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1.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 200-207, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001408

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is known as chronic recurrent abdominal pain related to compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We aim to seek the specific mechanism of the pain by evaluating symptoms and radiological characteristics on abdominal CT scans. @*Methods@#We analyzed 35 patients who visited the emergency room for recurrent abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. We classified the characteristics of patients as 4 clinical components and 2 radiological components. We defined the sum of weighted clinical scores and weighted radiological scores as nutcracker ganglion abdominal pain syndrome (NCGAPS) scores. We categorized the patients into 3 groups classified by the degree of NCGAPS scores. The 3 patients with top-3 NCGAPS scores were recommended for CT angiography. @*Results@#When the suspicion was graded by NCGAPS scores, post stenotic dilatation was significantly different among all groups (P < 0.001).The clinical components of pain varied positional or respirational change and continuous pain were significantly different among all the groups (P < 0.01). NCGAPS scores can remarkably differentiate highly suspicious patients in comparison to simply combined scores. Only 1 patient in the highly suspicious group by NCGAPS scores took the CT angiography and was confirmed with NCGAPS. @*Conclusions@#We suggest renaming MALS as NCGAPS, nutcracker celiac ganglion abdominal pain syndrome, to better explain the mechanism of the recurrent abdominal pain. Further studies on the diagnostic cutoff of clinical and radiological scores of NCGAPS are needed not to miss the diagnosis of NCGAPS.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 126-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976821

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is a serum tumor marker for breast cancer (BC) extensively used in clinical practice. CA15-3 is non-invasive, easily available, and a costeffective tumor marker for immediate diagnosis, monitoring and prediction of BC recurrence. We hypothesized that an elevation of CA15-3 may have prognostic impact in patients with early BC with normal serum CA15-3 level. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study, which included patients with BC who received curative surgery at a comprehensive single institution between 2000 and 2016.CA15-3 levels from 0 to 30 U/mL were considered normal, and patients who had CA15-3 > 30 U/mL, were excluded from the study. @*Results@#The mean age of study participants (n = 11,452) was 49.3 years. The proportion of participants with elevated CA15-3 ≥ 1 standard deviation (SD) compared with the previous examination during follow-up was 23.3% (n = 2,666). During the follow-up (median followup 5.8 years), 790 patients experienced recurrence. The fully-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence comparing participants with stable CA15-3 level to subjects with elevated CA15-3 level was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–2.03). In addition, if the CA15-3was elevated ≥ 1 SD, the risk was much higher (HR, 6.87; 95% CI, 5.81–8.11) than in patients without elevated CA15-3 ≥ 1 SD. In sensitivity analysis, the recurrence risk was consistently higher in participants with elevated CA15-3 levels than in participants without elevated CA15-3 levels. The association between elevated CA15-3 levels and incidence of recurrence was observed in all subtypes and the association was stronger in patients with N+ than in patients with N0 stage (p-value for interaction < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study demonstrated that elevation of CA15-3 in patients with early BC and initial normal serum CA15-3 levels has a prognostic impact.

3.
Healthcare Informatics Research ; : 143-151, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925039

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The outlook of artificial intelligence for healthcare (AI4H) is promising. However, no studies have yet discussed the issues from the perspective of stakeholders in Korea. This research aimed to identify stakeholders’ requirements for AI4H to accelerate the business and research of AI4H. @*Methods@#We identified research funding trends from the Korean National Science and Technology Knowledge Information Service (NTIS) from 2015 and 2019 using “healthcare AI” and related keywords. Furthermore, we conducted an online survey with members of the Korean Society of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine to identify experts’ opinions regarding the development of AI4H. Finally, expert interviews were conducted with 13 experts in three areas (hospitals, industry, and academia). @*Results@#We found 160 related projects from the NTIS. The major data type was radiology images (59.4%). Dermatology-related diseases received the most funding, followed by pulmonary diseases. Based on the survey responses, radiology images (23.9%) were the most demanding data type. Over half of the solutions were related to diagnosis (33.3%) or prognosis prediction (31%). In the expert interviews, all experts mentioned healthcare data for AI solutions as a major issue. Experts in the industrial field mainly mentioned regulations, practical efficacy evaluation, and data accessibility. @*Conclusions@#We identified technology, regulatory, and data issues for practical AI4H applications from the perspectives of stakeholders in hospitals, industry, and academia in Korea. We found issues and requirements, including regulations, data utilization, reimbursement, and human resource development, that should be addressed to promote further research in AI4H.

4.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 286-296, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924912

ABSTRACT

Background@#Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is an emerging consequence of increased insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia is one of the few correctable risk factors of LVDD. This study evaluated the role of mean and visit-to-visit variability of lipid measurements in risk of LVDD in a healthy population. @*Methods@#This was a 3.7-year (interquartile range, 2.1 to 4.9) longitudinal cohort study including 2,817 adults (median age 55 years) with left ventricular ejection fraction >50% who underwent an annual or biannual health screening between January 2008 and July 2016. The mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides were obtained from three to six measurements during the 5 years preceding the first echocardiogram. @*Results@#Among the 2,817 patients, 560 (19.9%) developed LVDD. The mean of no component of lipid measurements was associated with risk of LVDD. CV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.67), SD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.57), and VIM (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.55) of LDL-C and all the variability parameters of apoB were significantly associated with development of LVDD. The association between CV-LDL and risk of LVDD did not have significant interaction with sex, increasing/decreasing trend at baseline, or use of stain and/or lipid-modifying agents. @*Conclusion@#The variability of LDL-C and apoB, rather than their mean, was associated with risk for LVDD.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 416-422, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833370

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#For patients with time-critical acute coronary syndrome, reporting electrocardiogram (ECG) findings is the most importantcomponent of the treatment process. We aimed to develop and validate an automated Fast Healthcare InteroperabilityResources (FHIR)-based 12-lead ECG mobile alert system for use in an emergency department (ED). @*Materials and Methods@#An automated FHIR-based 12-lead ECG alert system was developed in the ED of an academic tertiarycare hospital. The system was aimed at generating an alert for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome based on interpretationby the legacy device. The alert is transmitted to physicians both via a mobile application and the patient’s electronic medicalrecord (EMR). The automated FHIR-based 12-lead ECG alert system processing interval was defined as the time from ED arrivaland 12-lead ECG capture to the time when the FHIR-based notification was transmitted. @*Results@#During the study period, 3812 emergency visits and 1581 12-lead ECGs were recorded. The FHIR system generated 155alerts for 116 patients. The alerted patients were significantly older [mean (standard deviation): 68.1 (12.4) years vs. 59.6 (16.8)years, p<0.001], and the cardiac-related symptom rate was higher (34.5% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Among the 155 alerts, 146 (94%) weretransmitted successfully within 5 minutes. The median interval from 12-lead ECG capture to FHIR notification was 2.7 min [interquartilerange (IQR) 2.2–3.1 min] for the group with cardiac-related symptoms and 3.0 min (IQR 2.5–3.4 min) for the group withnon-cardiac-related symptoms. @*Conclusion@#An automated FHIR-based 12-lead ECG mobile alert system was successfully implemented in an ED.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 370-377, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731012

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess tumor angiogenesis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of human prostate cancer cells (PC3) that were implanted in mice before and after paclitaxel injection. METHODS: Twelve mice were injected with human PC3. The mice were grouped into two groups; one was the paclitaxel-treated group (n=6) and the other was the control group (n=6). Before administering paclitaxel into the peritoneal cavity, baseline CEUS was performed after the administration of 500 μL (1×108 microbubbles) of contrast agent. The area under the curve (AUC) up to 50 seconds after injection was derived from the time-intensity curves. After injection of paclitaxel or saline, CEUS studies were performed at the 1-week follow-up. Changes in tumor volume and the AUC in both two groups were evaluated. After CEUS, the microvessel density (MVD) was compared between the groups. RESULTS: In the paclitaxel-treated group, the AUC from CEUS showed a significant decrease 1-week after paclitaxel administration (P=0.030), even though the tumor volume showed no significant changes (P=0.116). In the control group, there was no significant decrease of the AUC (P=0.173). Pathologically, there was a significant difference in MVD between both groups (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: The AUC from the time intensity curve derived from CEUS showed an early change in response to the anti-cancer drug treatment that preceded the change in tumor size. The findings of CEUS could serve as an imaging biomarker for assessing tumor responses to anti-cancer drug treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Area Under Curve , Follow-Up Studies , Heterografts , Microvessels , Paclitaxel , Peritoneal Cavity , Prostatic Neoplasms , Tumor Burden , Ultrasonography
7.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 467-475, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114299

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Toxocariasis is the most common cause of peripheral blood eosinophilia in Korea and produces eosinophilic infiltration in various organs, including the lung. However, the prevalence of toxocariasis in the general population is rarely reported. METHODS: We investigated the seroprevalence of Toxocara larval antibody among asymptomatic people who attended Samsung Medical Center for a health checkup, including low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) between March 2012 and December 2013. A total of 633 people (400 men and 233 women) were prospectively recruited. RESULTS: The Toxocara-seropositive rate was 51.2% using the current cutoff value based on Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (67.0% for men and 24.0% for women). In the multivariate-adjusted model, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.04-1.11), male sex (OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.26-5.33), rural residence (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05-2.30), and history of raw liver intake (OR, 8.52; 95% CI, 3.61-20.11) were significantly associated with Toxocara seropositivity. When subjects were divided into 3 groups using cutoff values base on weak positive and strong positive control optical densities (ODs), the ORs for peripheral blood eosinophilia and serum hyperIgEaemia were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.02-2.89) in the weakpositive group and 36.64 (95% CI, 11.73-111.42) in the strong positive group compared to the seronegative group. Similarly, ORs for the solid nodule with surrounding halo were 2.54 (95% CI, 0.60-10.84) in the weak positive group and 15.08 (95 CI 4.09-55.56) in the strong positive group compared to the seronegative group. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated that the Toxocara-seropositive rate obtained by using the current cutoff value based on ELISA was high in the asymptomatic population in Korea. The results of this study suggest that active toxocariasis may be more frequently seen in the Toxocara-strong positive group than in the Toxocara-weak positive group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Korea , Liver , Lung , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests , Thorax , Toxocara , Toxocara canis , Toxocariasis
8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1439-1443, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111758

ABSTRACT

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by decreased adrenal hormone production due to enzymatic defects and subsequent rise of adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to become hyperplastic, and sometimes tumorous. As the pathophysiology is basically a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol, one may not consider CAH in patients with hypercortisolism. We report a case of a 41-yr-old man with a 4 cm-sized left adrenal tumorous lesion mimicking Cushing's syndrome who was diagnosed with CAH. He had central obesity and acanthosis nigricans involving the axillae together with elevated 24-hr urine cortisol level, supporting the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. However, the 24-hr urine cortisol was suppressed by 95% with the low dose dexamethasone suppression test. CAH was suspected based on the history of precocious puberty, short stature and a profound suppression of cortisol production by dexamethasone. CAH was confirmed by a remarkably increased level of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. Gene mutation analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation of CYP21A2 (I173N and R357W).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Acanthosis Nigricans/complications , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , DNA Mutational Analysis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heterozygote , Hydrocortisone/urine , Mutation , Obesity/complications , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 426-432, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation aid. However, smokers prescribed with varenicline do not always receive varenicline for 12 weeks, as recommended. This study analyzed the subjects who received varenicline and investigated the effect of varenicline treatment duration on the success rate of 6-month smoking cessation. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 78 subjects, who received varenicline, out of the 105 smokers that had visited the smoking cessation clinic after medical examination from September 2007 to December 2009. RESULTS: The subjects were all males. Twenty-two subjects (28.2%) had varenicline treatment for 12 weeks or longer; 18 subjects (23.1%) for 8~12 weeks; 22 subjects (28.2%) for 4~8 weeks; and 16 subjects (20.5%) for less than 4 weeks. The total success rate of the 6-month smoking cessation was 47.4%. The success rate of the 6-month smoking cessation was 63.6% in the group that received varenicline for 12 weeks or longer, which was higher than 41.1% of the group that early terminated the varenicline treatment (p=0.074). The period of varenicline treatment was extended for one more week, the odds ratio of the 6-month smoking cessation success increased to 1.172-folds (p=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 1.052~1.305). Adverse events occurred in 30.8% of the subjects who received varenicline, but no serious adverse events were found. CONCLUSION: If varenicline treatment period is extended, the odds ratio of the success rate for the 6-month smoking cessation increases. Therefore, an effort to improve drug compliance for varenicline in clinical practices could be helpful for the long-term success of smoking cessation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Benzazepines , Compliance , Health Promotion , Medication Adherence , Odds Ratio , Quinoxalines , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Varenicline
10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 147-154, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725624

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We wanted to assess tumor angiogenesis of human prostate cancer cells (PC3) implanted in mice before and after paclitaxel injection via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve mice were injected with human prostate cancer cells (PC3) on the back or hind limbs. The mice were grouped into two groups; one was the paclitaxel treated group (n = 6) and the other was the control group, which was treated with normal saline (n = 6). Before injection of paclitaxel into the peritoneal cavity, baseline CEUS was performed by the administration of 500 microl (1x108 microbubbles) of contrast agent. The area under the curve (AUC) up to 50 seconds after contrast injection was derived from the time-intensity curves. After injection of paclitaxel or saline, one week follow up CEUS studies were performed. The changes of the tumor volume and the AUC in both two groups were evaluated. After CEUS, the mice were sacrificed and the microvessel density (MVD) was compared. RESULTS: In the paclitaxel treated group, the AUC from CEUS showed a significant decrease one week after paclitaxel administration (p = 0.03), even though the tumor volume showed no significant changes (p = 0.116). In the control group, there was no significant decrease of the AUC (p = 0.173). Pathologically, there was a significant difference of microvessel density in both groups (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The AUC from the time intensity curve derived from CEUS showed early change in response to the anti-cancer drug treatment in advance of a tumor size response. The findings of CEUS could be an imaging biomarker for assessing the tumor response to anti-cancer drug treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Area Under Curve , Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Microvessels , Paclitaxel , Peritoneal Cavity , Prostatic Neoplasms , Transplantation, Heterologous , Tumor Burden
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1196-1200, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28039

ABSTRACT

We tested the correlation between diabetes and aggressiveness of colorectal polyps in diabetic patients and matched non-diabetic controls. We retrospectively studied 3,505 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients without gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent colonoscopy for colorectal cancer at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from August 1995 to August 2009. We matched 495 non-diabetic subjects with colon polyps to the diabetic patients in whom polyps were detected by year of colonoscopy, age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Among the 3,505 T2DM patients screened, 509 were found to have 1,136 colon polyps. Those with diabetes had a greater proportion of adenomatous polyps (62.8% vs 53.6%) compared to the control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified DM, male gender, age and BMI as independent risk factors for multiple polyps (more than three polyps). Polyp multiplicity in diabetic patients was significantly associated with male gender (OR 2.360, P = 0.005), age (OR 1.033, P = 0.005) and BMI (OR 1.077, P = 0.028). Neither aspirin nor metformin use affected either size or number of polyps in diabetic patients. Male patients older than 65 yr with T2DM and BMI greater than 25 have increased risk for multiple adenomatous polyps and should be screened with colonoscopy to prevent colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenomatous Polyps/complications , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 389-393, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722264

ABSTRACT

Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) is associated with recent streptococcal infections. However, PSRA is distinct from acute rheumatic fever by its clinical manifestations: non-migrating arthritis, erythema nodosum or erythema multiforme, and transient elevation of serum transaminases. We experienced a 33-year-old man who presented with fever, arthritis of both knees and ankles, and erythema nodosums on extensor surfaces of lower legs which developed 6 days after the onset of pharyngitis symptoms. Blood and urine cultures were negative. Throat culture was negative for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The ASO titers increased up to 2080 IU/mL in sequential monitoring. The result of bone scan was compatible to arthritis of both knees and ankles. There were no signs or symptom of carditis. He showed clinical improvement with anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen 1,000 mg/day and prednisolone 7.5 mg/d). PSRA should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with arthritis combined with fever.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ankle , Arthritis , Arthritis, Reactive , Diagnosis, Differential , Erythema Multiforme , Erythema Nodosum , Fever , Knee , Leg , Myocarditis , Pharyngitis , Pharynx , Prednisolone , Rheumatic Fever , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus , Transaminases
13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 389-393, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721759

ABSTRACT

Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) is associated with recent streptococcal infections. However, PSRA is distinct from acute rheumatic fever by its clinical manifestations: non-migrating arthritis, erythema nodosum or erythema multiforme, and transient elevation of serum transaminases. We experienced a 33-year-old man who presented with fever, arthritis of both knees and ankles, and erythema nodosums on extensor surfaces of lower legs which developed 6 days after the onset of pharyngitis symptoms. Blood and urine cultures were negative. Throat culture was negative for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The ASO titers increased up to 2080 IU/mL in sequential monitoring. The result of bone scan was compatible to arthritis of both knees and ankles. There were no signs or symptom of carditis. He showed clinical improvement with anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen 1,000 mg/day and prednisolone 7.5 mg/d). PSRA should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with arthritis combined with fever.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ankle , Arthritis , Arthritis, Reactive , Diagnosis, Differential , Erythema Multiforme , Erythema Nodosum , Fever , Knee , Leg , Myocarditis , Pharyngitis , Pharynx , Prednisolone , Rheumatic Fever , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus , Transaminases
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : S809-S813, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69301

ABSTRACT

Sweet syndrome is characterized by fever and abrupt appearance of painful, erythematous plaques: a dermal infiltrate of mature neutrophils. Extracutaneous manifestations often occur in Sweet syndrome, but intestinal involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of Sweet syndrome involving small bowel in a 56-year old male with fever and abdominal pain. An abdominal CT showed diffuse wall thickening in the ileal loop. He underwent explorative laparotomy and segmental resection of involved small bowel. Skin, bone marrow, and muscle biopsies were done because he had persistent fever, cutaneous plaques, pancytopenia, and swelling of lower extremities after operation. Finally, he was diagnosed as myelodysplastic syndrome combined with Sweet syndrome, which involved small bowel, skin, and muscle simultaneously. Fever, cutaneous plaques and leg swelling resolved after systemic administration of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Fever , Intestines , Laparotomy , Leg , Lower Extremity , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Neutrophils , Pancytopenia , Skin , Sweet Syndrome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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