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1.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 545-553, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001714

ABSTRACT

Despite various advances in resuscitation science, the overall survival outcome remains very low in patients who sustain sudden cardiac death. Regardless of the cause of the collapse, multiple organ systems may be injured secondary to post-cardiac arrest syndrome. This column highlights the interventions that can be incorporated as a bundle of post-resuscitation care, to narrow the gap between return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurologically intact survival.Current Concepts: The post-cardiac arrest care algorithm presents treatment strategies and therapeutic goals to be considered in the initial stabilization stage, followed by investigating the cause of cardiac arrest and intensive care strategies to reduce additional brain damage. Immediately after ROSC, multimodal interventions required for post-ROSC care are bundled into a care regimen (treatment of the reversible cause, adequate seizure management, and glycemic control). It is also essential to establish definitive airway management to maintain normocapnic ventilation, prevent hyperoxia, and optimize hemodynamic management. Targeted temperature management after ROSC confers neuroprotection and leads to improved neurological outcomes.Discussion and Conclusion: Post-cardiac arrest care is also emphasized as a key element in the chain of survival. The interventions outlined could lead to more patients being discharged alive from the hospital, with good neurological function. In addition, continued management planning, such as secondary prevention and social rehabilitation for cardiac arrest survivors and neurological prognostication for patients who do not recover consciousness after a certain period, are included.

2.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977110

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning. @*Methods@#The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed. @*Results@#The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above. @*Conclusion@#This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.

3.
Keimyung Medical Journal ; : 26-31, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893790

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To determine basic patient characteristics and biomarkers to help in the early diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with pneumonia who visited the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective study evaluated patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or COVID-19 pneumonia in ED at four tertiary medical centers between February 1 and March 31, 2020. Parameters related to the differential diagnosis between CAP and COVID-19 were investigated. Clinical characteristics and laboratory results of biomarkers were analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 81 patients presented to the ED with COVID-19 pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that monocyte count [odds ratio (OR): 0.996; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.994–0.999] and pneumonia severity index (PSI) [OR: 1.025; 95% CI: 1.002–1.049] were associated with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. The area under the curve comprising the combination of monocyte and PSI was 0.789. @*Conclusion@#Differential diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia from pneumonia patients who visited the emergency room can be made by monocyte count and PSI score.

4.
Keimyung Medical Journal ; : 26-31, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901494

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To determine basic patient characteristics and biomarkers to help in the early diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with pneumonia who visited the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective study evaluated patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or COVID-19 pneumonia in ED at four tertiary medical centers between February 1 and March 31, 2020. Parameters related to the differential diagnosis between CAP and COVID-19 were investigated. Clinical characteristics and laboratory results of biomarkers were analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 81 patients presented to the ED with COVID-19 pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that monocyte count [odds ratio (OR): 0.996; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.994–0.999] and pneumonia severity index (PSI) [OR: 1.025; 95% CI: 1.002–1.049] were associated with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. The area under the curve comprising the combination of monocyte and PSI was 0.789. @*Conclusion@#Differential diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia from pneumonia patients who visited the emergency room can be made by monocyte count and PSI score.

5.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 72-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916486

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A high anion gap (AG) is known to be a significant risk factor for serious acid-base imbalances and death in acute poisoning cases. The strong ion difference (SID), or strong ion gap (SIG), has recently been used to predict in-hospital mortality or acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This study presents a comprehensive acidbase analysis in order to identify the predictive value of the SIG for disease severity in severe poisoning. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on acute poisoning patients treated in the emergency intensive care unit (ICU) between December 2015 and November 2020. Initial serum electrolytes, base deficit (BD), AG, SIG, and laboratory parameters were concurrently measured upon hospital arrival and were subsequently used along with Stewart’s approach to acid-base analysis to predict AKI development and in-hospital death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and logistic regression analysis were used as statistical tests. @*Results@#Overall, 343 patients who were treated in the intensive care unit were enrolled. The initial levels of lactate, AG, and BD were significantly higher in the AKI group (n=62). Both effective SID [SIDe] (20.3 vs. 26.4 mEq/L, p<0.001) and SIG (20.2 vs. 16.5 mEq/L, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the AKI group; however, the AUC of serum SIDe was 0.842 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.799-0.879). Serum SIDe had a higher predictive capacity for AKI than initial creatinine (AUC=0.796, 95% CI=0.749-0.837), BD (AUC=0.761, 95% CI=0.712-0.805), and AG (AUC=0.660, 95% CI=0.607-0.711). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diabetes, lactic acidosis, high SIG, and low SIDe were significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality. @*Conclusion@#Initial SIDe and SIG were identified as useful predictors of AKI and in-hospital mortality in intoxicated patients who were critically ill. Further research is necessary to evaluate the physiological nature of the toxicant or unmeasured anions in such patients.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 543-552, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893464

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study compared the prognostic performance of the following five injury severity scores: the Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score (GTOS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) for in-hospital mortality in severe geriatric trauma patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using a database of severe geriatric trauma patients (age ≥65 years and ISS ≥16) who presented to a single regional trauma center between November 2016 and October 2018. We compared the baseline characteristics between the survivor and mortality groups and the predictive ability of the five scoring systems. @*Results@#A total of 402 patients were included in the analysis; the in-hospital mortality rate was 25.6% (n=103). The TRISS had the highest area under the curve of 0.953 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.927-0.971); followed by RTS, 0.777 (95% CI, 0.733-0.817); NISS, 0.733 (95% CI, 0.687-0.776); ISS, 0.660 (95% CI, 0.612-0.707); and GTOS, 0.660 (95% CI, 0.611-0.706) in severe geriatric trauma. The TRISS also had the highest area under the curve of 0.961 (0.919-0.985) among the injury severity scoring systems in polytrauma. The predictive ability of TRISS was significantly higher than the other four scores with respect to overall trauma and polytrauma (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The TRISS showed the highest prognostic performance for predicting in-hospital mortality among all the injury severity scoring systems in severe geriatric trauma.

7.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 85-93, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893451

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. @*Results@#A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. @*Conclusion@#This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 562-572, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890887

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is currently a lack of evidence-based postresuscitation or postmortem guidelines for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the setting of an emerging infectious disease. This study aimed to develop and validate a multimodal screening tool that aids in predicting the disease confirmation in emergency situations and patients with OHCA during a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a retrospective, multicenter observational study of adult patients with OHCA in Daegu, Korea. To identify the potential predictors that could be used in screening tools in the emergency department, we applied logistic regression to data collected from March 1 to March 14. The prediction performance of the screening variables was then assessed and validated on the data of patients with OHCA who were treated between February 19 and March 31, 2020. General patient characteristics and hematological findings of the COVID-19-negative and COVID-19-positive groups were compared. We also evaluated confirmation test criteria as predictors for COVID-19 positivity in patients with OHCA. @*Results@#Advanced age, body temperature, and abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) revealed significant predictive ability in the derivation cohort. Of the 184 adult patients with OHCA identified in the validation cohort, 80 patients were included in the analysis. Notably, 9 patients were positive and 71 were negative on the COVID-19 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Five patients (55.6%) in the COVID-19-positive group had a fever before OHCA, and 12 (16.9%) of the COVID-19-negative group had a fever before OHCA (P = 0.018).Eight patients (88.9%) in the COVID-19-positive group had a CXR indicating pneumonic infiltration. Of the criteria for predicting COVID-19, fever or an abnormal CXR had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 65.4 – 100) and a specificity of 22.5% (95% CI: 13.5 – 34.0). @*Conclusion@#The screening tools that combined fever or abnormal CXR had a good discriminatory ability for COVID-19 infection in adult patients with OHCA. Therefore, during the COVID-19 outbreak period, it is recommended to suspect COVID-19 infection and perform COVID-19 test if patients present with a history of fever or show abnormal findings in postmortem CXR

9.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 267-274, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834926

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Unlike common acute urinary tract infections, obstructive urinary tract infections caused by urinary calculus can be fatal because they can progress to sepsis and cause shock or disseminated intravascular coagulation. The evidence of patients with obstructive urinary tract infections caused by urinary tract stones visiting the emergency center is still lacking. @*Methods@#Seventy-seven patients who visited the emergency room with obstructive urinary tract infections caused by urinary calculus from January 2016 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups: sepsis group and non-sepsis group. @*Results@#The lymphocyte count, platelet count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, serum creatinine, and C-reactive protein were significantly different in the sepsis-positive and negative groups. Percutaneous nephrostomy was also significantly higher in the sepsis-positive group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to evaluate the ability of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio to predict a septic urinary tract infection. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were 0.659 and 0.550, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that diabetic patients, percutaneous nephrostomy, and serum creatinine were associated with septic obstructive urinary tract infection. @*Conclusion@#In patients with an obstructive urinary tract infection who were referred to the emergency center, diabetic patients and those with high blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels are at high risk of sepsis. In such cases, rapid diagnosis and treatment, such as percutaneous nephrostomy, are necessary.

10.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 362-370, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834627

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Despite greater access to training positions and the presence of more women in emergency medicine, it has remained a men-dominated field. This study aims to identify the key issues causing the gender gap in Korea and establish measures to overcome them. @*Methods@#Using the annual statistical reports of the National Emergency Medical Center and data published on the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine website, cases that listed the current status and positions of members in its organization and its committees were analyzed. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 2015 Korean Society of Emergency Survey that included physicians’ demographics, academic ranking, years of experience, clinical work hours, training and board certification, core faculty status, position, and salaries. @*Results@#As of September 2019, women account for only 12.7% of the total number of emergency physicians (EP) in Korea; of 119 chair/ vice‐chair academic positions, women represented only 9.2%. Women EP were more often assistant professors and fellowship-trained, with fewer in core faculty. However, they worked the same numbers of clinical hours as their men counterparts. The median annual salary of women EP was less than that of men EP after adjusting for academic hospital rank, clinical hours, and core faculty status. @*Conclusions@#A gender gap still exists among Korean EP, and women earn less than men regardless of their rank, clinical hours, or training. Future studies should evaluate more data and develop system-wide practices to eliminate gender disparities.

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 543-552, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901168

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study compared the prognostic performance of the following five injury severity scores: the Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score (GTOS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) for in-hospital mortality in severe geriatric trauma patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using a database of severe geriatric trauma patients (age ≥65 years and ISS ≥16) who presented to a single regional trauma center between November 2016 and October 2018. We compared the baseline characteristics between the survivor and mortality groups and the predictive ability of the five scoring systems. @*Results@#A total of 402 patients were included in the analysis; the in-hospital mortality rate was 25.6% (n=103). The TRISS had the highest area under the curve of 0.953 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.927-0.971); followed by RTS, 0.777 (95% CI, 0.733-0.817); NISS, 0.733 (95% CI, 0.687-0.776); ISS, 0.660 (95% CI, 0.612-0.707); and GTOS, 0.660 (95% CI, 0.611-0.706) in severe geriatric trauma. The TRISS also had the highest area under the curve of 0.961 (0.919-0.985) among the injury severity scoring systems in polytrauma. The predictive ability of TRISS was significantly higher than the other four scores with respect to overall trauma and polytrauma (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The TRISS showed the highest prognostic performance for predicting in-hospital mortality among all the injury severity scoring systems in severe geriatric trauma.

12.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 85-93, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901155

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. @*Results@#A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. @*Conclusion@#This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 562-572, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898591

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is currently a lack of evidence-based postresuscitation or postmortem guidelines for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the setting of an emerging infectious disease. This study aimed to develop and validate a multimodal screening tool that aids in predicting the disease confirmation in emergency situations and patients with OHCA during a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a retrospective, multicenter observational study of adult patients with OHCA in Daegu, Korea. To identify the potential predictors that could be used in screening tools in the emergency department, we applied logistic regression to data collected from March 1 to March 14. The prediction performance of the screening variables was then assessed and validated on the data of patients with OHCA who were treated between February 19 and March 31, 2020. General patient characteristics and hematological findings of the COVID-19-negative and COVID-19-positive groups were compared. We also evaluated confirmation test criteria as predictors for COVID-19 positivity in patients with OHCA. @*Results@#Advanced age, body temperature, and abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) revealed significant predictive ability in the derivation cohort. Of the 184 adult patients with OHCA identified in the validation cohort, 80 patients were included in the analysis. Notably, 9 patients were positive and 71 were negative on the COVID-19 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Five patients (55.6%) in the COVID-19-positive group had a fever before OHCA, and 12 (16.9%) of the COVID-19-negative group had a fever before OHCA (P = 0.018).Eight patients (88.9%) in the COVID-19-positive group had a CXR indicating pneumonic infiltration. Of the criteria for predicting COVID-19, fever or an abnormal CXR had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 65.4 – 100) and a specificity of 22.5% (95% CI: 13.5 – 34.0). @*Conclusion@#The screening tools that combined fever or abnormal CXR had a good discriminatory ability for COVID-19 infection in adult patients with OHCA. Therefore, during the COVID-19 outbreak period, it is recommended to suspect COVID-19 infection and perform COVID-19 test if patients present with a history of fever or show abnormal findings in postmortem CXR

14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 301-308, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Public concerns and awareness of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are essential for improving the survival outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the community. On the other hand, the proportion of OHCA, in which AED is used in a prehospital setting, is very low in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the barriers and training issues of AEDs. METHODS: A nationwide population-based survey was conducted to analyze the current public trends in AED awareness, training, and intention to use in 2017 (n=506). The barriers and training issues of AEDs were then documented. For trend analysis, previous tri-temporal surveys were obtained in 2007, 2011, and 2015. RESULTS: Public awareness of AEDs has increased: from 5.8% in 2007, to 30.6% in 2011, 82.6% in 2015, and 79.4% in 2017 (P<0.001). The training experience of AEDs has increased over time: from 0.5% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2011 and 33.2% in 2017. Thirty-two percent of respondents knew how and where to find the AEDs, but only 12.5% were able to certainly locate their public-access AED near their residency or work places. The reasons for being unwilling to use the AED included not knowing how to use (65.0%), fear of causing harm to the victim (21.3%), and legal liability (11.7%). CONCLUSION: Not knowing the location of AED and how to use it, and being unaware of the Good Samaritan Law were the major barriers to public access defibrillation. Further research is urgently needed if AEDs are to be increased and more lives saved.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Defibrillators , Hand , Intention , Internship and Residency , Jurisprudence , Korea , Liability, Legal , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
15.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 148-151, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785307

ABSTRACT

The dose of CD34+ cells is known to influence the outcome of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) and/or T-cell-depleted transplantation. A previous study proposed that 2×10⁶ CD34+ cells/kg is the ideal minimum dose for allogeneic transplantation, although lower doses did not preclude successful therapy. In the case we present here, CD34+ cells were collected from a matched sibling donor on the day of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, the number of cells was not sufficient for transplantation. Consequently, PBSCs were collected three additional times and were infused along with cord blood cells from the donor that were cryopreserved at birth. The cumulative dose of total nuclear cells and CD34+ cells was 15.9×10⁸ cells/kg and 0.95×10⁶ cells/kg, respectively. White blood cells from this patient were engrafted on day 12. In summary, we report successful engraftment after infusion of multiple low doses of CD34+ cells in a patient with severe aplastic anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Aplastic , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukocytes , Parturition , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Siblings , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e134-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythms, particularly shockable rhythms, are crucial for planning cardiac arrest treatment. There are varying opinions regarding treatment guidelines depending on ECG rhythm types and documentation times within pre-hospital settings or after hospital arrivals. We aimed to determine survival and neurologic outcomes based on ECG rhythm types and documentation times. METHODS: This prospective observational study of 64 emergency medical centers was performed using non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry data between October 2015 and June 2017. From among 4,608 adult participants, 4,219 patients with pre-hospital and hospital ECG rhythm data were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups: those with initial-shockable, converted-shockable, and never-shockable rhythms. Patient characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between groups. Further, termination of resuscitation (TOR) validation was performed for 6 combinations of TOR criteria confirmed in previous studies, including 2 rules developed in the present study. RESULTS: Total survival to discharge after cardiac arrest was 11.7%, and discharge with good neurologic outcomes was 7.9%. Survival to discharge rates and favorable neurologic outcome rates for the initial-shockable group were the highest at 35.3% and 30.2%, respectively. There were no differences in survival to discharge rates and favorable neurologic outcome rates between the converted-shockable (4.2% and 2.0%, respectively) and never-shockable groups (5.7% and 1.9%, respectively). Irrespective of rhythm changes before and after hospital arrival, TOR criteria inclusive of unwitnessed events, no pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation, and asystole in the emergency department best predicted poor neurologic outcomes (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.911) with no patients classified as Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 (specificity = 1.000). CONCLUSION: Survival outcomes and TOR predictions varied depending on ECG rhythm types and documentation times within pre-hospital filed or emergency department and should, in the future, be considered in treatment algorithms and prognostications of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03222999


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Arrest , Observational Study , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prospective Studies , Resuscitation , ROC Curve
17.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 41-47, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741665

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) screening results are difficult to interpret owing to the many influencing factors, and confirming the test results takes time. In this study, we examined the factors that affected the 17-OHP level in premature infants. We also evaluated the correlation between 17-OHP level and the clinical parameters related to adrenal cortical function. METHODS: From January 2012 to April 2017, 358 very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) born with birth weights of < 1,500 g were included in the study. Their 17-OHP levels were measured in the neonatal screening test after birth and analyzed by considering various factors that may have influenced the values. RESULTS: The 17-OHP levels negatively correlated with gestational age and birth weight. The values of the parameters that affected the 17-OHP levels were significantly higher in the infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In relation to the clinical parameters, blood pressure measured within 24 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week after birth negatively correlated with the 17-OHP level. Serum sodium and 17-OHP levels 24 hours after birth were found to be positively correlated. Urine outputs in 1 and 3 days after birth showed significant positive correlations with the 17-OHP level. CONCLUSION: The 17-OHP levels of the VLBWIs were higher when gestational age and birth weight were lower, and were influenced by RDS in the VLBWI. In addition, hypotension and urine output values may be useful in the neonatal intensive care unit as a predictor of early adrenal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Adrenal Insufficiency , Birth Weight , Blood Pressure , Gestational Age , Hypotension , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Mass Screening , Neonatal Screening , Parturition , Sodium
18.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 47-57, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916479

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Osmolar gap (OG) has been used for decades to screen for toxic alcohol levels. However, its reliability may vary due to several reasons. We validated the estimated ethanol concentration formula for patients with suspected poisoning and who visited the emergency department. We examined discrepancies in the ethanol level and patient characteristics by applying this formula when it was used to screen for intoxication due to toxic levels of alcohol.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed 153 emergency department cases to determine the measured levels of toxic ethanol ingestion and we calculated alcohol ingestion using a formula based on serum osmolality. Those patients who were subjected to simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, urea, glucose, and ethanol were included in this study. Patients with exposure to other toxic alcohols (methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol) or poisons that affect osmolality were excluded. OG (the measured-calculated serum osmolality) was used to determine the calculated ethanol concentration.@*RESULTS@#Among the 153 included cases, 114 had normal OGs (OG≤14 mOsm/kg), and 39 cases had elevated OGs (OG>14). The mean difference between the measured and estimated (calculated ethanol using OG) ethanol concentration was −9.8 mg/dL. The 95% limits of agreement were −121.1 and 101.5 mg/dL, and the correlation coefficient R was 0.7037. For the four subgroups stratified by comorbidities and poisoning, the correlation coefficients R were 0.692, 0.588, 0.835, and 0.412, respectively, and the mean differences in measurement between the measured and calculated ethanol levels were −2.4 mg/dL, −48.8 mg/dL, 9.4 mg/dL, and −4.7 mg/dL, respectively. The equation plots had wide limits of agreement.@*CONCLUSION@#We found that there were some discrepancies between OGs and the calculated ethanol concentrations. Addition of a correction factor for unmeasured osmoles to the equation of the calculated serum osmolality would help mitigate these discrepancies.

19.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 148-151, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939344

ABSTRACT

The dose of CD34+ cells is known to influence the outcome of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) and/or T-cell-depleted transplantation. A previous study proposed that 2×10⁶ CD34+ cells/kg is the ideal minimum dose for allogeneic transplantation, although lower doses did not preclude successful therapy. In the case we present here, CD34+ cells were collected from a matched sibling donor on the day of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, the number of cells was not sufficient for transplantation. Consequently, PBSCs were collected three additional times and were infused along with cord blood cells from the donor that were cryopreserved at birth. The cumulative dose of total nuclear cells and CD34+ cells was 15.9×10⁸ cells/kg and 0.95×10⁶ cells/kg, respectively. White blood cells from this patient were engrafted on day 12. In summary, we report successful engraftment after infusion of multiple low doses of CD34+ cells in a patient with severe aplastic anemia.

20.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 624-635, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether emergency department (ED) crowding influences the timing of the initial assessment and treatment in severe trauma patients, as well as their mortality rates. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2015 and October 2016, and included adult severe trauma patients who presented to the ED. The emergency department occupancy rate (EDOR) was used to measure ED crowding. The patients were divided into four groups using the EDOR quartile. The timeliness of the initial assessment and treatment in the four groups as well as the mortality rates were compared. RESULTS: This study investigated 307 patients. The timing of the first computed tomography (CT) and laboratory test order, CT and laboratory test result acquisition, first transfusion, and patient transfer from the ED to the operating room were similar in the four groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not show a significant difference in mortality between the groups. CONCLUSION: ED crowding was not associated with delays in the initial assessment and treatment of severe trauma patients, or in their mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Blood Transfusion , Crowding , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Logistic Models , Mortality , Observational Study , Operating Rooms , Patient Transfer , Retrospective Studies , Weights and Measures , Wounds and Injuries
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