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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 43-48, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970234

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the dwelling time and complications of low lying umbilical venous catheterization (UVC) in preterm infants with that of central UVC. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. A total of 3 020 preterm infants from 44 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) who had UVC inserted from October 2019 to August 2021 were enrolled. Demographic and general baseline data, dwelling time of UVC and reasons for removal, complications and their occurrence time were collected. According to the position of the catheter tip, the preterm infants were divided into low lying UVC group (insertion depth of 3-5 cm) and central UVC group (the catheter tip was close to the entrance of right atrium, or at the 8th-9th thoracic vertebra level). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the dwelling time and incidence of complications (cases/1 000 catheter days), and the independent t test and Chi-square test were used to compare the characteristics between the 2 groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the optimal cut-off value of UVC dwelling time. Results: Among the included 3 020 preterm infants, 1 624 (53.8%) were males, the gestational age was 29.9 (28.4, 31.6) weeks, the birth weight was (1 264±301) g, and 2 172 (71.9%) premature babies had central UVC. There were no significant differences in the proportion of males, the gestational age and the birth weight of neonates between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in the rate of maternal history, PPROM>18 hours, chorioamnionitis, antenatal antibacterial angents exposure and antibacterial angents usage through UVC (all P>0.05). The dwelling time of central UVC was longer than that of low lying UVC (7 (6, 10) vs. 4 (3, 7) days, U=23.42, P<0.001). The complication incidence of central and low lying UVC were 20.0 and 70.8 cases/1 000 catheter days, respectively. The top 3 complications of central UVC were occlusion, catheter tip migration, and CLABSI (9.3, 3.5, 3.0 cases/1 000 catheter days). The top 3 complications of low lying UVC were catheter occlusion, CLABSI, and catheter tip migration (45.8, 6.3, 5.4 cases/1 000 catheter days). The ROC curve of UVC dwelling time and complications showed that the cut-off values ​​of central UVC and low lying UVC were 6.5 and 4.5 days, respectively. The 2 groups both showed a trend of increases in the 3 complications with the prolonged dwelling time. Cox regression analysis showed that the overall difference in the proportion of occlusion between the central UVC and low lying UVC groups was statistically significant (χ2=30.18, P=0.024). There were both no significant differences in catheter tip migration and CLABSI (both P>0.05). Conclusions: The most common UVC complication in preterm infants is occlusion. It is not recommended to keep a low lying UVC for longer than 4.5 days. During the whole dwelling period, a close monitoring for UVC complications is required.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Male , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , Infant , Infant, Premature , Birth Weight , Prospective Studies , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
2.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 29-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970232

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and the risk factors of fungal sepsis in 25 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) among preterm infants in China, and to provide a basis for preventive strategies of fungal sepsis. Methods: This was a second-analysis of the data from the "reduction of infection in neonatal intensive care units using the evidence-based practice for improving quality" study. The current status of fungal sepsis of the 24 731 preterm infants with the gestational age of <34+0 weeks, who were admitted to 25 participating NICU within 7 days of birth between May 2015 and April 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These preterm infants were divided into the fungal sepsis group and the without fungal sepsis group according to whether they developed fungal sepsis to analyze the incidences and the microbiology of fungal sepsis. Chi-square test was used to compare the incidences of fungal sepsis in preterm infants with different gestational ages and birth weights and in different NICU. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to study the outcomes of preterm infants with fungal sepsis, which were further compared with those of preterm infants without fungal sepsis. The 144 preterm infants in the fungal sepsis group were matched with 288 preterm infants in the non-fungal sepsis group by propensity score-matched method. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of fungal sepsis. Results: In all, 166 (0.7%) of the 24 731 preterm infants developed fungal sepsis, with the gestational age of (29.7±2.0) weeks and the birth weight of (1 300±293) g. The incidence of fungal sepsis increased with decreasing gestational age and birth weight (both P<0.001). The preterm infants with gestational age of <32 weeks accounted for 87.3% (145/166). The incidence of fungal sepsis was 1.0% (117/11 438) in very preterm infants and 2.0% (28/1 401) in extremely preterm infants, and was 1.3% (103/8 060) in very low birth weight infants and 1.7% (21/1 211) in extremely low birth weight infants, respectively. There was no fungal sepsis in 3 NICU, and the incidences in the other 22 NICU ranged from 0.7% (10/1 397) to 2.9% (21/724), with significant statistical difference (P<0.001). The pathogens were mainly Candida (150/166, 90.4%), including 59 cases of Candida albicans and 91 cases of non-Candida albicans, of which Candida parapsilosis was the most common (41 cases). Fungal sepsis was independently associated with increased risk of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, P=0.030) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (adjusted OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.12-5.80, P=0.025). Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure (adjusted OR=2.50, 95%CI 1.50-4.17, P<0.001), prolonged use of central line (adjusted OR=1.05, 95%CI 1.03-1.08, P<0.001) and previous total parenteral nutrition (TPN) duration (adjusted OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06, P<0.001) were all independently associated with increasing risk of fungal sepsis. Conclusions: Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the main pathogens of fungal sepsis among preterm infants in Chinese NICU. Preterm infants with fungal sepsis are at increased risk of moderate to severe BPD and severe ROP. Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure, prolonged use of central line and prolonged duration of TPN will increase the risk of fungal sepsis. Ongoing initiatives are needed to reduce fungal sepsis based on these risk factors.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retinopathy of Prematurity/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 339-343, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the positive rate of enterovirus (EV) nucleic acid in throat swabs of term late neonates hospitalized during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and the clinical characteristics of the neonates.@*METHODS@#A single-center cross-sectional study was performed on 611 term late infants who were hospitalized in the neonatal center from October 2020 to September 2021. Throat swabs were collected on admission for coxsackie A16 virus/EV71/EV universal nucleic acid testing. According to the results of EV nucleic acid test, the infants were divided into a positive EV nucleic acid group (8 infants) and a negative EV nucleic acid group (603 infants). Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Among the 611 neonates, 8 tested positive for EV nucleic acid, with a positive rate of 13.1‰, among whom 7 were admitted from May to October. There was a significant difference in the proportion of infants contacting family members with respiratory infection symptoms before disease onset between the positive and negative EV nucleic acid groups (75.0% vs 10.9%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic data, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a certain proportion of term late infants testing positive for EV nucleic acid in throat swabs during the COVID-19 epidemic, but the proportion is low. The clinical manifestations and laboratory test results of these infants are non-specific. Transmission among family members might be an important cause of neonatal EV infection.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Enterovirus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pharynx , Nucleic Acids , Enterovirus Infections
4.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 88-93, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935649

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of neonates with upper airway obstruction (UAO) who were admitted via transportation, hence to provide more evidence-based information for the clinical management of UAO. Methods: This was a single center retrospective study. Patients were hospitalized in Beijing Children's Hospital from January 1, 2016 to May 31, 2021 with age <28 days or postmenstrual age (PMA) ≤44 weeks, and UAO as the first diagnosis. The general information of patients, obstructed sites in the upper airway, treatment, complications and prognosis were analyzed. The outcomes of surgical UAO vs. non-surgical UAO were analyzed by 2 by 2 χ2 test. Results: A total of 111 cases were analyzed (2.3% of the total NICU hospitalized 4 826 infants in the same period), in which 62 (55.9%) were boys and 101 (91.0%) were term infants, and their gestational age was (38.7±2.0) weeks, birth weight (3 207±585) g, PMA on admission (40.8±2.5) weeks and weight on admission was (3 221±478) g. There were 92 cases (82.9%) with symptoms of UAO presenting on postnatal day 1, and 35 cases (31.5%) had extra-uterine growth retardation on admission. The diagnosis of UAO and the obstructive site was confirmed in 25 cases (22.5%) before transportation. There were 24 cases (21.6%), 71 cases (64.0%), and 16 cases (14.4%) who had UAO due to nasal, throat, and neck problems, respectively. The top 5 diagnosis of UAO were vocal cord paralysis (28 cases), bilateral choanal atresia (20 cases), laryngomalacia (15 cases), pharynx and larynx cysts (7 cases), and subglottic hemangioma (6 cases). The diagnosis and treatment of all the patients followed a multidisciplinary approach consisted of neonatal intensive care unit, ear-nose-throat department and medical image departments. A total of 102 cases (91.9%) underwent both bronchofiberscope and fiber nasopharyngoscope investigation. Seventy cases (63.1%) required ventilation. Among the 58 cases (52.3%) who required surgical intervention, 16 had tracheotomy. For cases with vs. without surgical intervention, the rate of cure and (or) improvement were 94.8% (55/58) vs. 54.7% (29/53), and the rate of being discharged against medical arrangement were 1.7% (1/58) vs. 45.3% (24/53) (χ²=24.21 and 30.11, both P<0.01). Conclusions: Neonatal UAO may locate at various sites of the upper airway. The overall prognosis of neonatal UAO is favorable. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for efficient evaluation and appropriate surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Airway Obstruction/therapy , Hospitalization , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies , Trachea
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 735-738, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the experience in the application of muscle relaxants in the perioperative period in neonates with congenital esophageal atresia-tracheoesophageal fistula (EA-TEF).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 58 previously untreated neonates with EA-TEF who were treated in the Neonatal Center of Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from 2017 to 2019. The incidence rate of anastomotic leak was compared between the neonates receiving muscle relaxants for different durations after surgery (≤ 5 days and > 5 days). The correlation between the duration of postoperative use of muscle relaxants and the duration of mechanical ventilation was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Among the 58 neonates with EA-TEF, 44 underwent surgery, among whom 35 with type III EA-TEF underwent thoracoscopic surgery. Among these 35 neonates, 30 (86%) received muscle relaxants after surgery, with a median duration of 4.75 days, and 6 (18%) experienced anastomotic leak. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of anastomosis leak between the ≤ 5 days and > 5 days groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Prolonged use of muscle relaxants after surgery cannot significantly reduce the incidence of anastomotic leak, but can prolong the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in neonates with EA-TEF. Therefore, prolonged use of muscle relaxants is not recommended after surgery.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Esophageal Atresia/surgery , Muscles , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/surgery , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 536-541, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879890

ABSTRACT

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) remains an important cause of neonatal death and disability in infants and young children, but it has a complex mechanism and lacks specific treatment methods. As a new type of programmed cell death, ferroptosis has gradually attracted more and more attention as a new therapeutic target. This article reviews the research advances in abnormal iron metabolism, glutamate antiporter dysfunction, and abnormal lipid peroxide regulation which are closely associated with ferroptosis and HIBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Ferroptosis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neurons
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 346-349, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351347

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a municipal hospital, and to provide a basis for the early identification and treatment of NPH.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 112 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Shaoyang Central Hospital of Hunan Province and diagnosed with NPH were enrolled as the case group. A nested case-control method was used to select, as a control group (n=224), the neonates who underwent the treatment with an assisted mechanical ventilator and did not experience pulmonary hemorrhage. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to identify the high risk factors for NPH.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The univariate analysis showed that compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher incidence rates of gestational diabetes and cholestasis in mothers, cesarean delivery, gestational age <34 weeks, 5-minute Apgar score ≤5, birth weight <2 500 g, heart failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) before the development of NPH, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (oxygenation index, OI) ≤100, and a reduction in mean platelet volume. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that DIC, heart failure, and OI ≤100 were independent risk factors for NPH (OR=33.975, 3.975, 1.818 respectively; P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Heart failure, OI ≤100, and DIC are risk factors for the development of NPH in the NICU of the municipal hospital.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Hemorrhage , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases , Risk Factors
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1045-1050, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289537

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the long-term changes in anxiety-like behavior and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the substantia nigra (SN) after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in a neonatal rat model and to further explore the relationship between dopamine (DA) level and long-term anxiety-like behavior using the DA receptor (DAR) antagonist.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seven-day-old (P7) neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into normal control, sham-operated, HIBD and HIBD+DAR antagonist groups. HIBD model was prepared by ligating the right common carotid artery and 8% hypoxia exposure. The rats in the sham-operated group were sham-operated and were not subjected to right common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia exposure. The DAR antagonist was injected intraperitoneally before and after inducing HIBD. The same amount of normal saline was given to the other three groups as a control. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated by elevated plus maze test, and TH expression in the SN was measured by immunohistochemistry on P14, P21, and P28.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>On P21 and P28, the time spent in the open arms and the percentage of open arms entries in the HIBD group were significantly increased compared with those in the normal control, sham-operated and HIBD+DAR antagonist groups (P<0.05); in addition, the HIBD+DAR antagonist group showed a significantly longer time spent in the open arms than the normal control group (P<0.05). On P14, P21, and P28, TH expression in the HIBD and HIBD+DAR antagonist groups was significantly lower than that in the normal control and sham-operated groups, and TH level in the HIBD group was significantly lower than that in the HIBD+DAR antagonist group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>DAR antagonist allows the restoration of anxiety-like behavior and alleviates the damage to dopaminergic neurons in SD rats after HIBD.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Anxiety , Dopamine Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Maze Learning , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Dopamine , Physiology , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
9.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 295-300, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269487

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the changes in anxiety-like behavior among rats in the recovery stage after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) during the perinatal period and to investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the long-term anxiety-like behavior and its action mechanism among rats with HIBD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety neonatal rats (7 days old) were randomly and equally divided into normal control, HIBD, and HIBD+IGF-1 groups. A neonatal rat model of HIBD was established by Rice method in the HIBD and HIBD+IGF-1 groups. The rats in the HIBD+IGF-1 group were intraperitoneally injected with IGF-1 (0.2 mg/kg) immediately after HIBD, and the other two groups were intraperitoneally injected with an equal volume of normal saline. The anxiety-like behavior was evaluated by elevated plus-maze test on postnatal days 21 and 28. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra was measured by immunohistochemistry on postnatal days 14, 21, and 28.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>On postnatal days 21 and 28, the open-arm time (OAT) and percentage of OAT for the HIBD and HIBD+IGF-1 groups were significantly lower than those for the normal control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the HIBD and HIBD+IGF-1 groups (P>0.05); the percentage of open arm entry showed no significant difference between the three groups (P>0.05). On postnatal day 14, there were no significant differences in percentage of TH immunostaining-positive area between the three groups (P>0.05). On postnatal days 21 and 28, the HIBD and HIBD+IGF-1 groups had significantly lower percentages of TH immunostaining-positive area than the normal control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the HIBD and HIBD+IGF-1 groups (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>HIBD in the perinatal period may cause the changes in anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats, which may be related to decreased expression of TH in the substantia nigra. Neonatally given IGF-1 cannot improve the long-term anxiety-like behavior in rats after HIBD, and it does not affect TH expression in the substantia nigra. IGF-1 may not regulate the changes in long-term anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Anxiety , Drug Therapy , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Psychology , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 339-344, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269476

ABSTRACT

The development of the kidneys and other organs of the urinary tract follows the natural rule of gene-environment-lifestyle interaction. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors may be associated with the etiology of various kinds of urinary malformations, but the environmental factor is an extrinsic factor. Related literatures were reviewed in this paper, which focuses on the association of congenital urinary malformations with possible environmental factors. It is concluded that urinary malformation is associated with low birth weight, maternal disease, placental insufficiency, maternal drug exposure, and maternal exposure to environmental pesticides. Living environment and socioeconomic factors may also influence the incidence of urinary malformation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Fetus , Gene-Environment Interaction , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pesticides , Toxicity , Placental Insufficiency , Socioeconomic Factors , Urinary Tract , Congenital Abnormalities
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 336-339, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359742

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To quantitatively assess the association between transfusions and the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Both Chinese and English literature published from Jan. 1985 to Nov. 2011 about the case-control study of the association between transfusions and neonatal NEC were retrieved by searching the electronic resource databases. A meta-analysis was then performed on the comparison and synthesis of findings from included studies. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using RevMan 5.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and possible publication bias was tested as well.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A total of 7 case-control studies (480 blood transfusion cases, 2845 control cases) were included. The meta-analysis with a random-effects model found a pooled OR of 3.35 (95% CI: 1.54-7.27). Sensitivity analysis showed that OR for post-transfusion NEC within 48 h was 4.21 (95% CI: 2.17-8.16). The OR was 4.29 (95% CI: 1.39-13.24) after factors such as gestational age and birth weight were de-confounded. The fail-safe number was 263.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Blood transfusion can increase the risk of NEC in neonates. The clinical application of this conclusion should be cautious due to limited reports. High-quality randomized control trials are still needed for the further proof of the association between blood transfusion and neonatal NEC.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bias , Case-Control Studies , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Epidemiology , Therapeutics , Infant, Premature , Knowledge Discovery , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Transfusion Reaction
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(1): 13-19, Jan. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610548

ABSTRACT

Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, mild hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and severe HI groups (N = 10 in each group at each time) on postnatal day 7 (P7) to study the effect of mild and severe HI on anxiety-like behavior and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra (SN). The mild and severe HI groups were exposed to hypoxia (8 percent O2/92 percent N2) for 90 and 150 min, respectively. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior by measuring time spent in the open arms (OAT) and OAT percent, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of TH in the SN at P14, P21, and P28. OAT and OAT percent in the EPM were significantly increased in both the mild (1.88-, 1.99-, and 2.04-fold, and 1.94-, 1.51-, and 1.46-fold) and severe HI groups (1.69-, 1.68-, and 1.87-fold, and 1.83-, 1.43-, and 1.39-fold, respectively; P < 0.05). The percent of TH-positive cells occupying the SN area was significantly and similarly decreased in both the mild (17.7, 40.2, and 47.2 percent) and severe HI groups (16.3, 32.2, and 43.8 percent, respectively; P < 0.05). The decrease in the number of TH-positive cells in the SN and the level of protein expression were closely associated (Pearson correlation analysis: r = 0.991, P = 0.000 in the mild HI group and r = 0.974, P = 0.000 in the severe HI group) with the impaired anxiety-like behaviors. We conclude that neonatal HI results in decreased anxiety-like behavior during the juvenile period of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is associated with the decreased activity of TH in the SN. The impairment of anxiety and the expression of TH are not likely to be dependent on the severity of HI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Anxiety/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Neurons/enzymology , Substantia Nigra/enzymology , /metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Anxiety/enzymology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/enzymology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Severity of Illness Index , /analysis
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 606-611, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348575

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the clinical characteristics of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) and to review the latest clinical research reports.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Clinical and laboratory data of one case of neonatal CdLS are reported, and literature on 17 cases of CdLS in China and the international reports of the clinical and molecular biological research on this disease were reviewed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>(1) The patient was an infant with intrauterine growth retardation and born as a term small for gestational age infant with specific facial features, bone abnormality of extremities, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). She also had severe feeding difficulty and slow weight gain. She was followed up till 4 months of age and showed severe developmental retardation. (2) The total number of past reported case of CdLS in China was 17 with a male to female ratio of 6:12. The average age of diagnosis was 17 months. The following specific facial features could be observed: synophrys, long and curved eyelashes, hirsutism, microcephalus, low hairline, broad depressed nasal bridge, long prominent philtrum, and high palate. Most of the patients were complicated with mental retardation, recurrent vomiting or feeding difficulty, abnormal muscle tone, cutis marmorata, hypophalangism, and genitalia anomaly. Clinical manifestations of Chinese patients were similar to those of the overseas reports. The karyotype of 15 cases was investigated and was normal. The etiology of CdLS is unknown. There is no specific treatment. The commonest causes of death are lung diseases caused by gastroesophageal reflex/aspirate related pneumonia.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Typical clinical manifestations of CdLS are specific facial features (mainly synophrys, long and curved eyelashes, long prominent philtrum), complications of multi-system malformations (mainly growth and developmental retardation, esophagogastric reflex, hypophalangism), related gene mutations occurred in NIPBL, SMC1A, and SMC3 gene.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Abnormalities, Multiple , Diagnosis , Genetics , Pathology , Cause of Death , Craniofacial Abnormalities , Diagnosis , Genetics , Pathology , De Lange Syndrome , Diagnosis , Genetics , Pathology , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Genetic Testing , Intellectual Disability , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mutation , Proteins , Genetics , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 343-349, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355971

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To clarify whether neonatal jaundice may cause myocardial damage to term infants with normal birth weight (BW).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 178 term neonates admitted during March, 2004 to December, 2010 with normal BW were enrolled. Infants with antenatal or neonatal asphyxia, temperature abnormality, septicemia, antenatal viral infection, congenital dysmorphia, congenital heart disease, 21-trisomy, and polycythemia were excluded. There was no maternal complications during the pregnancy. Serum total bilirubin (TB), creatine kinase (CK), MB isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) were measured. Patients with transcutaneous bilirubin level (TcB) ≥ 342 µmol/L (20 mg/dl) were in Group A (n = 32), and those with TcB below phototherapy level at matched time point were in Group B (n = 25). ECG, for correct Q-T intervals (QTc) and correct QT intervals dispersion (QTcd), and ECHO, for left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), the ratio of the peak velocity of early stage and advanced stage of diastolic phase at the mitral orifice (E/A), were applied to patients in Group A and B. SPSS 13.0 software was used for the data analysis. The coefficients of correlation among age in hours on admission (hr), TB, CK, CK-MB, CK-MB/CK, and cTnI were studied by multiple and partial correlation analysis. Data in Group A and B were compared by independent-samples Mann-Whitney U test (nonparametric method) or Student t-test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>When the data were analyzed by multiple correlation, there were significant correlation between TB and cTnI, CK-MB, respectively (r = 0.212, -0.161, respectively, all P < 0.05). But, when the data were analyzed by partial correlation, there was no correlation between TB and cTnI, CK-MB, respectively (r' = 0.112, -0.112, respectively, all P > 0.05), negative correlation between hr and TB, cTnI, respectively (r' = -0.490, P = 0.000; r' = -0.162, P = 0.032). There was no significant difference in CK (Z = -1.384, P = 0.166), CK-MB (Z = -0.821, P = 0.412), cTnI (Z = -1.159, P = 0.246), QTc (t = 1.146, P = 0.257), QTcd (t = 1.342, P = 0.185), EF (t = 1.558, P = 0.125), E/A (t = -0.640, P = 0.525) between group A and B. There was significant difference in CK-MB/CK (Z = -3.187, P = 0.001) between group A and B with a lower value in group A [0.075 (0.032 - 0.102)] comparing to that in group B [0.160 (0.073 - 0.284)].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>There is no sufficient evidence to support the hypothesis that neonatal jaundice may induce myocardial damage in normal birth weight term infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bilirubin , Blood , Creatine Kinase , Blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Blood , Electrocardiography , Jaundice, Neonatal , Blood , Myocardium , Pathology , Term Birth , Troponin I , Blood , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 619-621, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347528

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the incidence and pathogens of umbilical venous catheterization (UVC) related infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 112 neonates (birth weight 1,500 g) who received UVC within 24 hrs after birth were included. Blood culture was performed right after UVC. At 24 hrs and 1 week after UVC, umbilical skin scrub cultures were performed. Skin redness and swelling for more than 24 h, or severe abdominal distension, or poor general condition for unknown reason after UVC, or positive blood culture results, were the criteria for catheterization related infection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence rate for UVC related infection was 8.9%. Total culture positive rate was 9.4%. At 24 hrs and 1 week after UVC, the umbilical skin scrub culture positive rate was 7.1% and 16.2%, respectively. Rate of Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens was 55.2% and 44.8%, respectively. Group B Streptococcus was main Gram positive pathogen. Klebsiella and E.coli were the main Gram negative pathogens.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>UVC is, to some extent, related to nosocomial infection in the NICU. Among UVC related infection, Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens take almost the chance.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteria , Catheterization , Cross Infection , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Incidence , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Umbilical Veins
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 963-966, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286935

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of rhIGF-1on the mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and caspase-3 in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control, HIBD, and HIBD+rhIGF-1 (rhIGF-1 was given intraperitoneally right after HI). Rat HIBD model was prepared according the Rice-Vannucci method. RT-PCR and Western blot methods were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of Cyt-C and caspase-3 24, 48 and 72 hrs after HI (n=10 each time point).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At all time points, both Cyt-C mRNA and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels in the HIBD group increased compared with those in the normal control group, and those in the HIBD+rhIGF-1 group also increased compared with that in the normal control group but decreased compared with that in the HIBD group. There were statistical significances among the three groups (P<0.01). At all time points, the changes of both Cyt-C and caspase-3 protein expression in the three groups were similar to those of the mRNA expression: both Cyt-C and caspase-3 protein expression levels increased in the HIBD group compared with those in the normal control group, and those in the HIBD+rhIGF-1 group also increased compared with those in the normal control group but decreased compared with those in the HIBD group. There were statistical significances among the three groups (P<0.01).Pearson correlation analysis showed that mRNA and protein expression of Cyt-C were positively correlated to casapse-3 mRNA and protein expression in the HIBD and the HIBD+rhIGF-1 groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>rhIGF-1 may inhibit the Cyt-C release and caspase-3 expression, and thus provides neuroprotection against HIBD in neonatal rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cytochromes c , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 51-53, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-357751

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptors plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of diseases of the brain. This study aimed to examine the expression of phosphor-NR1 S897 in the cerebral cortex after NMDA microinjection in vivo.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into normal control and NMDA injection groups. The rats from the NMDA injection group were injected with 10 mmol of NMDA and were sacrificed 1 hr after injection. 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and fluorescent immunohistochemical stainings were conducted and the fluorescence intensity OD value between the two groups was compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TTC staining from the two groups was normal. Expression of phosphor-NR1 S897 in the cerebral cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere to injection in the NMDA injection group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group, with OD values of 0.366 +/- 0.087 vs 1.364 +/- 0.268 (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>NMDA microinjection, as a hypoxia-ischemia (HI) insult, significantly decreased the expression of phosphor-NR1 S897. This indicates the importance of the "HI-NMDA-phospho-NR1 S897 dephosphorylation-cell damage" pathway in HI brain damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Cerebral Cortex , Metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Metabolism , Microinjections , N-Methylaspartate , Phosphorylation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
18.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 52-69, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the regulation of the expression of NMDA receptor-1 induced by NMDA in the brain of neonatal SD rats.@*METHODS@#Neonatal SD rats (n=90) were randomly divided into normal control (n=6) and NMDA injected group (subdivided into 10 nmol-0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h groups, and 10, 20, 50 nmol groups, each n=6). NMDA fluorescent inmmunohistological staining and TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliun chloride) staining techniques were used.@*RESULTS@#At 30 min after the injection of 10 nmol NMDA, a few NR1 positive cells could be observed along the injection tract. At 1 h after the injection, NR1 positive cells in large quantity could be observed in the hippocampal CA1 region and paraventricular thalamus of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The number and location of positive cells at 2 h and 4 h after the injection were not much different from that at 1 h after the injection. At 2 h after injection, stronger NR1 expression was observed in the 50 nmol injection group. In addition, slight crinkle of the cell wall with mild condensation of the nuclei was also observed in the 50 nmol injection group. At 2 h after the injection, no abnormality was observed in 10, 20, or 50 nmol group after TTC staining.@*CONCLUSION@#The NR1 induced by NMDA is expressed in a time-dependent and dose-dependent pattern after a short period of "delay", providing a possible "therapeutic window" for using NMDA receptor antagonist to treat diseases relating to the NMDA receptor activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , N-Methylaspartate , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Time Factors
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 266-271, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262720

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>It has been reported that neuronal apoptosis plays a critical role in pathology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Cytochrome C (CytC) is an important apoptotic protease activating factor. Inosine might have a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibiting the neuronal apoptosis and the expression of CytC mRNA in adult rats. This study examined the effects of inosine on neuronal apoptosis and CytC mRNA expression following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in order to investigate the neuroprotectivity of inosine against cerebral ischemia injury in neonatal rats and the possible mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 140 healthy 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly assigned into Control (n=40), HIBD (n=50) and Inosine treatment groups (n=50). HIBD rat models were established by ligating the left common carotid artery, followed by 8% O2 hypoxia exposure for 2 hrs in the HIBD and Inosine treatment groups. The Control group was not subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The Inosine treatment and the HIBD groups were randomly divided into 5 sub-groups sacrificed at 6 and 12 hrs, and 1, 3 and 7 days post- HI (n=10 each). The Control group rats were sacrificed at the corresponding time points (n=8 each). Inosine was administered to the Inosine treatment group by intraperitoneal injection immediately after HIBD at the dosage of 100 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days. TUNEL staining and in situ hybridization method was used to detect neuronal apoptosis and CytC mRNA expression respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Few apoptotic cells and CytC mRNA positive cells were found in brain tissues of the Control group. In the HIBD group, the number of apoptotic cells and the CytC mRNA expression in the cortical and hippocampal gyrum CA1 areas increased 6 hrs after HI, peaking at 1 day after HI and then decreased gradually. Until the 7th day, the number of apoptotic cells and the CytC mRNA expression in the cortical and hippocampal gyrum CA1 areas in the HIBD group remained significantly higher than in the Control group. Inosine treatment decreased the apoptotic cells and the CytC mRNA expression in both areas from 6 hrs to 7 days after HI compared with the HIBD group. The linear correlation analysis demonstrated that the number of apoptotic cells was positively correlated to the CytC mRNA expression in neonatal rats with HIBD (r=0.88, P < 0.01) .</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Inosine can reduce the number of apoptotic cells and down-regulate the expression of CytC mRNA following HIBD in neonatal rats. The decreased number of apoptotic cells was positively correlated to the decreased CytC mRNA expression after inosine treatment, suggesting that inosine offered neuroprotectivity against HIBD possibly through inhibiting the CytC mRNA expression and resulting in a decrease of cell apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Cytochromes c , Genetics , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Inosine , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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