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1.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 232-237, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006121

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment strategy of giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma(GMPC). 【Methods】 The clinical data of a GMPC patient treated in our hospital in July 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The patient was 73 years old. The clinical manifestations were urgent urination and frequent urination. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) increased slightly. MRI showed giant cystic solid space occupying lesion of the prostate. Domestic and foreign cases of prostate cystadenoma from 2000 to 2021 were retrieved for literature review. 【Results】 Transabdominal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was performed successfully. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was GMPC. Two weeks after operation, the urinary catheter was removed, and there was no discomfort such as urinary frequency or urinary incontinence. After follow-up for more than 8 months, there was no tumor recurrence or metastasis. 【Conclusion】 There are still some disputes about the oncological characteristics and diagnosis and treatment of GMPC, and there is a lack of long-term follow-up results. Laparoscopic prostatectomy is safe and feasible. Most patients have a good prognosis after surgical treatment. It is necessary to formulate an individualized standard treatment plan based on surgery combined with different patients’ conditions to actively improve the prognosis.

2.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 416-421, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994055

ABSTRACT

Objective:To Explore the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of FH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-deficient RCC) with tumor thrombus, and share surgical experience.Methods:From August 2019 to October 2022, 6 cases of FH-deficient RCC with tumor thrombus were diagnosed and treated in our center, including 4 males and 2 females. The patients were aged 22 to 57 years, with 2 cases younger than 40 years, icluding 5 cases on the left and 1 case on the right. The median maximum diameter of the tumor is 8 (4.8, 14.0) cm. Operations were performed after complete examination (enhanced CT and other related examinations). One case underwent open surgery and palliative resection of the left kidney was performed because of severe adhesion of the inferior vena cava. Among the remaining 5 cases, 1 case underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic right radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava thrombectomy, 1 case underwent transabdominal laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava thrombectomy, and 3 cases underwent robot assisted laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava thrombectomy.Results:The median surgical time was 293 (185, 366) min, with blockage of the vena cava for 13 min and 28 min in 2 of 6 cases, respectively. The pathological report of renal tumor and tumor thrombus was FH-deficient renal carcinoma. The pathological features were as follows: the gross section of the specimen was gray yellow solid, often accompanied by necrosis, and the cystic cavity could be seen locally. Microscopically, the tumor extensively involved the renal parenchyma, with papillary, cribriform and tubular cystic structures. Immunohistochemistry showed FH (-), 2SC (+ ). The median postoperative hospital stay was 8 (4, 15) days. The median follow-up time was 13 (4, 27) months. One patient undergoing palliative resection of the left kidney underwent targeted therapy and radiotherapy after surgery (died 15 months after surgery due to gastrointestinal perforation). During the follow-up process, 4 cases experienced metastasis and received systematic treatment, with 1 death 27 months after surgery. Uterine leiomyomas were found in the remaining 1 case during follow-up.Conclusions:FH-deficient RCC with tumor thrombus is very rare. This disease is highly invasive, difficult to be diagnosed preoperatively and poor clinically prognostic. Operation combined with systemic therapy is an effective way to treat FH-deficient RCC with tumor thrombus.

3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 255-258, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994020

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of massive intraoperative bleeding in patients with renal cell carcinoma and tumor thrombus.Methods:Data of 177 patients with renal cell carcinoma and tumor thrombus in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2017 to July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 129 males and 48 females. The average age was (59.3±10.6) years. The tumors were located on the left in 66 cases and on the right in 111 cases. The tumor size was less than 7 cm in 52 cases, 7-10 cm in 63 cases and >10 cm in 62 cases. There were 45 cases with tumor thrombus of Mayo grade 0, 101 cases of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and 31 cases of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ. There were 93 cases undergoing laparoscopic surgery and 84 cases undergoing open surgery. Segmental resection of vena cava was performed in 30 cases. Massive intraoperative bleeding was defined as the total of bleeding ≥ 1 500 ml. The difference of clinical data between massive bleeding group and non-massive bleeding group was compared. Logistic multivariate regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors of massive intraoperative bleeding.Result:The median intraoperative bleeding of 177 cases was 600 (200, 1 500) ml. There were 50 cases (28.2%) in massive bleeding group and 127 cases(71.8%) in non-massive bleeding group. Comparing massive bleeding group and non-massive bleeding group, the preoperative ASA scores of 1-2 scores were 38 cases (76.0%) and 114 cases (89.8%) respectively, and the 3 scores were 12 cases (24.0%) and 13 cases (10.2%) respectively ( P=0.029); Hemoglobin was (116.8±23.1) g/L and (127.6±23.6) g/L respectively ( P=0.006); The tumor size less than 7 cm in 10 cases (20.0%) and 42 cases (33.1%), 7-10 cm in 15 cases (30.0%) and 48 cases (37.8%), and >10 cm in 25 cases (50.0%) and 37 cases (29.1%)( P=0.024); Tumor thrombus of Mayo grade 0 were 3 cases (6.0%) and 42 cases (33.1%), grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ were 27 cases (54.0%) and 74 cases (58.3%), grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ were 20 cases (40.0%) and 11 cases (8.6%) respectively ( P<0.01); Open surgery were performed in 42 (84.0%) and 42 (33.1%) cases ( P<0.01); Segmental resection of vena cava was performed in 19 cases (38.0%) and 11 cases (8.7%) respectively ( P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that Mayo grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ tumor thrombus ( OR=10.261, P=0.006), tumor size > 10 cm ( OR=3.223, P=0.030), open surgery ( OR=5.454, P<0.01) and segmental resection of vena cava ( OR=4.441, P<0.01) were independent risk factors for massive intraoperative bleeding. The median bleeding of Mayo grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ tumor thrombus, tumor size >10cm, open surgery and segmental resection of vena cava were 2000, 750, 1 450 and 1 650 ml respectively. Conclusions:Renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus has a high risk of bleeding. Mayo grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ tumor thrombus, tumor size >10 cm, open surgery and segmental resection of vena cava are independent risk factors for massive intraoperative bleeding.

4.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 21-25, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993965

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess whether urinary incontinence after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is associated with membranous urethral length(MUL)on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging.Methods:The data of 96 patients who underwent HoLEP from January 2019 to April 2021 in Peking University Third Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. For all patients, the average age was (70.0±7.7) years old, the average body mass index was (23.9±2.9)kg/m 2, median pre-biopsy PSA was 3.79(2.48, 6.03)ng/ml, the average prostatic volume was (60.5±35.0)ml. 22 patients(22.9%) suffered with diabetes mellitus, and 17 patients(17.7%)had at least one time urinary retention. MUL was measured on MRI as the vertical distance from prostatic apex to the entry of the urethra into the penile bulb. All patients' median MUL was 13(11, 17)mm. The recovery of continence was followed up 2 weeks after HoLEP. The difference of age, body mass index, preoperative PSA, diabetes mellitus, urinary retention, prostate volume and MUL between urinary continence and incontinence group 2 weeks after HoLEP operation. The variables with P<0.1 were included in multivariable logistic regression to analyze the independent risk factors of urinary incontinence after HoLEP were compared. Results:All operations were successfully completed. The continence returned to normal in 72 cases (75.0%) and urinary incontinence existed in 24 cases (25.0%) in 2 weeks after surgery. There were 27 cases (37.5%) in continence group and 16 cases (66.7%) in incontinence group for those aged≥70 years. 21 cases (29.2%) in continence group and 13 cases (54.2%) in incontinence group had prostate volume ≥ 60 ml. There were 30 cases (41.7%) in continence group and 20 cases (83.3%) in incontinence group with MUL<13 mm. χ 2 test showed that age ( P=0.013), prostate volume ( P=0.027) and MUL ( P<0.001) were related to the incontinence after surgery. The age, prostate volume and MUL were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Multiple logistic regression showed that MUL<13 mm( P<0.001) was independent predictor for incontinence after HoLEP. Conclusions:The incidence of urinary incontinence was high 2 weeks after HoLEP. Short MUL, which is less than 13 mm, is significantly associated with delayed recovery of urinary continence after HoLEP.

5.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 523-528, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957421

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of different imaging classifications of prostate cancer seminal vesicle invasion on positive surgical margins (PSM) after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy(LRP).Methods:114 patients with pT 3b stage prostate cancer admitted to Peking University Third Hospital from August 2009 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The age of the patients was (68.2±7.7) years old, the median pre-biopsy PSA was 20.20 (3.45-186.30) ng/ml, and the patients with biopsy Gleason score of ≤7, and ≥8 was 33 and 81 cases, respectively. The median prostate volume was 33.2 (12.1-155.4) ml. According to the imaging of the seminal vesicle invasion of prostate cancer, the patients were divided into the following types: type Ⅰ, the tumor directly invades the seminal vesicle along the vas deferens; type Ⅱa, the tumor invades the basal capsule of the prostate and invades the seminal vesicle; type Ⅱb, the tumor invades the periprostatic fat and retrogradely invades the seminal vesicles; type Ⅲ, solitary lesions in the seminal vesicles that do not continue with the prostate cancer. All patients underwent LRP, and the PSM were recorded as the base, bilateral, posterior, anterior and apical parts of the prostate. The differences in clinicopathological data of patients with different seminal vesicle invasion imaging types were compared, and the independent risk factors of PSM in pT 3b prostate cancer were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results:The operative time of 114 cases in this group was (229.4±62.2) min, and the blood loss was 100(20-1 800)ml. The postoperative gross pathological Gleason score was ≤7 in 17 cases and ≥8 in 97 cases. In the imaging classification of prostate cancer with seminal vesicle invasion, there were 28 cases (24.6%) of type Ⅰ, 39 cases (34.2%) of type Ⅱa, 47 cases (41.2%) of type Ⅱb, and no type Ⅲ patients. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, pre-biopsy PSA, prostate volume, and operation time among patients with type Ⅰ, Ⅱa, and Ⅱb seminal vesicle invasion ( P>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood loss among the three types ( P = 0.001), and the difference in the proportion of lymph node metastasis was statistically significant ( P = 0.013). In the classification of prostate cancer seminal vesicle invasion, the PSM rates of type Ⅰ, Ⅱa and Ⅱb were 28.6% (8/28), 38.5% (15/39) and 70.2% (33/39), and the difference was statistically significant ( P=0.001). The PSM rates of type Ⅰ, Ⅱa, and Ⅱb were 21.4% (6/28), 23.1% (9/39), and 34.0% (16/47), respectively. The results of univariate analysis showed that the biopsy Gleason score ( P = 0.063) and the type of seminal vesicle invasion ( P<0.001) entered into multivariate analysis, and the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the type of seminal vesicle invasion ( P=0.001) was independent risk factor for PSM after LRP. Conclusions:The PSM rate in patients with type Ⅱb seminal vesicle invasion is significantly higher. The higher imaging type of seminal vesicle invasion is the independent risk factor of PSM after LRP.

6.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 455-457, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957405

ABSTRACT

The patient, a 56-year old male, was admitted to the hospital for recurrent bladder cancer in November 29, 2021. The patient had previously undergone partial cystectomy, simultaneous radio-chemotherapy to preserve the bladder, and repeated 4 times TURBt. CT suggested T 3 stage bladder cancer in left bladder wall, and causing left hydronephrosis. Under general anesthesia, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and complete intraperitoneal orthotopic ileal neobladder reconstruction were performed. The operation was successful, the postoperative recovery was good, and the patient was discharged 7 days after surgery. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was T 2b, high-grade urothelial carcinoma with left pelvic lymph node metastasis. Three months after operation, the patient had no recurrence, the new bladder function was good, the urine could be completely controlled during the day, and the intestinal and renal functions recovered well. At present, we carried out adjuvant chemotherapy (Gemcitabine+ Cisplatin)to this patient. The technical of radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder with a history of surgery and radiotherapy is high, expensive experience in laparoscopic surgery and elaborate actions of robotic surgery are important prerequisites for completing such surgery.

7.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 339-343, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933229

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the treatment of renal tumors with renal score of 10.Methods:From February 2016 to March 2021, 23 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in Peking University Third Hospital with renal tumors of R. E.N.A.L. score of 10 was studied retrospectively, including 16 cases of male and 7 cases of female, with 11 cases on the right side and 12 cases on the left side. The patients’ age was (55.0±16.4) years, and BMI was (25.4±3.6) kg/m 2. The maximum diameter of the tumor was (3.5±1.4)cm. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed after complete examination. The observation indexes included operation time, blocking time, complications, postoperative hospital stay and the trifecta (negative surgical margin, blocking time ≤25 minutes, and no perioperative complications). Results:All operations were successfully completed, only 4 cases were converted to open surgery. The median operation time was 153 min(99-346 min). The median blocking time was 27 min(14-60min). The median postoperative hospital stay was 6 d(4-11 d). Postoperative complications occurred in 7 cases(fever in 5 cases, intestinal obstruction in 1 case, postoperative blood transfusion and leg intermuscular venous thrombosis in 1 case). 9 cases (39.1%) achieved the trifecta. 19 cases who completed by laparoscopy, their operation time was 151 min(99-303 min), blocking time was 28 min(18-60 min), postoperative hospital stay was 6 d(4-11 d), fever occurred in 4 cases, and 6 cases achieved the trifecta (31.6%). The follow-up time was 3-62 months, with a median of 32 months, and there was no recurrence or metastasis.Conclusions:Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is safe and effective in the treatment of renal tumors with renal score of 10.Although the tumor is highly complex, it also achieves the purpose of preserving nephron to the greatest extent. If technical conditions permit, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy could be considered for the treatment of highly complex renal tumors.

8.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 330-334, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933227

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the surgical technique and clinical experience of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (RN) + venous tumor thrombectomy (VTTE) approach for renal tumor with Mayo grade 0-Ⅲ tumor thrombus, and to discuss its safety and efficacy.Methods:A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 26 patients with renal tumor associated with Mayo 0-Ⅲ thrombus admitted to Peking University Third Hospital from October 2020 to September 2021. There were 17 male cases and 9 female cases. The mean age was (56.9±13.9) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was (25.8±3.5) kg/m 2. The renal tumors were located on the left side in 12 cases and on the right side in 14 cases, with a mean tumor diameter of (7.8±2.9) cm. The tumors were graded by Mayo: Mayo 0 in 10 cases, Mayo Ⅰ in 3 cases, Mayo Ⅱ in 11 cases and Mayo Ⅲ in 2 cases. The American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) graded 23 cases as grade 2 and 3 cases as grade 3. All 26 patients were treated by robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach with RN+ VTTE. Mayo 0 tumor thrombus was treated in the same way as radical nephrectomy. For Mayo Ⅰ tumor thrombus, the lateral wall of the IVC at the inferior vena cava (IVC) where the renal vein joins was clamped to partially block the IVC flow and then the thrombus was removed. For Mayo Ⅱ tumor thrombus, after blocking the flow in the IVC with three blocking bands, the wall of the IVC was dissected and the thrombus was removed. For Mayo Ⅲ tumor thrombus: cut the short hepatic vein, free the liver, expose the posterior IVC and follow the same procedure as for Mayo Ⅱ tumor thrombus. Results:All 26 patients in this group were successfully operated on, 1 of which was converted to open surgery. The median operative time was 148.5 (77.0-399.0) min, and the median intraoperative estimated bleeding volume was 300 (10-2000) ml. Postoperative pathological diagnosis: 18 cases of renal clear cell carcinoma, 2 cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma type Ⅱ, 2 cases of TEF gene fusion-related renal carcinoma, 1 case of unclassified renal cell carcinoma, 1 case of uroepithelial carcinoma and 2 cases of AML. In 2 of the 26 cases, segmental resection of the IVC was performed because the right renal VTT had extensively invaded the wall of the IVC. Due to the residual wall thrombus at the head of the tumour thrombus, 1 case underwent inferior vena cava dissection and the inferior vena cava was cut obliquely to preserve the left renal venous return. 6 patients underwent intraoperative lymph node dissection of the hilum, three of which had pathology suggestive of lymph node metastasis. 1 patient underwent adrenalectomy for tumor invasion of the ipsilateral adrenal gland. The median postoperative hospital stay was 7.2(4.0-22.0)d. According to the modified Clavien classification, there were 18 grade Ⅰ and 8 grade Ⅱ postoperative complications. 26 patients were followed up for 1-11 months, with a median follow-up time of 5.5 months. 3 cases developed distant metastases, including 1 case with tumour-specific death due to multiple metastases in the liver and retroperitoneum at 4 months of follow-up.Conclusions:Robotic-assisted laparoscopic RN+ VTTE is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of renal tumours with Mayo 0 to Ⅲ tumour thrombus, with the advantages of delicate operation, minimal trauma and low incidence of serious postoperative complications.

9.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 91-95, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933169

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between preoperative platelet parameters and clinicopathological features of renal cell carcinoma.Methods:The data of 452 patients with renal cell carcinoma treated in the Peking University Third Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, including 308 males and 144 females, and the mean age was 56.5(15-86) years. There were 178 cases, 72 cases, and 42 cases combined with hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, respectively. Preoperative platelet parameters were the mean PLT of 218.56(72-568)×10 9/L, MPV of 9.65(6.2-20.5)fl, PDW of 14.44(7.9-23.1) fl, and PCT of 20.72%(8%-49%). The data of 253 patients with simple renal cysts were selected as the controls, including 140 males and 113 females, and the mean age was 58(9-84) years. There were 178 cases, 72 cases, and 42 cases combined with hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, respectively. Preoperative platelet parameters were the mean PLT of 207.08(84-362)×10 9/L, MPV of 9.50(6.9-13.9)fl, PDW of 14.59(8.9-21.6)fl, and PCT of 19.49%(9%-36%). Propensity score matching method was used to balance the baseline differences between the two groups, and the differences of platelet parameters between the two groups were compared. The correlation between different clinicopathological characteristics of renal cell carcinoma and platelet parameters was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore the risk factors of renal cell carcinoma with lymph node or distant metastasis. Results:After matching the baseline data, PLT( t=1.993, P=0.047) and PCT( t=2.396, P= 0.017) in renal cell carcinoma group were significantly higher than those in controls. Among 452 cases in renal cell carcinoma, there were 395 cases (87.4%) with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and 57 cases (12.6%) with non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. For pathological stage, there were 325 cases (71.9%) of T 1-T 2 stage and 127 cases (28.1%) of T 3-T 4 stage. In addition, there were 444 cases (98.2%) of N 0 stage, 8 cases (1.8%) of N 1 stage, 428 cases (93.6%) of M 0 stage, and 24 cases (6.4%) of M 1 stage. There were 320 cases of nuclear grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ, 99 cases of nuclear grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ, and 33 cases without nuclear grade. Preoperative high PLT was significantly correlated with T 3-T 4( t=3.409, P=0.001), M 1( t=2.772, P=0.011) and nuclear grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ( t=2.859, P=0.005). Low MPV was significantly correlated with M 1( t=2.981, P=0.003). Low PDW was correlated with T 3-T 4( t=2.567, P=0.011). High PCT was significantly correlated with T 3-T 4( t=2.722, P=0.007) and nuclear grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ( t=3.011, P=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that PLT( OR=1.007, 95% CI 1.002-1.012, P=0.009), clear cell renal cell carcinoma( OR=4.467, 95% CI 1.574-12.679, P=0.005)and nuclear grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ( OR= 5.554, 95% CI 2.399-12.856, P<0.001)were independent risk factors for lymph node or distant metastasis of RCC. Conclusions:PLT and PCT are higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma compared to simple renal cysts. High PLT, PCT, and low MPV, PDW are correlated with the poor clinicopathological characteristics of renal cell carcinoma. Preoperative PLT can be used as an independent risk factor for lymph node or distant metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Education Research ; (12): 215-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931367

ABSTRACT

Introducing the multidisciplinary cooperation model into the clinical teaching of residents has gradually been paid attention to, and the relevant multi-disciplinary teaching teams participate in and formulate teaching plan. The Department of Urology of the Peking University Third Hospital carries out multidisciplinary cooperative teaching of residents based on network platform to improve residents' autonomous learning ability and teaching effect. This model has certain advantages in mobilizing students' subjective initiative and cultivating learning interest. It is of great significance for the training of urology residents.

11.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 566-570, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911073

ABSTRACT

Objective:To disiuss the application of liver free technique in renal cell carcinoma patients with Mayo Ⅱ-Ⅳ tumor thrombus.Methods:The clinical data of renal cell carcinoma patients with MayoⅡ-Ⅳ IVC tumor thrombus in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. 25 patients underwent right part of liver or hepatic portal part dissection via open abdominal approach. There were 20 males and 5 females, aged 45-74 years (mean 61±6 years). All patients underwent urinary tract CTU or MRU examination, vena cava enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.There were left 8 cases, right 17 cases; the median length of tumor was 7 cm (3.6-12.1 cm). There were 1 case of Mayo grade Ⅱ tumor thrombus, 7 cases of Mayo grade Ⅲ tumor thrombus, and 17 cases of Mayo grade Ⅳ tumor thrombus. There were 7 cases of distant metastasis, including 6 cases of lung metastasis and 1 case of bone metastasis. After multi-disciplinary consultation (MDT), 19 patients underwent radical nephrectomy and 6 patients underwent tumor reducing nephrectomy. During the operation, the ligaments around the liver were completely dissociated and the space between the liver and kidney was opened. The bare area of the liver was fully dissociated, to expose the inferior vena cava. For Mayo grade Ⅳ tumor thrombus, 11 cases were treated with free diaphragmatic thrombus removal without thoracotomy, and 6 cases were treated with open chest cardiopulmonary bypass.Results:The median operation time was 444(258-694)min, the median intraoperative blood loss was 2 000(250-10 000)ml, and the median value of suspended red blood cell transfusion was 1 300(400-10 400)ml. The median postoperative hospital stay was 10(4-25)days.15 patients (60%) had postoperative complications, including 8 cases of liver injury, 5 cases of respiratory complications, 4 cases of kidney injury, 3 cases of anemia, 3 cases of infection and 1 case of thrombosis. Three patients died during perioperative period.Conclusions:The application of total liver free technique might obtain good exposure of surgical field, effectively control the hemorrhage of inferior vena cava, which is helpful for safe resection of tumor.

12.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 414-422, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911043

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of 100 units of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) intradetrusor injection in patients with overactive bladder.Methods:From April 2016 to December 2018, 17 tertiary hospitals were selected to participate in this prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two phases of study were conducted: the primary phase and the extended phase. This study enrolled patients aged 18 to 75 years who had been inadequately managed by anticholinergic therapy (insufficient efficacy or intolerable side effects) and had spontaneous voiding with overactive bladder. Exclusion criteria included patients with severe cardiac, renal and hepatic disorders, patients with previous botulinum toxin treatment for 6 months or allergic to BTX-A, patients with urinary tract infections, patients with urinary stones, urinary tract tumors, diabetes mellitus, and bleeding tendency. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to BTX-A group and placebo control group in a ratio of 2∶1. Two groups of patients received 20 intradetrusor injections of BTX-A 100U or placebo at the depth of the submucosal muscle layer respectively under cystoscope, including 5 injections at the base of the bladder, 3 injections to the bladder triangle, 5 injections each to the left and right walls and 2 injections to the top, sparing the bladder neck. As a placebo control group, patients received same volume of placebo containing no BTX-A and only adjuvant freeze-dried preparations for injection with the same method. A combination of gelatin, sucrose, and dextran served as adjuvants. Average micturition times per 24 hours, urinary incontinence (UI) episodes per day, average micturition volume per day, OAB symptom score(OABSS), and quality of life (QOL) score were recorded at baseline and the 2nd, 6th and 12th week after treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in the average micturition times per 24 hours at the 6th week after treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints included the change from baseline in the average micturition times per 24 hours at 2nd and 12th week, as well as the change from baseline in the OABSS, QOL score, average frequency of urgency and UI episodes per day, urgency score, average micturition volume per day at 2nd, 6th and 12th week after treatment. Patients were followed for 12 weeks to assess adverse events (AEs). After assessed at week 12, if the micturition times has decreased less than 50% compared to baseline and the patient is willing to receive retreatment, then patients could enter the extended trial phase. In that phase, patients in both groups were injected with 100 units BTX-A from 12th week onwards and then followed up the same indicators for 12 weeks.Results:216 patients were enrolled in this trial (144 cases in the BTX-A group and 72 cases in the placebo control group). Baseline characteristics such as age (47.75±14.20 in the BTX-A group and 46.39±15.55 in the control group), sex (25 male/117 female in the BTX-A group and 10/61 in the control group), and disease duration (0.51 years in the BTX-A group and 0.60 years in the control group) were balanced between the two groups( P>0.05). A marked reduction from baseline in average micturition times per 24 hours was observed in all treatment groups at the 6th week and the reduction of the two groups was statistically different ( P<0.001 and P=0.008 respectively). Compared with the baseline, the average micturition times per 24 hours at the 6th week decreased from baseline by 2.40(0.70, 4.60)times for the BTX-A group and 0.70(-1.00, 3.30) times for the placebo control group respectively, and the difference between the two groups was considered to be statistically significant ( P=0.003). The change rates of average micturition times per 24 hours from baseline at the 6th week of the two groups were (16±22)% and (8±25)% respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( P=0.014). Compared with the baseline, the average micturition times per 24 hours at 2nd and 12th week decreased by 2.00(0.00, 4.00)and 3.30(0.60, 5.03)for the BTX-A group, 1.00(-1.00, 3.00)and 1.70(-1.45, 3.85)for the placebo control group respectively. The difference between two groups was considered to be statistically significant ( P=0.038 and P=0.012); the changes of average urgency times per day for the BTX-A group and the control group at the 2nd, 6th and 12th week were 2.00(0.00, 4.30)and 2.40(0.30, 5.00), 3.00(0.30, 5.70)and 0.70(-1.30, 2.70), 0.70(-1.30, 3.00) and 1.35(-1.15, 3.50), respectively. There were significant differences between two groups at the 2nd, 6th and 12th week, ( P=0.010, P=0.003 and P=0.025, respectively). The OABSS of the BTX-A group and the control group at the 6th week decreased by 1.00(0.00, 4.00)and 0.50(-1.00, 2.00) compared with the baseline, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( P=0.003). 47 cases of BTX-A group and 34 cases of placebo control group entered the extended trial phase, and 40 and 28 cases completed the extended trial phase, respectively. The average micturition volume per 24 hours changed by -16.60(-41.60, -0.60)ml and -6.40(-22.40, 13.30)ml, (-35.67±54.41)ml and(-1.76±48.69)ml, (-36.14±41.51)ml and (-9.28±44.59)ml, (-35.85±43.35)ml and(-10.41±40.29)ml for two groups at the 12th, 14th, 18th and 24th week, and the difference between two groups was statistically significant at each follow-up time ( P=0.01, 0.006, 0.012 and 0.016, respectively). There was no significant difference in other parameters( P>0.05). However, adverse reactions after intradetrusor injection included increased residual urine volume (27 in the BTX-A group and 3 in the control group), dysuria (21 in the BTX-A group and 6 in the control group), urinary infection (19 in the BTX-A group and 6 in the control group), bladder neck obstruction (3 in the BTX-A group and 0 in the control group), hematuria (3 in the BTX-A group and 1 in the control group), elevated alanine aminotransferase (3 in the BTX-A group and 0 in the control group), etc. During the follow-up period, there was no significant difference in the other adverse events between two groups except the increase of residual urine volume( P<0.05). In the primary trial phase, among the 27 cases with increased residual urine volume in BTA group, only 1 case (3.70%) with PVR more than 300 ml; the PVR of 3 patients in the placebo group was less than 100 ml. The increase of residual urine volume caused by the injection could be improved or disappeared with the passage of time. Conclusions:Intradetrusor injection of Chinese BTX-A improved the average micturition times per 24 hours, the average daily urgent micturition times, OABSS, and average micturition volume per time, and reduced the adverse effects in patients with overactive bladder.Chinese BTX-A at dose of 100U demonstrated durable efficacy and safety in the management of overactive bladder.

13.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 38-42, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884955

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application of real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) during seminal vesiculoscopy in infertile men with azoospermia or oligoasthenospermia.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 25 cases of azoospermia or oligoasthenospermia due to ejaculate ducts obstruction who were treated with real-time transrectal ultrasound-guided seminal vesiculoscopy between September 2011 and December 2015. Patients’ age was(29.4±4.5) years. All patients accepted semen analysis, serum sex hormone, MRI, TRUS and then diagnosed as obstructive azoospermia, and 13 cases had intractable obstructive azoospermia or oligoasthenospermia after the failure of simple seminal vesiculoscopy(the path to the ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle couldn’t be found). All patients were treated with seminal vesiculoscopy under real-time guidance with TRUS. We assessed the success rate of surgery, surgical time and complications.Results:The scope was successfully inserted into the seminal vesicle in 21 of the 25 cases (success rate, 84%). The median operative time was 75(31, 148) min. None of the patients developed severe complications. Among 4 failure cases (4/25, 16%), 1 was due to abnormal congenital development. In 2 cases, a clear outlet of the dual ejaculatory duct could not be found after it was inserted into the prostatic utricle. One case was considered as a Müllerian tubular cyst, and the seminal vesicle scope was used to assess the cystic side wall. The 21 patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months, semen volume 2.0(0-5.2)ml, total sperm 28(0-832) ×10 6/ejaculate, sperm density 5.6(0-110.3)×10 6/ml, mobility rate of sperm 5.4%(0-63.6%), and the differences were significant as compared to that before the surgery [semen volume 0.4(0-2.8)ml, total sperm 0(0-342)×10 6/ejaculate, sperm density 0(0-90.7)×10 6/ml, mobility rate of sperm 0(0-24.1%), all P<0.05]. Among the 17 patients who underwent follow-up of 5 to 9 years, 3 patients was conceived naturally and 9 patients’ postoperative sperm quality has improved and pregnancy in vitro fertilization by extracting sperm from semen. Conclusions:Intraoperative real-time transrectal ultrasound guidance can improved the success rate of seminal vesiculoscopy and promoted operative safety.

14.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 208-215, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835232

ABSTRACT

Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is one of the atypical clinical manifestations of herpes zoster (HZ), which stems from infection and reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in the cranial nerve, spinal nerve, viscera, or autonomic nerve. Patients with ZSH display variable symptoms, such as neuralgia, however, different from HZ, ZSH show no zoster, which makes clinical diagnosis difficult. ZSH not only causes initial symptoms, such as neuropathic pain in the affected nerve, Bell palsy, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome, but also postherpetic neuralgia and fatal complications such as VZV encephalitis and stroke. The misdiagnosis of ZSH and tardy antiviral treatment may lead to severe ZSH sequelae. We review the publications related to ZSH, especially its diagnosis with VZV DNA and/or anti-VZV immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM). More work about ZSH, especially ZSH epidemiological survey and guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, are needed because most of the present studies are case reports.

15.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 873-876, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869764

ABSTRACT

Liquid biopsy is a noninvasive analysis of tumor related substances in fluid samples, which overcomes the limitations of traditional histological biopsy, and beneficial for early diagnosis and differentiation, prediction of response to treatment, longitudinal monitoring of disease progression and prediction of prognosis. Renal cell carcinoma is lack of mature serum tumor markers, and the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease still rely on imaging. In recent years, liquid biopsy has become a hotspot in renal cell carcinoma. In this paper, we will review the application and research progress of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA), exosomes, tumor "education" platelets (TEPs) in renal cell carcinoma.

16.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 656-660, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869741

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify the relationship between positive surgical margin after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and intravesical prostatic protrusion length on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with pathologic confirmed prostate carcinoma who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in our hospital. For all 110 patients, the average age was (70.4±7.8) years old, median pre-biopsy PSA was 12.23 ng/ml(range 0.78-110 ng/ml). There were 27 cases, 35 cases and 48 cases for biopsy Gleason score 6, 7 and ≥8. There were 73 patients with clinical stage T 1 and T 2, 37 patients with clinical stage T 3.The median prostatic volume was 38.16ml(range 11.83-163.36ml). MRI examination was performed in 1 week before the biopsy. Intravesical prostatic protrusion length (IPPL) was measured on MRI as the vertical distance from the tip of the protruding prostate to the base of the urinary bladder. All patients who underwent MRI preoperatively median IPPL was 3 mm(range 0-27 mm). There were 72 patients with IPPL<5 mm and 38 patients with IPPL≥5 mm respectively. All patients received extra-peritoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Parameters describing the surgical margin status and the location of positive surgical margin was recorded. The χ 2 tested the statistical significance in proportions differences. The multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for positive surgical margin and positive base surgical margin(PBSM). Results:Positive surgical margin rate was 38.1% for all patients, 25 patients(22.7%) had PBSM.χ 2 test showed that clinical stage ( P<0.001) and IPPL ( P=0.038) were related to the postoperative positive surgical margin. The clinical stage, Gleason score and IPPL were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Multiple logistic regression showed that T 3 stage( P<0.001) was independent predictor for positive surgical margin. χ 2 test showed that clinical stage( P<0.001) and IPPL( P=0.001) were related to the postoperative PBSM. The clinical stage, Gleason score and IPPL were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. T 3 stage( P<0.001)and IPPL≥5 mm ( P=0.009) were independent predictors for PBSM according to multivariable logistic regression. Conclusions:For prostate cancer patients who received laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, clinical stage T 3was an independent risk factor for postoperative positive surgical margin. IPPL≥5 mm on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and clinical stage T 3 were independent risk factors for PBSM.

17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 497-502, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869702

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of preoperative aspartate transaminase(AST) and aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio(AST/ALT)for predicting the prognosis in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus.Methods:A retrospective analysis was made of the patients with renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus in our institution from February 2015 to December 2018. This study included 80 patients, 56 males and 24 females with mean age of 58 years (range 15-83 years). There were 17 in Mayo level 0, 24 Mayo level I, 22 in Mayo level II, 12 in Mayo level III and 5 in Mayo level IV. All the patients received radical nephrectomy or palliative nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy. The continuous variable of AST/ALT was collected by ROC curve. The maximum value of Youden index was taken as the critical value, and the continuous variables were adjusted to binary variables. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared by the log-rank test. Cox multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the independent factors of the prognosis of patients with non-metastatic renal cancer and tumor thrombus.Results:There were 70 cases of clear cell carcinoma, 10 cases of non-clear cell carcinoma, 30 cases of low Fuhrman grade (grade 1&2), and 50 cases of high Fuhrman grade (grade 3&4). AST was 19U/L (8-226 U/L) and AST/ALT was 1.3(0.4-3.3). There was a significant difference in AST between different lymphovascular invasion groups ( P=0.04), but there was no significant difference in sex, age, Mayo classification, pathological type, Fuhrman grade and lymph node metastasis. The difference of AST / ALT between age groups was significant ( P=0.025). The average follow-up time was 14.7 months (0-44 months). During the follow-up, 11 (13.8%) patients died of tumor. Univariate analysis showed that Fuhrman grade ( P=0.007), lymph node metastasis ( P=0.019), hemoglobin ( P=0.001), alkaline phosphatase (ALP, P=0.001), AST ( P=0.004) and AST / ALT ( P=0.038) were risk factors for CSS. In terms of prognosis, considering the potential correlation between AST level and AST/ALT ratio, after excluding AST, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high nuclear grade ( HR=3.049, 95% CI 1.292-7.196, P=0.011), high ALP ( HR=1.018, 95% CI 1.007-1.029, P=0.001) and high AST/ALT ratio ( HR=4.094, 95% CI 1.064-15.759, P=0.04) were associated with poor CSS. After excluding AST/ALT ratio, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high nuclear grade ( HR=5.836, 95% CI 1.867-18.240, P=0.002) and high AST ( HR=1.040, 95% CI 1.017-1.062, P<0.001) were associated with poor CSS. Conclusions:In patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus, high AST/ALT ratio and AST levels indicate poor pathological types and poor prognosis.

18.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 415-420, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869682

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the safety and effectiveness of cytoreductive nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer with renal vein or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus.Methods:From February 2015 to May 2019, 56 cases of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus were analyzed retrospectively, including 44 male (78.6%) and 12 female (21.4%)cases, and the average age was (59.2±10.7)(22-82). The clinical presentations covered local symptoms in 26 cases (46.4%), systemic symptoms in 8 cases (14.3%), both local symptoms and systemic symptoms in 12 cases (21.4%), and asymptomatic in 10 cases (17.9%). Among them, renal tumors were located in 35 cases (62.5%) on the right and 21 cases (37.5%) on the left. The average tumor diameter was (10.1±3.8)(1.5-21.1) cm. Forty-five cases (80.4%) scored 2 points and 11 cases (19.6%) scored 3 points by the American Society of anesthesiologists(ASA). Preoperative hemoglobin was (118.2±23.1)(72-178) g/L, and albumin was (37.9±5.6)(23-50) g/L, total protein was (67.7±6.7)(43-81) g/L, serum creatinine was (111.3±119.6)(32-958) μmol/L. There were 16 cases of Mayo 0 (28.6%), 14 cases of Mayo Ⅰ(25.0%), 17 cases of Mayo Ⅱ(30.4%), 4 cases of Mayo Ⅲ(7.1%), and 5 cases of Mayo Ⅳ(8.9%). Fourteen cases (25.0%) were in the stage of cN 0 and 42 cases (75.0%) in the stage of cN 1. Five cases (8.9%) had simple bone metastasis, 16 cases (28.6%) had simple lung metastasis, 2 cases (3.6%) had simple adrenal metastasis, 6 cases (10.7%) had simple liver metastasis, and 27 cases (48.2%) had 2 or more multiple system metastasis. According to the location of the organ system, 91 metastatic lesions were found in 56 patients. Among them, 37 cases (40.7%) had lung metastasis, 18 cases (19.8%) had liver metastasis, 21 cases (23.1%) had bone metastasis and 15 cases (16.5%) had adrenal metastasis. All 56 patients belonged to IMDC prognosis score model medium risk group. The surgical treatment of Mayo grade 0 tumor thrombus was the same as that of routine radical nephrectomy. The tumor thrombus of Mayo grade Ⅰ was removed after IVC was partially blocked by Satinsky′s forceps. The Mayo Ⅱ tumor thrombus was removed, after blocking the distal vena cava, the contralateral renal vein and the proximal vena cava. Mayo grade Ⅲ tumor thrombus needed pringer's method to block the first porta hepatis. For grade Ⅳ tumor thrombus the diaphragm could be cut directly, or the thrombus could be removed by cardiopulmonary bypass. Laparoscopic surgery was performed in 22 cases (39.3%) and open surgery in 30 cases (53.6%). Six cases (10.7%) underwent IVC wall resection because of tumor invasion. 32 cases (57.1%) underwent ipsilateral adrenalectomy because of tumor invasion or adrenal metastasis, and 23 cases (41.1%) underwent ipsilateral lymphadenectomy. In this study, there were 11 cases of solitary metastasis, 8 cases of which were operated on and 3 cases of which were not operated on. Forty-three patients were treated with sunitinib after palliative nephrectomy, 9 patients were treated with pazopanib, 3 patients were treated with acitinib, and 1 patient was treated with sorafenib. Results:The operations were successfully completed in 56 patients. Four cases (7.1%) changed from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery. The operation time was (326.8±114.9)(108-589) min. Intraoperative hemorrhage was (1 435.2±1 513.4)(20-6 000) ml, intraoperative red blood cells transfusion was (1 456.7±832.8)(400-3 600) ml in 30 cases, and intraoperative plasma transfusion was (700.0±473.6)(200-1 800) ml in 15 cases. The postoperative hospital stay was (10.6±4.6)(5-26) days. The serum creatinine one week after operation was (109.5±98.7) (47-772) μmol/L. There were 46 cases (82.1%) of renal clear cell carcinoma, 7 cases (12.5%) of papillary renal cell carcinoma and 3 cases (5.4%) of unclassified renal cell carcinoma. One case was WHO/ISUP 2016 nuclear grade 1 (1.8%), 20 cases(36.4%) was grade 2, 18 cases(32.7%)was grade 3, and 16 cases(29.1%)was grade 4. Early postoperative complications occurred in 22 cases (39.3%). Among them, 1 case of Clavien gradeⅠ was wound infection. There were 16 cases with Clavien gradeⅡ, including 5 cases who received blood transfusion due to anemia, 3 cases with chylous fistula, 4 cases with postoperative pulmonary infection, 2 cases with postoperative lower extremity venous thrombosis, 1 case with atrial fibrillation and 1 case with epididymitis. Clavien gradeⅢ a was found in 1 case with pneumothorax. Clavien gradeⅣ was found in 2 cases, including 1 case of acute cerebral infarction and 1 case of renal insufficiency.There were 2 cases with Clavien gradeⅤ with perioperative death. Among the 56 patients, 5 lost the follow-up, 2 died during the perioperative period, and the other 49 patients were followed up for 1-39 months, with a median follow-up of 14 months. The mean survival time was (25.6±2.5) months, and the median survival time was 25 months.Conclusions:It was relatively safe and effective to perform cytoreductive nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer with tumor thrombus. For the patients with clinical symptoms, IMDC prognosis score model medium risk group, and strong desire for surgery, the combination of cytoreductive nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy and postoperative targeted medical therapy was recommended.

19.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 474-476, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869674

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma is relatively poor. With the development of molecular biology, the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma is undergoing a transformation from cytokine therapy to targeted molecular therapy or immunotherapy, and the prognosis has been improved. This study summarized and discussed the treatment progress of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

20.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 430-433, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869672

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the prognostic factors of primary and metastatic tumor resection for metastatic renal carcinoma.Methods:Clinical data of 12 cases of renal carcinoma with distant metastasis admitted to the Peking University Third Hospital from June 2011 to December 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 10 males and 2 females. Age was from 36 to 67 years old, with average of 53.7 years old. BMI was 20.9-30.8 kg/m 2, with average of 25.8 kg/m 2.There were 6 cases of right kidney tumor and 6 cases of left kidney tumor. The diameter of the primary tumor was 2.7-16.0 cm, with an average of 7.1 cm. There were 2 cases of lung metastasis, 1 case of liver metastasis and 9 cases of bone metastasis. All the 12 patients underwent primary and metastatic tumorectomy. Postoperative pathological results showed 10 cases of clear cell carcinoma, 1 case of papillary type 2 tumor and 1 case of collecting duct carcinoma. The pathological results of the metastases were the same as those of the original lesions. Results:All the 12 patients underwent primary and metastatic renal carcinoma resection, among which 3 received postoperative chemotherapy and 6 received radiotherapy .Two patients were treated with targeted drugs. The interval between primary resection and metastatic resection was 1-84 months, and the median time was 2.5 months. In this study, 12 patients were followed up for 2-96 months, with the median survival time of 34 months, and mortality rate of 25%.There was no significant correlation between age( P=0.265), gender( P=0.183), BMI( P=0.152), primary tumor size ( P=0.082), radiotherapy, chemotherapy or targeted therapy ( P=0.915) and overall survival, and the interval between primary resection and metastatic resection ( P=0.046) was significantly correlated with overall survival. Conclusion:The interval between primary and metastatic tumor resection was a risk factor for the prognosis of patients.

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