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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e30-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915542

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with different age of onset, disease course, clinical symptoms, severity, and risk of comorbidity. The characteristics of children with AD also vary by age or country. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of AD in Korean school-aged children and adolescents. Furthermore, there are few studies on phenotypic differences according to onset age. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and phenotypes according to onset age and severity of AD in children and adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#AD patients aged 6–18 years who presented to 18 hospitals nationwide were surveyed.The patients were examined for disease severity by pediatric allergy specialists, and data on history of other allergic diseases, familial allergy history, onset age, trigger factors, lesion sites,treatment history and quality of life were collected. The results of the patient’s allergy test were also analyzed. The patients were classified into infancy-onset (< 2 years of age), preschoolonset (2–5 years of age), and childhood-onset (≥ 6 years of age) groups. Study population was analyzed for clinical features according to onset-age groups and severity groups. @*Results@#A total of 258 patients with a mean age of 10.62 ± 3.18 years were included in the study. Infancy-onset group accounted for about 60% of all patients and presented significantly more other allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Food allergy symptoms and diagnoses were highly relevant to both earlier onset and more severe group. Inhalant allergen sensitization was significantly associated with both infancy-onset group and severe group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.024, respectively). A family history of food allergies was significantly associated with infancyonset group (P = 0.036). Severe group was significantly associated with a family history of AD, especially a paternal history of AD (P = 0.048 and P = 0.004, respectively). Facial (periorbital, ear, and cheek) lesions, periauricular fissures, hand/foot eczema, and xerosis were associated with infancy-onset group. The earlier the onset of AD, the poorer the quality of life (P = 0.038). Systemic immunosuppressants were used in only 9.6% of the patients in the severe group. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the clinical features of AD in Korean children and adolescents through a multicenter nationwide study and demonstrated the phenotypic differences according to onset age and severity. Considering the findings that the early-onset group is more severe and accompanied by more systemic allergic diseases, early management should be emphasized in young children and infants.

2.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 344-353, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Hydrolyzed formula is often fed to infants with gastrointestinal or immune issues, such as malabsorption or cow's milk allergy, because enzymatic treatment has rendered it more digestible and less allergenic than standard cow's milk formula (SF). Partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF) should be considered for those infants who are intolerant to extensively hydrolyzed formula. However, there are concerns about the nutritional insufficiencies of PHF. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PHF on the growth and health indicators in infants who were at high-risk of allergic disease and potential candidates for consuming PHF. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#A total of 83 infants aged 0–2 mon with a family history of allergies were assigned to consume either PHF or SF until 24 weeks of age. Anthropometric measures were obtained at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks; blood samples were drawn and evaluated at the end of the study. @*RESULTS@#No significant differences were observed in weight, height, and weight-for-height at any time point in each sex between the PHF and SF groups. At 24 weeks of age, the weightfor-age and height-for-age z-scores of the SF group were higher than those of the PHF group, but there was no significant difference in the weight-for-height z-score. There were no significant differences in levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin, ferritin, protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, eosinophil cationic protein, and immunoglobulin E. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In this study, there were no differences in growth and blood panels between the infants consuming PHF or SF. Therefore, infants who are unable to tolerate SF can be fed PHF without nutritional concerns about growth.

3.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 105-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925381

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In food allergy, significant component antigens can be assessed by using the microarray. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of component resolved diagnosis (CRD) in young children with kiwifruit allergy. @*Methods@#Through a retrospective review of medical records, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of 12 children who underwent measurement of serum immunoglobulin E concentrations to kiwifruit (kiwi-sigE) and were diagnosed as kiwifruit allergy. We applied ImmunoCAP ISAC-CRD 112 using the residual sera of patients at the initial visit. @*Results@#The median age of kiwifruit allergic children was 33.5 months (range, 13 to 84 months), and the proportion of systemic reactions, including 2 anaphylaxis cases, was 66.7%. Four had localized reactions on the lips. A total of 11 (91.7%) were sensitized to Act d 1; among them, 8 were mono-sensitized to Act d 1 and 3 were sensitized to ≥ 2 kiwifruit components. There was no significant difference in CRD results between those with systemic reactions and those with local reactions. @*Conclusion@#Act d 1 is the major allergenic component in Korean young children with clinical kiwifruit allergy. The additional diagnostic value of the CRD in diagnosing and predicting the severity of kiwifruit allergy is expected to be low in young children.

4.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 110-117, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925380

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Perilla seed (PS) is the most common cause of seed-induced anaphylaxis in Korean children, but the reports on PS allergy, including phenotype and cross-reactivity, are rare. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics of PS allergy and investigate cross-reactivity with sesame seed (SS). @*Methods@#Through a retrospective medical record review, patients with clinical PS allergy were identified in a single tertiary hospital. Clinical characteristics of allergic reaction upon exposure to PS and SS, results of skin prick test (SPT) to PS and SS, and the levels of serum SS-specific immunoglobulin E (SS-sIgE) were investigated. Cross-reactivity between PS and SS was studied using IgE enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition. @*Results@#The median age of 34 PS-allergic children was 41.5 months (range, 10 months to 12 years), and the proportion of anaphylaxis upon exposure to PS was 29.4% (n = 10). The PS SPT was positive in 94.1% (n = 32) with the median wheal size of 6.25 mm. Among PS-allergic children, the percentages of patients with positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and indeterminate symptoms upon exposure to SS were 8.8%, 41.2%, and 50%, respectively. Out of 14 PS-allergic children who were tolerant to SS, positive sensitization to SS was noticed in 78.6% by serum SS-sIgE, and 57.1% by SS SPT. Partial cross-reactivity between PS and SS was identified in IgE ELISA inhibition. @*Conclusion@#This study reported the clinical profiles and SPT results in a relatively large number of PS-allergic children and identified the partial cross-reactivity between PS and SS for the first time.

5.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 407-410, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902085

ABSTRACT

Background@#The diagnosis of food allergies needs to be confirmed through an oral food challenge (OFC). However, specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) concentrations analyzed by serological tests are also helpful in determining OFC items and predicting the presence of allergic reactions. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the number of antigens that can be simultaneously evaluated at one time. The purpose of this study was to analyze the possibility of detecting sIgE antibodies against food using clues in self-reported food allergy symptoms. @*Methods@#Medical records of 377 patients aged 3 years or younger were collected for egg white-, cow’s milk-, walnut- and soybean-sIgE sensitization, and related clinical history. Each clinical history was classified into class 1: direct- isolated intake resulting in anaphylaxis or hives with consistent clincical history; class 2a: class 1 with inconsistency; class 2b: indirect-mixed intake resulting in anaphylaxis or hives regardless of consistency; class 2c: direct/indirect- isolated/mixed intake resulting in itching without hives, vomiting, or diarrhea with consistent clincical history; or class 3: class 2c with inconsistency or asymptomatic to direct, isolated exposure. @*Results@#The area under the curve (AUC) of class 1 for cow’s milk was 0.790, and the accuracy was 78.0%. The AUC of class 1 and 2 for egg white was better than that of class 1 (0.750), and the accuracy rate was 77.6%. The AUCs of class 1 for walnut and soybean were 0.775 and 0.662, respectively. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, sIgE sensitization to foods could be predicted by the combination of exposure and selfreported symptoms in children under 3 years of age.

6.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 407-410, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894381

ABSTRACT

Background@#The diagnosis of food allergies needs to be confirmed through an oral food challenge (OFC). However, specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) concentrations analyzed by serological tests are also helpful in determining OFC items and predicting the presence of allergic reactions. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the number of antigens that can be simultaneously evaluated at one time. The purpose of this study was to analyze the possibility of detecting sIgE antibodies against food using clues in self-reported food allergy symptoms. @*Methods@#Medical records of 377 patients aged 3 years or younger were collected for egg white-, cow’s milk-, walnut- and soybean-sIgE sensitization, and related clinical history. Each clinical history was classified into class 1: direct- isolated intake resulting in anaphylaxis or hives with consistent clincical history; class 2a: class 1 with inconsistency; class 2b: indirect-mixed intake resulting in anaphylaxis or hives regardless of consistency; class 2c: direct/indirect- isolated/mixed intake resulting in itching without hives, vomiting, or diarrhea with consistent clincical history; or class 3: class 2c with inconsistency or asymptomatic to direct, isolated exposure. @*Results@#The area under the curve (AUC) of class 1 for cow’s milk was 0.790, and the accuracy was 78.0%. The AUC of class 1 and 2 for egg white was better than that of class 1 (0.750), and the accuracy rate was 77.6%. The AUCs of class 1 for walnut and soybean were 0.775 and 0.662, respectively. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, sIgE sensitization to foods could be predicted by the combination of exposure and selfreported symptoms in children under 3 years of age.

8.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 80-88, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913268

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent studies of food allergy (FA) at all ages are scanty in Korea. We performed this study to better understand severity-related and age-stratified causes of FA from infants to older adults in a single tertiary hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#A retrospective medical record review was performed on patients of all ages diagnosed with immediate-type FA between March 2008 and February 2018 in Ajou University Hospital. @*Results@#A total of 4,680 cases of FA among 2,733 patients were reported. The distribution of onset ages of the first FA symptom was as follows: 45.3% below 2 years, 16.2% at 2–6 years, 5.5% at 7–12 years, 4.0% at 13–18 years, 16.9% at 19–40 years, 10.4% at 41–65 years, and 1.8% above 65 years of age. The major 10 causative foods were hen’s eggs (17.2%), cow’s milk (16.7%), wheat (8.6%), crustaceans (8.5%), fish (4.6%), walnuts (4.4%), pork (3.2%), peanuts (3.2%), shellfish (3.0%), and peach (2.2%). The culprits ranked from the 11th to the 20th were as follows: soybean, apple, chicken, buckwheat, beef, kiwi, almonds, perilla seeds, tomato, and squid. The top 3 causative foods in children were hen’s eggs, cow’s milk, and wheat, while those in adults were crustaceans, wheat, and fish. Food-induced anaphylaxis was reported in 29.2% of all cases, with cow’s milk, hen’s eggs, wheat, crustaceans, fish, walnuts, pork, shellfish, buckwheat, and peanuts being the major 10 causes. @*Conclusion@#This study could provide a better understanding of the detailed ranks of the causes of FA according to severity and age in Korea.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e23-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Barley is a grain that is consumed in various forms in Asia. Studies on barley allergy are limited to a few case reports about hypersensitivity reactions to beer, but there is no barley allergy study in children. This study aimed to identify the phenotype and immunologic findings in Korean children with barley allergy.@*METHODS@#Forty-two participants with a history of ingesting barley who underwent serum specific immunoglobulin E to barley (barley-sIgE) assay at the Department of Pediatrics in Ajou Medical Center were enrolled through a retrospective analysis of medical records from March 2008 to February 2018. The demographic characteristics, symptoms, and immunologic parameters of the patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#Twenty subjects presented with clinical barley allergy (B-allergic group), and 22 were atopic controls without allergic reactions after the ingestion of barley (B-tolerant group). The median ages of the B-allergic and B-tolerant groups were 1 and 3 years, respectively. In the B-allergic group, the cutaneous system (90.0%) was most frequently affected, followed by the respiratory system (40.0%). Anaphylaxis was observed in 35.0% of the B-allergic group. The median level of barley-sIgE was 13.90 kU(A)/L (range, 0.14–101.00 kU(A)/L) in the B-allergic group, and this value was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the B-tolerant group (0.30 kU(A)/L; range, 0.01–24.40 kU(A)/L), with an optimal cutoff level of 1.24 kU(A)/L (sensitivity, 85.0%; specificity, 86.4%). A positive correlation was found between the serum levels of barley-sIgE and wheat-sIgE in the B-allergic group with clinical wheat allergy.@*CONCLUSION@#Barley is an important allergen for children in Korea. This study showed the clinical characteristics of barley allergy and suggested optimal cut-off levels of barley-sIgE for clinical barley allergy. Clinically, cross-reactivity or co-sensitization is often observed between barley and wheat.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e23-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Barley is a grain that is consumed in various forms in Asia. Studies on barley allergy are limited to a few case reports about hypersensitivity reactions to beer, but there is no barley allergy study in children. This study aimed to identify the phenotype and immunologic findings in Korean children with barley allergy.@*METHODS@#Forty-two participants with a history of ingesting barley who underwent serum specific immunoglobulin E to barley (barley-sIgE) assay at the Department of Pediatrics in Ajou Medical Center were enrolled through a retrospective analysis of medical records from March 2008 to February 2018. The demographic characteristics, symptoms, and immunologic parameters of the patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#Twenty subjects presented with clinical barley allergy (B-allergic group), and 22 were atopic controls without allergic reactions after the ingestion of barley (B-tolerant group). The median ages of the B-allergic and B-tolerant groups were 1 and 3 years, respectively. In the B-allergic group, the cutaneous system (90.0%) was most frequently affected, followed by the respiratory system (40.0%). Anaphylaxis was observed in 35.0% of the B-allergic group. The median level of barley-sIgE was 13.90 kU(A)/L (range, 0.14–101.00 kU(A)/L) in the B-allergic group, and this value was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the B-tolerant group (0.30 kU(A)/L; range, 0.01–24.40 kU(A)/L), with an optimal cutoff level of 1.24 kU(A)/L (sensitivity, 85.0%; specificity, 86.4%). A positive correlation was found between the serum levels of barley-sIgE and wheat-sIgE in the B-allergic group with clinical wheat allergy.@*CONCLUSION@#Barley is an important allergen for children in Korea. This study showed the clinical characteristics of barley allergy and suggested optimal cut-off levels of barley-sIgE for clinical barley allergy. Clinically, cross-reactivity or co-sensitization is often observed between barley and wheat.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e106-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is increasing in young children. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of anaphylaxis in Korean infants, with a focus on food triggers. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of infants aged 0 to 2 years old who had been diagnosed with anaphylaxis in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: We identified 363 cases of infantile anaphylaxis (66.9% male). Cutaneous symptoms were most prevalent (98.6%), followed by respiratory (83.2%), gastrointestinal (29.8%), and neurologic (11.6%) symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms were noted in 7.7% of the cases. Most of the cases of anaphylaxis (338; 93.1%) were induced by foods. The most common trigger food was cow's milk and cow's milk products (43.8%), followed by hen's eggs (21.9%), walnuts (8.3%), wheat (7.7%), peanuts (4.8%), other nuts (3.0%), and fish (2.1%). In cow's milk-induced anaphylaxis cases, more than half the cases had cow's milk specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels that were lower than the diagnostic decision points (DDPs), which is 5 kUA/L for those under the age of 1 and 15 kUA/L for those over the age of 1. In anaphylaxis induced by hen's egg, most of the cases (91.8%) had hen's egg sIgE levels that were higher than the DDP, which is 2 kUA/L for those under the age of 2 and 7 kUA/L for those over the age of 2. Of the infantile anaphylaxis cases, 46.8% had been treated with epinephrine, and 25.1% had been prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector. CONCLUSION: Cow's milk is the most frequent trigger food of anaphylaxis in Korean infants. However, we found no significant correlation between the sIgE level and clinical severity. Education is required regarding the importance of epinephrine as the first line therapy for anaphylaxis and on properly prescribing epinephrine for infants with a history of anaphylaxis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Education , Eggs , Epinephrine , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
12.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 363-369, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The immunological characteristics of young Korean children with walnut (WN) allergy and the influence of different cooking methods on WN proteins have not been evaluated to date. This study aimed to evaluate the major WN allergens identified among Korean children, together with changes in WN antigenicity caused by common cooking methods. METHODS: We enrolled children under the age of 13 years with WN serum-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations. The protein fractions of dry-fried and boiled WN extracts were compared with those of raw WNs using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and a proteomic analysis using electrospray ionization (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS]). An immunoblotting analysis was conducted to examine IgE reactivity toward raw WNs using serum samples from 6 children with a clinical WN allergy. To determine the processed WN proteins with IgE-binding capacity, a 2D-immunoblotting analysis was performed using the pooled sera of 20 WN-sensitized children. RESULTS: Protein bands from raw WNs were identified at 9, 16, 28, 52, 58, and 64 kDa via SDS-PAGE. The 9- and 16-kDa protein bands were enhanced by boiling, whereas the 52- and 64-kDa bands were considerably diminished. On LC-MS analysis, of the 66 IgE-binding proteins present in raw WNs, 57 were found in dry-fried WNs, but only 4 in boiled WNs. The sera of 5 out of 6 participants reacted with the 52-kDa protein bands and those of 4 out of 6 participants reacted with the 16- and 28-kDa protein bands, respectively. Meanwhile, a 2D-immunoblotting result confirmed the presence of different binding patterns among children who consumed cooked WNs. CONCLUSIONS: The protein profile of boiled WNs is substantially different from that of raw WNs. However, 4 proteins including prolamins remained stable after dry-frying or boiling. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Allergens , Cooking , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Hypersensitivity , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Prolamins , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate , Spectrum Analysis
13.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 56-60, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189591

ABSTRACT

Septic pulmonary embolism occurs when septic material becomes detached from its origin and infiltrates into the pulmonary parenchyma causing significant clinical symptoms. It is uncommon in children and mostly related to intravascular catheterization, endocarditis, pelvic thrombophlebitis, and soft tissue infection. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who experienced septic pulmonary embolism originating from a left shoulder abscess after traumatic injury. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder revealed a multifocal subcutaneous and intramuscular abscess with septic arthritis. The initial chest radiograph showed suspicious pneumonic infiltration with nodular opacities. A percutaneous catheter was inserted to drain the shoulder abscess, and cefazedone, a first-generation cephalosporin, was administered intravenously. Two days later, a chest radiograph taken for the follow-up of the initial pneumonic infiltration with nodular opacities demonstrated aggravation of multifocal nodular lesions in bilateral lung fields, with one of the nodular cavities containing an air-fluid level. Despite the absence of significant respiratory symptoms, chest computed tomography showed multifocal necrotic nodules and cavity lesions with feeding vessel signs dominantly in the left lower lung field, which is characteristic of septic pulmonary embolism. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the shoulder abscess, whereas repeated blood and sputum cultures did not reveal any bacterial growth. With resolution of clinical symptoms as well as the finding of chest computed tomography, the patient was discharged 18 days after admission in a stable condition. Regression of the multifocal pulmonary nodular lesions was noticed on the subsequent chest imaging studies performed 45 days after the treatment.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Abscess , Arthritis, Infectious , Catheterization , Catheters , Endocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Lung , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pulmonary Embolism , Radiography, Thoracic , Shoulder , Soft Tissue Infections , Sputum , Staphylococcus aureus , Thorax , Thrombophlebitis
14.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 423-430, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Age-based causes and clinical characteristics of immediate-type food allergy (FA) have not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, we investigated age-dependent clinical profiles of FA in Korean children through an extensive multicenter investigation. METHODS: Using a case report form developed by the authors, a retrospective medical record review was performed of patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with immediate-type FA between September 2014 and August 2015 in 14 tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 1,353 children and adolescents, 93% younger than 7 years, were enrolled in the present study, and 1,661 cases of immediate-type FA were recorded in these patients. The 7 major causative foods were cow's milk (28.1%), hen's eggs (27.6%), wheat (7.9%), walnuts (7.3%), peanuts (5.3%), buckwheat (1.9%), and shrimps (1.9%). Categorizing the patients into 4 age groups revealed that the most common causative food was different for each age group: cow's milk (<2 years), walnuts (2–6 years), walnuts (7–12 years), and buckwheat (13-18 years). The onset time of symptoms was less than 10 minutes in 49%, between 10 and 30 minutes in 17%, and between 30 minutes and 2 hours in 34% of cases. Food-induced anaphylaxis was reported in 506 (30.5%) out of 1,661 cases, and the 7 major causes of food-induced anaphylaxis was cow's milk (27.5%), hen's eggs (21.9%), wheat (11.3%), walnuts (10.5%), peanuts (5.9%), buckwheat (4.2%), and pine nuts (3.0%). The proportion of anaphylaxis was highest in the patients allergic to buckwheat (67.7%), followed by those allergic to pine nuts (57.7%), walnuts (43.8%), wheat (43.5%), and peanuts (34.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The 5 major causative foods of immediate-type FA in Korean children were cow's milk, hen's eggs, wheat, walnuts, and peanuts. The distribution of causative foods was considerably distinctive according to different age groups. Anaphylaxis was reported in 30.5% of immediate-type FA cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Eggs , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
15.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 351-357, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114705

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the details of the clinical characteristics and food exposure types at the first symptom onset in immediate-type cow's milk allergy (CMA) and egg white allergy (EWA) in Korean children. METHODS: This study included children with immediate-type CMA (n=288) or EWA (n=233) with symptom onset time of 2 hours or less, who visited Samsung Medical Center, Ajou University Hospital, and Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital between September 2014 and August 2015. The details of clinical features and food exposure types at the first symptom onset were evaluated by retrospective medical record review using a standardized case report form. RESULTS: The median ages of first symptom onset were 10 months in CMA and 12 months in EWA. The most common types of exposure at the first symptom in CMA were formula milk (29.5%) and milk (29.5%), followed by cheese (17.7%) and yogurt (14.2%). The most common type of exposure in EWA was boiled eggs (35.6%), followed by rice/porridge/soup containing eggs (27.5%), pan-fried eggs (17.6%), and baked goods (9.9%). Cutaneous symptoms were most common in both CMA and EWA, and anaphylaxis was noticed in 36.1% and 30.3%, respectively. Baked goods containing milk or eggs also induced anaphylaxis. The symptom onset time was less than 30 minutes in the majority of patients and the most common place of occurrence was home in both CMA and EWA. CONCLUSION: This study provides comprehensive information on CMA and EWA, and therefore helps clinicians diagnose and guide appropriate food restriction in children with CMA and EWA.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Cheese , Egg Hypersensitivity , Egg White , Eggs , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Medical Records , Milk Hypersensitivity , Milk , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Yogurt
16.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 534-539, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114693

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Increasing in prevalence, food allergy (FA) is becoming an important public health concern. In Korean adults, however, clinical phenotypes and causes of FA have not been studied. We aimed to study common causative allergens and clinical manifestations of FA in Korean adults. METHODS: This study was conducted as a retrospective review of medical records for 95 patients (≥19 years old) diagnosed with FA from September 2014 to August 2015 at a single university hospital. RESULTS: In the 95 patients, 181 FA events were recorded. The mean age of first onset of FA symptoms was 34.7±15.8 years. The most frequent causative food was seafood (34.8%); shrimp and crab allergies ranked highest, regardless of age and sex. Among all FA events, there were 47 (26.0%) cases of anaphylaxis and 26 (14.4%) cases of oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Seafood (51.1%) was the most frequent cause of anaphylaxis, followed by grains (14.9%). Most OAS cases were associated with fruits (95.7%). The frequency of fruit-induced FA was significantly higher in males than in females (23.0% vs 8.4%, P=0.011). While no cases of vegetables-induced FA were noted in younger individuals (19 to 30 years), vegetables accounted for 20.5% of FA symptoms in older subjects (≥51 years, P<0.001). Allergic rhinitis (44.2%) and drug allergy (20.0%) were major comorbidities associated with FA. Overall, 29 FA events had cofactors, of which 10 were combined with exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The major causes of FA in Korean adults were crustacean, fruits, and grains. Interestingly, the clinical manifestations of FA and demographics varied according to type of food allergen.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Comorbidity , Demography , Drug Hypersensitivity , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Medical Records , Phenotype , Prevalence , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seafood , Vegetables
17.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 119-125, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127230

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness and added diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to wheat, gluten, and ω-5 gliadin in diagnosing wheat allergy and distinguishing wheat anaphylaxis. METHODS: This study included 196 children who visited Ajou University Hospital for suspicious food allergy. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: the wheat allergy (WA) and non-wheat allergy (non-WA) groups. Patients with wheat allergy were further divided into 2 subgroups according to their symptoms: the wheat allergy with anaphylaxis (WA(Ana)) and wheat allergy without anaphylaxis (WA(Non-Ana)) groups. Serum concentrations of total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to wheat, gluten and ω-5 gliadin were measured. RESULTS: The median values of specific IgE antibodies to wheat, gluten and ω-5 gliadin were significantly higher in the WA group than in the non-WA group, and the positive decision points (95% specificity) were at 3.12, 2.61, and 0.21 kUA/L, respectively. The combination of specific IgE antibodies to wheat and ω-5 gliadin resulted in the highest accuracy of 93.9% in diagnosing wheat allergy. In differentiating the WA(Ana) group from the WA(Non-Ana) group, only specific IgE antibody to ω-5 gliadin showed a significant difference at the optimal cutoff point of 1.56 kUA/L. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the individual levels of specific IgE antibodies to wheat, gluten or ω-5 gliadin may have a considerably high accuracy in diagnosing wheat allergy and that specific IgE antibody to ω-5 gliadin may be particularly useful in predicting wheat anaphylaxis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Antibodies , Food Hypersensitivity , Gliadin , Glutens , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Triticum , Wheat Hypersensitivity
18.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 505-511, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinical features of peanut allergy can range from localized to systemic reactions. Because peanut and birch pollen have cross-reactivity, peanut can lead to localized allergic reaction in Fagales pollen-sensitized oral allergy syndrome (OAS) patients without peanut sensitization per se. The purpose of this study was to discriminate true peanut food allergy from cross-reactive hypersensitivity in birch-sensitized peanut allergy. METHODS: Birch-sensitized (n=81) and peanut anaphylaxis patients (n=12) were enrolled. Peanut-related allergic reactions and sensitization profiles were examined. Specific IgE to Fagales tree pollens (birch, oak), peanut, and their component allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8, and Ara h 9) were evaluated. Based on these specific IgEs and clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 groups: group 1 (Fagales pollen allergy without OAS), group 2 (Fagales pollen allergy with OAS), group 3 (OAS with peanut anaphylaxis), and group 4 (peanut anaphylaxis). RESULTS: After peanut consumption, one-third of OAS patients experienced oral symptoms not associated with peanut sensitization. Ara h 1 or Ara h 2 was positive in peanut anaphylaxis patients, whereas Ara h 8 was positive in OAS patients. There were 4 patients with both peanut anaphylaxis and OAS (group 3). Both Ara h 2 and Ara h 8 were positive in these patients. Foods associated with OAS in Korea showed unique patterns compared to Westernized countries. CONCLUSIONS: Ara h 2 and Ara h 8 may be important component allergens for discriminating peanut allergy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Betula , Food Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Trees
19.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 402-407, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Buckwheat allergy is one of the most severe types of food allergy in some countries, especially among children. However, few studies have investigated this condition. The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory findings in Korean children with buckwheat allergy. METHODS: Thirty-seven subjects, aged 1 to 14 years, were enrolled by retrospective medical record review from January 2000 through May 2015 at the Department of Pediatrics in Ajou University Hospital. The demographic profile, previous exposure to buckwheat pillows, clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings of each subject were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-six of the 37 children had immediate-type allergic symptoms to buckwheat, while 11 subjects were tolerant to buckwheat. Seventeen out of 26 buckwheat allergic children (65.4%) had anaphylaxis. The median buckwheat specific IgE level in the buckwheat allergic group (7.71 kU(A)/L) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the buckwheat tolerant group (0.08 kU(A)/L) with an optimal cutoff value of 1.27 kU(A)/L (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 100%). When adjusted for age, the difference between the 2 groups showed no statistical significance (P=0.063). In subjects who had anaphylaxis, buckwheat-specific IgE levels ranged from 0.37 to 100 kUA/L. CONCLUSION: Almost two-thirds of buckwheat-allergic children had anaphylaxis, and a wide-range of buckwheat specific IgE levels were observed in these children. Anaphylaxis occurred in a subject with a remarkably low IgE level (0.37 kU(A)/L).


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Asian People , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers
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