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1.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 102-107, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889948

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Japanese encephalitis is one of the most important mosquito-borne and zoonotic diseases in Asia and the Pacific region. Although the dominant Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype has shifted from G3 to G1 in Korea since 1990, a G3 strain (Anyang 300) has been used in vaccines for horses for almost 40 years. This study aimed to investigate the seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) against JEV G1 and G3 in horses immunized with the G3 vaccine. @*Materials and Methods@#Serum samples of 1,231 horses immunized with the Anyang 300 vaccine were collected in 2018. VNA titers against JEV KV1899 (G1) and Anyang 300 (G3) were measured in all serum samples using the virus neutralization test. Titers were analyzed according to blood sampling time (prior to and following annual revaccination), age, and region. @*Results@#Rates of VNA titer >10 were 45.1% and 77.8% for G1, and 49.1% and 82.9% for G3 in samples taken before and after revaccination, respectively. GMTs of genotype-specific VNAs against JEV G1 and G3 were 8.3 and 11.6 before revaccination and rose to 27.2 and 65.4 following revaccination. Overall sero-positivity did not significantly differ between genotypes, but GMTs significantly differed among genotypes and sampling times. No significant difference was found in GMTs among age groups or regions. @*Conclusion@#Genotype-specific neutralizing antibody titers against JEV G1 and G3 differed significantly in horses immunized with the G3 vaccine. Antigenic differences between genotypes could reduce the vaccine’s efficacy, requiring the development of a new vaccine.

2.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 102-107, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897652

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Japanese encephalitis is one of the most important mosquito-borne and zoonotic diseases in Asia and the Pacific region. Although the dominant Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype has shifted from G3 to G1 in Korea since 1990, a G3 strain (Anyang 300) has been used in vaccines for horses for almost 40 years. This study aimed to investigate the seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) against JEV G1 and G3 in horses immunized with the G3 vaccine. @*Materials and Methods@#Serum samples of 1,231 horses immunized with the Anyang 300 vaccine were collected in 2018. VNA titers against JEV KV1899 (G1) and Anyang 300 (G3) were measured in all serum samples using the virus neutralization test. Titers were analyzed according to blood sampling time (prior to and following annual revaccination), age, and region. @*Results@#Rates of VNA titer >10 were 45.1% and 77.8% for G1, and 49.1% and 82.9% for G3 in samples taken before and after revaccination, respectively. GMTs of genotype-specific VNAs against JEV G1 and G3 were 8.3 and 11.6 before revaccination and rose to 27.2 and 65.4 following revaccination. Overall sero-positivity did not significantly differ between genotypes, but GMTs significantly differed among genotypes and sampling times. No significant difference was found in GMTs among age groups or regions. @*Conclusion@#Genotype-specific neutralizing antibody titers against JEV G1 and G3 differed significantly in horses immunized with the G3 vaccine. Antigenic differences between genotypes could reduce the vaccine’s efficacy, requiring the development of a new vaccine.

3.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 40-47, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782293

ABSTRACT

0.05). Dogs inoculated with the former vaccine developed a significantly higher immune titer than non-vaccinated dogs.CONCLUSION: The Cabopol-adjuvanted, inactivated CAV-2 vaccine was safe and induced a high VNA titer in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviruses, Canine , Amino Acids , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Formaldehyde , Guinea Pigs , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Urea , Vaccines
4.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e64-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833751

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection results in high morbidity and mortality in dogs. There has been no report about Isolation of Korean CDV since 1980 in Korea. @*Objectives@#To investigate the biological properties and the genetic characterization of Korean CDV. @*Methods@#Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dSLAM) gene named as Vero/dSLAM were used to isolate CDV using 17 samples. Diagnostic methods such as cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence assay, peroxidase linked assay, electron microscopy, rapid immunodiagnostic assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm the Korean CDV isolate as a CDV. The genetic analysis was performed through cloning and sequencing of hemagglutinin gene of CDV isolate. @*Results@#A virus propagated in Vero/dSLAM cell was confirmed as CDV (CD1901 strain) based on the above methods. The CD1901 strain showed the highest viral titer (10 5.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID 50 ]/mL) in the Vero/dSLAM cells at 4 days post inoculation, but did not form a fork on chorioallantoic membrane of 7-day-old egg. Ribavirin, a nucleotide analogue anti-viral agent, inhibits moderately the Korean CDV propagation in the Vero/dSLAM cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the H gene of CD1901 strain were compared with those of other CDV strains. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the BA134 strain, which was isolated in China in 2008. @*Conclusions@#We constructed successfully Vero/dSLAM and isolated one Korean CDV isolate (CD1901 strain) from a naturally infected dog. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 genotype.

5.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 17-24, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816640

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) causes infectious hepatitis in members of the family Canidae, including dogs. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) that detects CAV-1 antibodies is required for large-throughput tests of dog sera. We collected 165 serum samples from dogs of Chungbuk and Gyeongbuk provinces between February 2016 and October 2018. The Korean CAV-1 vaccine strain CAV1V was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and purified via Nuvia cPrime anion-exchange chromatography; the virus served as an I-ELISA antigen. Virus-neutralizing anti-CAV-1 titers in dog sera were measured using the virus neutralization (VN) method. The I-ELISA was optimized using purified CAV-1 antigen and serum samples. This kit was used to evaluate dog sera. The VN and I-ELISA data were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the I-ELISA were 97.0%, 74.2%, and 92.7% compared to the VN assay, respectively. The I-ELISA data significantly correlated with those of VN (r = 0.88). These results suggest that the I-ELISA is useful for serosurveillance of CAV-1 in dog sera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Adenoviruses, Canine , Antibodies , Canidae , Chromatography , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis A , Kidney , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 117-123, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835577

ABSTRACT

The rapid diagnosis of canine distemper virus (CDV) helps to determine the treatment of dogs in veterinary clinics. We evaluated the performance of seven commercial rapid immunochromatographic test (RICT) kits for the detection of CDV. Six core dog viral pathogens (canine adenovirus type 1 and 2, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus), five CDV strains (CD1901, Lederle, Rockborn, Onderstepoort, and Synder Hill), and three bacteria (Bordetella bronchiseptica, Leptospira canicola, and Staphylococus aureus) were used to determine the cross-reactivity and detection limits of the kits. The seven commercial RICT kits did not yield positive results with the six dog viruses or the three bacteria. All the RICT kits for CDV detected the Korean CDV isolate. The detection limits of the RICT kits for the Korean CDV isolate, CD1901, belonging to Asia 1 genotype ranged from 103.0 to 104.0 TCID50/mL. There was an average difference of 1.1 in scores judged by eye between four CDV vaccine strains and CD1901 strain. Therefore, the RICT kits enable the detection of CDV vaccine strains, but need to be improved to detect CDV circulating in dog populations in Korea.

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