free, and overall survivalrates of BCS+RT group versus mastectomy group were 94.6% versus 87.7%, 89.5% versus 80.4%, and 95.0% versus 87.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant after adjusting for covariates (p=0.010, p=0.006, and p=0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION: In pT1-2N1 TNBC, breast conservation therapy achieved better locoregional recurrencefree, disease-free, and overall survival rates compared with mastectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 244-250, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716698

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is a well-established treatment for breast cancer. However, there is a large degree of variation and controversy in practice patterns. A nationwide survey on the patterns of practice in breast RT was designed by the Division for Breast Cancer of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group. All board-certified members of the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology were sent a questionnaire comprising 39 questions on six domains: hypofractionated whole breast RT, accelerated partial breast RT, postmastectomy RT (PMRT), regional nodal RT, RT for ductal carcinoma in situ, and RT toxicity. Sixty-four radiation oncologists from 54 of 86 (62.8%) hospitals responded. Twenty-three respondents (35.9%) used hypofractionated whole breast RT, and the most common schedule was 43.2 Gy in 16 fractions. Only three (4.7%) used accelerated partial breast RT. Five (7.8%) used hypofractionated PMRT, and 40 (62.5%) had never used boost RT after chest wall irradiation. Indications for regional nodal RT varied; ≥pN2 (n=7) versus ≥pN1 (n=17) versus ≥pN1 with pathologic risk factors (n=40). Selection criteria for internal mammary lymph node (IMN) irradiation also varied; only four (6.3%) always treated IMN when regional nodal RT was administered and 30 (46.9%) treated IMN only if IMN involvement was identified through imaging. Thirty-one (48.4%) considered omission of whole breast RT after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. Fifty-two (81.3%) used heart-sparing techniques. Overall, there were wide variations in the patterns of practice in breast RT in Korea. Standard guidelines are needed, especially for regional nodal RT and omission of RT for ductal carcinoma in situ.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Patient Selection , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thoracic Wall
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