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1.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 462-467, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986095

ABSTRACT

To give full play to the important role of courses for ideological and political education in moral cultivation, teaching group in the course of oral histology and pathology in Zhejiang University systematically studied the teaching model of which ideological and political education integrated into the course of oral histology and pathology, and put forward a quality evaluation index system of the course. This paper emphatically introduces the general framework of the course, as well as the experience and practices in the aspects of resource mining, teaching design, curriculum evaluation, etc. The quality of the course was evaluated by using the system, which showed that the grade of the course was AAA (excellent) and 95.5% (275/288) students agreed to integrate ideological and political content into the course. The teaching group believes that the integration of the ideological and political content in the course reflects the complementary effect of "teaching" and "educating", and the ideological and political quality as well as the professional level of the teachers are the primary factor to determine the quality of the course. This paper aims at providing a reliable reference for promoting the construction of courses for ideological and political education in the area of oral medical education.

2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 373-378, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969916

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the infection sources and the transmission chains of three outbreaks caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant possibly spread through cross-border logistics in Beijing. Methods: Epidemiological investigation and big data were used to identify the exposure points of the cases. Close contacts were traced from the exposure points, and the cases' and environmental samples were collected for nucleic acid tests. Positive samples were analyzed by gene sequencing. Results: The Omicron variant causing 3 outbreaks in Beijing from January to April, 2022 belonged to BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2. The outbreaks lasted for 8, 12 and 8 days respectively, and 6, 42 and 32 cases infected with 2019-nCoV were reported respectively. International mail might be the infection source for 1 outbreak, and imported clothes might be the infection sources for another 2 outbreaks. The interval between the shipment start time of the imported goods and the infection time of the index case was 3-4 days. The mean incubation period (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2,4) days and the mean serial interval (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2,4)days. Conclusions: The 3 outbreaks highlighted the risk of infection by Omicron variant from international logistics-related imported goods at normal temperature. Omicron variant has stronger transmissibility, indicating that rapid epidemiological investigation and strict management are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 734-738, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935452

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of Vibrio cholerae in Beijing during 2015-2021 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of cholera. Methods: The V. cholerae strains isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021 were analyzed by serotyping and virulence genes detection. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for the molecular typing of the strains. Based on the collected epidemiological and clinical data of cholera cases,the epidemiological characteristics of cholera were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. Results: A total of 76 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains were isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021, including 61 strains from human, 10 strains from environment and 5 strains from seafood. The 76 strains consisted of 68 Ogawa strains and 8 Inaba strains. Six Ogawa strains isolated from sporadic cases carried ctxAB. After NotⅠ digestion, 76 strains were divided into 33 PFGE patterns. From 2015 to 2021, a total of 38 cholera epidemics were reported in Beijing, most of them were sporadic ones, accounting for 92.11% (35/38). A total of 45 cases were reported, and the cases occurred during June-September accounted for 97.78% (44/45). Cholera cases occurred in 9 districts of Beijing, and the cases reported in Chaoyang district accounted for 42.22% (19/45) and in Changping district accounted for 31.11% (14/45). The age of the cholera cases ranged from 19 to 63 years. Except for one case with unknown clinical symptoms, 44 cases had diarrhea symptoms with 84.09% (37/44) of the cases reporting diarrhea (3-9 times/day), followed by yellow watery stool (95.45%, 42/44), abdominal pain (68.18%, 30/44), nausea and vomiting (40.91%, 18/44) and fever (36.36%, 16/44). Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021 were mainly O1 serotype Ogawa,most of which were non-toxigenic. The PFGE of the strains varied. Cholera epidemics occurred in 9 districts of Beijing, but most were sporadic ones with incidence peak during June-September.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Vibrio cholerae O1/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 478-482, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935414

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and the effect of vaccination on virus load and disease severity of the cases in Beijing. Methods: The data of the imported COVID-19 cases in Beijing were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of China Information for Disease Control and Prevention and Epidemiology investigation. The data were processed and analyzed by Excel 2010 and SPSS 22.0. Results: From June 1 to September 30, 2021, a total of 171 imported COVID-19 cases were reported in Beijing, of which 66.67% (114/171) were asymptomatic. The cases were mainly from the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation, accounting for 67.84% (116/171). The male to female ratio of the cases was 2∶1 (114∶57). The median age M (Q1, Q3) of the cases was 28 (23, 36) years. The cases of Chinese accounted for 80.12% (137/171). The sequencing of the whole genome of the virus in 47 imported COVID-19 cases showed that the proportion of Delta variant was 76.60% (36/47). The COVID-19 vaccination coverage rate in the cases was 60.82% (104/171), but the full vaccination coverage rate was 53.80% (92/171). In the imported COVID-19 cases, 13.53% (23/170) were screened to be SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive on the day when they arrived in Beijing, and all the cases were positive for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid within 28 days. The severity of the disease was higher in the unvaccinated group than in the partially vaccinated group and fully vaccinated group (P<0.001). In the unvaccinated group, there were 1 severe case and 1 critical case. The median Ct values M (Q1, Q3) of N gene and ORFlab gene in unvaccinated group were 32.51 (23.23, 36.06) and 32.78 (24.00, 36.38), respectively. There was no significant difference in the median of double-gene Ct value between the partially vaccinated group and the fully vaccinated group. Conclusions: During the study period, most of the imported COVID-19 cases in Beijing were asymptomatic. No matter vaccinated or not, the viral loads in the COVID-19 cases were similar, but the vaccination could reduce the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 207-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935372

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among people ≥6 years old in Beijing from 2011 to 2020. Methods: The incidence data of HFMD cases from 2011 to 2020 were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of China Information for Disease Control and Prevention and the etiological surveillance of HFMD in 29 sentinel hospitals from 16 districts of Beijing. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the distributions, pathogen constituents, and changes of HFMD cases in Beijing people ≥6 years old. Results: From 2011 to 2020, a total of 38 183 cases of HFMD were reported among people ≥6 years old in Beijing, of which 46 (0.12%) cases were severe. The average annual reported incidence was 19.04/100 000. The ratio of males to females were 1.37∶1(22 064∶16 119). The proportion of HFMD in people ≥6 years old increased from 7.56%(2 606/34 488) in 2011 to 24.54% (546/2 225) in 2020. The average incidence of HFMD was higher in Shunyi district, Yanqing district, and Tongzhou district than in other districts in Beijing. The positive rate of enterovirus in sentinel surveillance was 66.78% (1 976/2 959), the proportion of enterovirus group A 71 (EV-A71) was 45.29% (101/223) in 2014, no EV-A71 positive was detected in 2020, and the proportion of Coxsackievirus A 6 (CV-A6) increased from 15.11% (34/225) in 2016 to 81.08% (60/74) in 2020. Conclusions: From 2011 to 2020, the proportion of cases with HFMD in people ≥6 years old in Beijing increased yearly, and the proportion of EV-A71 positive patients decreased basically. Since 2016, CV-A6 has gradually become the dominant pathogen. More attention should be paid to the epidemic situation and dynamic pathogen changes of hand foot mouth disease in people ≥6 years old.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , China/epidemiology , Enterovirus , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology
6.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 458-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935170

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT>1 year) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) in a large and contemporary PCI registry. Methods: A total of 1 661 eligible patients were selected from the Fuwai PCI Registry, of which 1 193 received DAPT>1 year and 468 received DAPT ≤1 year. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding, MACCE was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) Cox regression analysis were performed. Results: After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, patients who received DAPT>1 year were associated with lower risks of MACCE (1.4% vs. 3.2%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.412, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.205-0.827) compared with DAPT ≤1 year, which was primarily caused by the lower all-cause mortality (0.1% vs. 2.6%; HR 0.031, 95%CI 0.004-0.236). Risks of cardiac death (0.1% vs. 1.5%; HR 0.051, 95%CI 0.006-0.416) and definite/probable ST (0.3% vs. 1.1%; HR 0.218, 95%CI 0.052-0.917) were also lower in patients received DAPT>1 year than those received DAPT ≤ 1 year. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (5.3% vs. 4.1%; HR 1.088, 95%CI 0.650-1.821). Conclusions: In patients with stable CAD and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after PCI with DES, prolonged DAPT (>1 year) provides a substantial reduction in ischemic cardiovascular events, including MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and definite/probable ST, without increasing the clinically relevant bleeding risk compared with ≤ 1-year DAPT. Further well-designed, large-scale randomized trials are needed to verify the beneficial effect of prolonged DAPT in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemorrhage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 81-87, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934017

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effects of the main drug resistance mutations in the integrase (IN) region on the resistance of HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains, and compare the differences with subtype B strains.Methods:Seven IN region mutations or combined mutations (T66K, F121Y, Q148K, N155H, G118R, R263K, Q148K/N155H) were selected from the HIV drug resistance database of Stanford University in the United States, and introduced to the IN region of HIV-1 B subtype infectious clone pNL4-3 and CRF01_AE infectious clone pGX002 by seamless cloning, homologous recombination and point mutation. The mutant plasmids were transfected into 293T cells for virus packaging. The culture was expanded in MT2 cells and infectious titers were detected. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50) of four integrase inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG), dolutegravir (DTG) and bictegravir (BIC), against 14 mutant viruses were detected and compared with the IC 50 against the wild-type viruses. Results:B subtype and CRF01_AE plasmids carrying seven IN region mutations or combined mutations were successfully constructed, and 14 recombinant viruses were packaged with an infectious titer of 10 4-10 6 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID 50)/ml. The recombinant viruses replicated efficiently in MT2 cells. The concentrations of HIV-1 p24 antigen contained in the supernatants of cell culture reached 830-2 700 ng/ml. Five mutations or combined mutations (T66K, F121Y, Q148K, N155H, Q148K/N155H) caused CRF01_AE and B subtype strains to be highly resistant to RAL and EVG, resulting in an increase in the IC 50 by 200 times and 2 000 times or more as compared with the IC 50 against the wild-type viruses. The same mutation-caused fold changes of IC 50 of RAL and EVG against CRF01_AE were significantly lower than that of subtype B ( P<0.01). Q148K/N155H mutation caused B subtype and CRF01_AE to be highly resistant to DTG and BIC, with IC 50 increased by more than 50 times. Other mutations had little effects on the sensitivity to DTG and BIC. Conclusions:Fourteen HIV-1 strains carrying seven INSTI resistance mutations based on B subtype and CRF01_AE were constructed. Five mutations resulted in high resistance to RAL and EVG, and there was a high level of cross-resistance. Resistance to RAL and EVG caused by the same mutation was higher in B subtype than in CRF01_AE. The combined mutation of Q148K and N155H was associated with greater resistance to DTG and BIC, indicating that the genetic barrier of DTG and BIC resistance was high. DTG and BIC could effectively inhibit the strains carrying INSTI resistance mutations without obvious subtype difference.

8.
Chinese Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation ; (12): 356-360, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933985

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze and compare rehabilitation research funded by China′s National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) with that funded by America′s National Institutes of Health (NIH) so as to provide references for future funding.Methods:Articles reporting rehabilitation research funded by the NSFC and the NIH were retrieved from the NSFC′s Science Output Service website and the NIH′s Project Report website and analyzed.Results:From 2009 to 2018 the NSFC funded 421 rehabilitation studies which resulted in a published report while the NIH funded 312. In 2018, the NSFC budget (US$3.89 million) was 8.46 times that of 2009 (US$460, 000), while the NIH′s grant budget (US$36.08 million) was 2.17 times that of 2009 (US$16.62 million). The number of published papers resulting from the Chinese and American studies was 1111 and 2571 respectively. Their impact factors mainly ranged between 0 and 3 points. Among the journals with an impact factor of 6 or more, published papers from the United States (297) were much more numerous than those from China (18). The number of SCI papers per million US dollars increased by 2.25 times in China and 0.05 times in the US.Conclusions:Both China and the United States have been investing more in rehabilitation medicine research, and that has resulted in more published papers. There is still a gap in funding and output between the two countries.

9.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 464-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965137

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To follow up and evaluate the stability testing status of γ stereotactic radiotherapy system (hereinafter γ knife WS 582-2017 Specifications for Testing of Quality Control in X and γ referred to ) in medical institutions based on the RayStereotactic Radiotherapy System WS 582-2017 Methods (hereinafter referred to ). A total of 43 medical institutions using γ knife and 54 medical physics personnel were recruited as the research subjects by random sampling method. Based on the - - standard tracking evaluation method, we followed up the evaluation of γ knife stability testing based on WS 582 2017. Results - Only 66.7% of the 54 subjects preformed WS 582 2017 in their daily work. Only 30.2% (all were tertiary hospital) of 43 medical institutions were equipped with complete quality control and testing equipment. The implementation rate of γ knife stability test was 67.4%, and it was not carried out in strict accordance with the test events and test cycle requirements - specified in the WS 582 2017. There were incomplete test events, incomplete records or test cycles that did not meet the Conclusion standard requirements in γ knife stability test. Medical institutions did not carry out γ knife stability tests in strict - accordance with the projects and cycle required by the WS 582 2017. The reasons are related to medical institutions are not equipped with complete testing equipment, the personnel are lack of understanding of relevant national standards, the poor publicity and implementation of the standards, the lack of standardized training channels and inadequate health supervision.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 170-176, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872935

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the mechanism of Shengmaisan in treating atrial fibrillation by regulating relative genes and signaling pathways based on network pharmacology. Method:Target genes of Shengmaisan were obtained using Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of TCM(BATMAN-TCM) database,and target genes of atrial fibrillation were obtained through GeneCards,OMIM and DisGeNET databases. The target genes of Shengmaisan-atrial fibrillation intersection protein were obtained through the integration of the two groups of genes. STRING was used to build the protein-protein interaction network and visualize the results. The drug-disease intersection genes were introduced into the DAVID 6.8 database for gene ontology (GO) analysis and enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Geomes (KEGG). Result:A total of 159 active ingredients for Shengmai powder for atrial fibrillation were obtained. After the drug targets and the disease targets were intersected,206 common targets were obtained. PPI protein interaction network analysis showed that AKT1,TP53,PRKACA,IL-1B,TNF,INS,PPAR,RXR,F2,CACAN1C PKC might be the core targets of Shengmaisan in treating AF. GO enrichment analysis was used to identify 175 items (P<0.05),among which biological processes mainly included regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction,membrane depolarization during action potential;cell components mainly included voltage-gated sodium/ potassium/calcium channel complex;molecular functions mainly included high-voltage-gated calcium channel activity,steroid hormone receptor activity. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analysis,100 signaling pathways were identified,mainly including cGMP/PKG signaling pathway,cAMP signaling pathway,serotonergic synapse,renin secretion,calcium signaling pathway. Conclusion:Based on the network pharmacology,Shengmaisan has multiple mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation. This study explores relevant signaling pathways,advantages and research directions of Shengmaisan in treatment of atrial fibrillation,so as to lay the foundation for further experimental verification.

11.
Chinese Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation ; (12): 363-366, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871164

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate research into medical rehabilitation supported by China′s Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) between 2009 and 2018.Methods:Medical rehabilitation research projects supported by the NSFC between 2009 and 2018 were compiled. The project leaders, funding, awardee organization, research area and results were collected and analyzed.Results:There were 348 researchers who were supported in 421 projects during the period studied. They received ¥168.541 million and made 1395 achievements between 2009 and 2018. Neurological rehabilitation was the most popular research area, followed by musculoskeletal rehabilitation, while cardiopulmonary and pain rehabilitation were rarely covered.Conclusions:Rehabilitation medicine has been developed actively, but NSFC support has still been insufficient.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1274-1278, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796771

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the influencing factors of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus in Beijing from 2014 to 2018.@*Methods@#Data of acute gastroenteritis events caused by norovirus in Beijing from April 2014 to March 2018 were collected. Unconditional logistic regression model was conducted to identify the risk factors of the outbreaks.@*Results@#A total of 765 acute gastroenteritis epidemics caused by norovirus were reported in Beijing, in which 85.88% (657/765) were cluster events and 14.12% (108/765) were outbreaks. Among the outbreaks, 70.37% (76/108) were reported in 2017; 84.26% (91/108) were reported in winter and spring; 88.89% (96/108) were reported in kindergartens, primary or secondary schools; 81.48% (88/108) were through person-to-person transmission; 93.52% (101/108) were caused by norovirus GⅡ infection. The risk of outbreaks in suburban and out suburb area were 1.84 times (95%CI: 1.13-3.02) and 3.78 times (95%CI: 1.62-8.82) as high as that in urban area, respectively. The risks of outbreaks in primary, secondary schools and other institutions were 6.26 times (95%CI: 3.53-11.10), 14.98 times (95%CI: 6.23-36.01) and 8.71 times (95%CI: 3.07-24.71) as high as that in kindergartens, respectively. The risk of outbreak in which patients having lower hospital visiting rate than the median rate of all events was 2.29 times than that in the context of having higher hospital visiting rate (95%CI:1.42-3.68). The risk of foodborne outbreak was 14.55 times as high as that transmitted through person-to-person (95%CI: 3.15-67.07).@*Conclusion@#Measures such as strengthening the prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks in suburbs, primary schools, secondary schools and other institutions, promoting patients to visit the hospital actively, improving the management of foodborne events and kitchen workers should be taken to reduce the incidence of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus.

13.
Chinese Journal of Practical Pediatrics ; (12): 984-989, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817957

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by the body's dysfunctional response to infection. There is currently no definitive symptomatic treatment for sepsis inflammatory response in the clinic. Blood purification treatment exerts immunomodulatory effects by non-specifically eliminating endotoxin and/or inflammatory mediators and shows a good prospect of application in sepsis. However,most studies on the treatment of sepsis with blood purification have not shown significant improvement in patients' prognosis. This article reviews the research progress of immunoregulation mechanism of blood purification therapy for sepsis,as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different blood purification methods.

14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 165-169, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736765

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the pathogenic surveillance programs and related factors on bacillary dysentery in Beijing,2008-2017,to provide evidence for the practices of diagnosis,treatment and prevention of the disease.Methods Analysis was conducted on surveillance data of bacillary dysentery,collected from the surveillance areas of national bacillary dysentery in Beijing.Shigella positive rate of stool samples were used as the gold standard while detection rate of Shigella,diagnostic accordance rate and resistance were computed on data from the surveillance programs.Chi-square test was used to compare the rates and unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors of Shigella infection.Results Both the reported incidence rate on bacillary dysentery and detection rate of Shigella in diarrhea patients showed significantly decreasing trend,from 2008 to 2017.The accordance rate of bacillary dysentery was only 7.80% (111/1 423).Shigella sonnei was the most frequently isolated strain (73.95%,159/215) followed by Shigella flexnery.Results from the multivariate logistic regression of Shigella positive rate revealed that among those patients who were routine test of stool positive vs.routine test of stool positive (OR=1.863,95%CI:1.402-2.475),onset from July to October vs.other months' time (OR=7.271,95%CI:4.514-11.709) temperature ≥38 ℃ vs.temperature <38 ℃ (OR=4.516,95%CI:3.369-6.053) and age from 6 to 59 years old vs.other ages (OR =1.617,95 % CI:1.085-2.410),presenting higher positive detection rates of Shigella from the stool tests.The resistant rates on ampicillin and nalidixic acid were 97.57% (201/206) and 94.90% (186/196),both higher than on other antibiotics.The resistant rates on ciprofloxacin (16.33%,32/196),ofloxacin (9.57%,11/115) and on amoxilin (15.05%,31/206) were relatively low.The resistant rate appeared higher on Shigellaflexnery than on Shigella sonnei.The proportion of strains with resistance on 3 more drugs,was 30.00% (21/70).Conclusions The diagnostic accordance rate of bacillary dysentery in Beijing was low,with severe resistance of Shigella.Our findings suggested that clinicians should take multiple factors into account in their practices about epidemiological history,clinical symptom and testing results for diarrhea patients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 84-88, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736752

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the transmission patterns and risk factors of HIV-1 strain CRF01_AE subtypes in China,and to provide guidance for the implementation of precise intervention.Methods A total of 2 094 CRF01_AE pol sequences were collected in 19 provinces in China between 1996 and 2014.Phylogenetic tree was constructed by PhyML 3.0 software to select the transmission clusters.Transmission network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.6.0,which was further used for exploring of the major risk factors.Results Of the 2 094 sequences,12.18% (255/2 094) were in clusters.A total of 82 transmission clusters were identified.The numbers of clusters and contained sequences in intra-provincial transmission (61,173) were significantly more than those in inter-provincial transmission (21,82).The ratio of transmission clustering in MSM increased over time from 2.41% (2/83) during 1996-2008 to 23.61% (72/305) during 2013-2014,showing a significant upward trend (x2 =27.800,df=1,P =0.000).The proportion of MSM with inter-provincial transmission clusters were higher than those with intra-provincial transmission clusters,which increased from 0.67% (2/297) during 1996-2008 to 6.36%(30/472) during 2013-2014,showing a significant upward trend (x2=20.276,df=1,P=0.000).The transmission rate in homosexuals of the inter-transmission clusters (86.59%,71/82) was higher than that of intra-provincial transmission clusters (56.65%,98/173),and the difference was statistically significant (x2=22.792,P=0.000).The proportion of inter-provincial transmission clusters with more than 2 transmission routes (33.33%,7/21) was higher than that of intra-provincial clusters (13.11%,8/61),and the difference was statistically significant (x2=4.273,P=0.039).Results from the transmission network analysis indicated that the proportion of high risk population (degree≥4) with inter-provincial transmission clusters (51.22%,42/82) was significantly higher than that with intra-provincial transmission clusters (26.59%,46/173),and the difference was statistically significant (x2=14.932,P=0.000).Inter-provincial clusters were mainly detected in and and MSM.Conclusions Complex transmission networks were found for HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains in the mainland of China.Inter-provincial transmission clusters increased rapidly,MSM played an important role in the wide spread of the strain.More researches in transmission networks are needed to guide the precision intervention.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1132-1140, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780177

ABSTRACT

In this study, 13 xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) and 8 expansin (EXPs) were screened from safflower floret transcriptome database. Through correlation analysis between the safflower gene expression profile chip and the corolla development, only 4 XTHs (CtXTH1-4) and 1 EXP (CtEXP1) have positive relevance with corolla elongation (r≥0.60) and were therefore validated by qRT-PCR. The full length of these genes were cloned by RACE. According to the bioinformatic analysis, CtXTH1 correlated with the development of the floret, and the expression pattern analysis indicated that CtXTH1 had accumulated in the floret. The recombinant vector (pMT39-CtXTH1) was constructed for gene transformation. Overexpression of CtXTH1 significantly increased the corolla length (about 5.34% to 10.25%) and corolla weight (about 30.00% to 36.02%) in transgenic safflower. The overexpression lines also showed an increasing tendency in the weight of seeds, average number of corollas per cone and average number of seeds in each cone. Meanwhile, overexpression of CtXTH1 had no significant effect on flavonoids. According to the corolla microstructure, the OVX-line tubular part of floret exhibited a looser and irregular character. These data suggested that CtXTH1 can potentially increase relaxation of the tissues and boost corolla elongation. Our study provides a valuable clue for plant breeding in the future.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1532-1535, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779079

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of D-bifunctional protein (DBP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue in rats and the growth of DBP-induced HCC in nude mice. MethodsA total of 22 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group with 8 rats and model group with 14 rats treated with intraperitoneally injected diethylnitrosamine to induce HCC, and Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR were used to measure the expression of DBP. A total of 14 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c-nu mice were randomly divided into two groups. HepG2 cells were transfected with empty plasmid or DBP overexpression plasmid and were then injected subcutaneously into nude mice. There were 8 mice in the empty plasmid control group and 6 mice in the DBP high-expression plasmid group, and tumor size was measured for both groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. ResultsThe rats with HCC had significantly higher protein and mRNA expression of DBP in liver tissue than normal rats (protein: 1.10±0.35 vs 0.67±0.12, t=-7.48, P<0.05; mRNA: 3.70±0.85 vs 1.17±0.72, t=-20.46, P<0.05). The DBP high-expression plasmid group had a significantly higher tumor volume than the empty plasmid group [(7590.50±1867.97)mm3 vs (1663.78±420.24)mm3, t=-39.78, P<0.01]. ConclusionHighly expressed DBP can promote the progression of HCC in rats and thus provides a new target for the treatment of HCC and the research and development of inhibitory drugs.

18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 165-169, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738233

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the pathogenic surveillance programs and related factors on bacillary dysentery in Beijing,2008-2017,to provide evidence for the practices of diagnosis,treatment and prevention of the disease.Methods Analysis was conducted on surveillance data of bacillary dysentery,collected from the surveillance areas of national bacillary dysentery in Beijing.Shigella positive rate of stool samples were used as the gold standard while detection rate of Shigella,diagnostic accordance rate and resistance were computed on data from the surveillance programs.Chi-square test was used to compare the rates and unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors of Shigella infection.Results Both the reported incidence rate on bacillary dysentery and detection rate of Shigella in diarrhea patients showed significantly decreasing trend,from 2008 to 2017.The accordance rate of bacillary dysentery was only 7.80% (111/1 423).Shigella sonnei was the most frequently isolated strain (73.95%,159/215) followed by Shigella flexnery.Results from the multivariate logistic regression of Shigella positive rate revealed that among those patients who were routine test of stool positive vs.routine test of stool positive (OR=1.863,95%CI:1.402-2.475),onset from July to October vs.other months' time (OR=7.271,95%CI:4.514-11.709) temperature ≥38 ℃ vs.temperature <38 ℃ (OR=4.516,95%CI:3.369-6.053) and age from 6 to 59 years old vs.other ages (OR =1.617,95 % CI:1.085-2.410),presenting higher positive detection rates of Shigella from the stool tests.The resistant rates on ampicillin and nalidixic acid were 97.57% (201/206) and 94.90% (186/196),both higher than on other antibiotics.The resistant rates on ciprofloxacin (16.33%,32/196),ofloxacin (9.57%,11/115) and on amoxilin (15.05%,31/206) were relatively low.The resistant rate appeared higher on Shigellaflexnery than on Shigella sonnei.The proportion of strains with resistance on 3 more drugs,was 30.00% (21/70).Conclusions The diagnostic accordance rate of bacillary dysentery in Beijing was low,with severe resistance of Shigella.Our findings suggested that clinicians should take multiple factors into account in their practices about epidemiological history,clinical symptom and testing results for diarrhea patients.

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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 84-88, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738220

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the transmission patterns and risk factors of HIV-1 strain CRF01_AE subtypes in China,and to provide guidance for the implementation of precise intervention.Methods A total of 2 094 CRF01_AE pol sequences were collected in 19 provinces in China between 1996 and 2014.Phylogenetic tree was constructed by PhyML 3.0 software to select the transmission clusters.Transmission network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.6.0,which was further used for exploring of the major risk factors.Results Of the 2 094 sequences,12.18% (255/2 094) were in clusters.A total of 82 transmission clusters were identified.The numbers of clusters and contained sequences in intra-provincial transmission (61,173) were significantly more than those in inter-provincial transmission (21,82).The ratio of transmission clustering in MSM increased over time from 2.41% (2/83) during 1996-2008 to 23.61% (72/305) during 2013-2014,showing a significant upward trend (x2 =27.800,df=1,P =0.000).The proportion of MSM with inter-provincial transmission clusters were higher than those with intra-provincial transmission clusters,which increased from 0.67% (2/297) during 1996-2008 to 6.36%(30/472) during 2013-2014,showing a significant upward trend (x2=20.276,df=1,P=0.000).The transmission rate in homosexuals of the inter-transmission clusters (86.59%,71/82) was higher than that of intra-provincial transmission clusters (56.65%,98/173),and the difference was statistically significant (x2=22.792,P=0.000).The proportion of inter-provincial transmission clusters with more than 2 transmission routes (33.33%,7/21) was higher than that of intra-provincial clusters (13.11%,8/61),and the difference was statistically significant (x2=4.273,P=0.039).Results from the transmission network analysis indicated that the proportion of high risk population (degree≥4) with inter-provincial transmission clusters (51.22%,42/82) was significantly higher than that with intra-provincial transmission clusters (26.59%,46/173),and the difference was statistically significant (x2=14.932,P=0.000).Inter-provincial clusters were mainly detected in and and MSM.Conclusions Complex transmission networks were found for HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains in the mainland of China.Inter-provincial transmission clusters increased rapidly,MSM played an important role in the wide spread of the strain.More researches in transmission networks are needed to guide the precision intervention.

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Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology ; (6): 318-322, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806195

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the virulence related risk factors based on the enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) genome.@*Methods@#The pairwise distance of each section of gene between mild and fatal cases was analyzed. The ⅴ domain of 5′UTR from mild and fatal cases in this study were constructed. Amino acid sequences of EV-A71 were analyzed to find the potential virulence regions which were statistically different between fatal and mild cases.@*Results@#The two EV-A71 genome sequences in this study belonged to C4a genotype with the genomic homology of 96.2%-97.5%. The nucleotides in the ⅴ domains of the 5 ′UTR of EV-A71 from mild and fatal cases were the same. Each gene of EV-A71 from 31 mild cases and 30 fatal cases shared high homology. A total of four potential virulence sites (2 A: R68 M、2C: K41R、3 A: T/V47 A and 3C: I158 V) which were significantly different between mild cases and fatal cases were obtained.@*Conclusions@#The four sites in the unstructured protein coding region might be related with the virulence of EV-A71.

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