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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249808, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345554

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sexing of species is an important tool for population management. In tortoises and turtles, sexing is usually done according to secondary characteristics, such as plastron morphology or phallus eversion techniques. In this paper, we present the phallus eversion method and compare its efficiency to other existing techniques. This new method aims at shortening the management time and reducing the physical aftereffects on the animals, fostering the clinical and reproductive management of Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus) and related species. A sample of fifty individuals was taken in the central region of Piauí state, Northeastern Brazil. The proposed method consisted of moving the head from its resting position. The methods achieving a success rate higher than 80% were compared to each other as for the stimulation time required for phallus eversion. The method as here proposed achieved 100% efficiency in the sex determination of specimens with a linear carapace length between 10 and 34 cm. Also, when compared to the second most efficient method, it substantially reduced the time needed for managing the specimens (91%), avoiding possible sequelae in the individuals handled.


Resumo A sexagem das espécies é uma ferramenta importante para o manejo populacional. Em tartarugas, cágados e jabutis, a sexagem geralmente é feita de acordo com características secundárias, como morfologia do plastrão ou técnicas de eversão do falo. Neste artigo, apresentamos o método de eversão do falo e comparamos sua eficiência com outras técnicas existentes. Este novo método visa encurtar o tempo de manejo e reduzir os efeitos colaterais físicos nos animais, promovendo o manejo clínico e reprodutivo do cágado-de-barbicha (Phrynops geoffroanus) e espécies relacionadas. Uma amostra de cinquenta indivíduos foi coletada na região central do estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. O método proposto consiste em remover a cabeça de sua posição de repouso. Os métodos que obtiveram índice de sucesso superior a 80% foram comparados entre si quanto ao tempo de estimulação necessário para a eversão do falo. O método aqui proposto alcançou 100% de eficiência na determinação do sexo de espécimes com comprimento de carapaça linear entre 10 e 34 cm. Além disso, quando comparado ao segundo método mais eficiente, reduziu substancialmente o tempo necessário para o manejo dos espécimes (91%), evitando possíveis sequelas nos indivíduos manuseados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Turtles , Brazil
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469244

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sexing of species is an important tool for population management. In tortoises and turtles, sexing is usually done according to secondary characteristics, such as plastron morphology or phallus eversion techniques. In this paper, we present the phallus eversion method and compare its efficiency to other existing techniques. This new method aims at shortening the management time and reducing the physical aftereffects on the animals, fostering the clinical and reproductive management of Geoffroys side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus) and related species. A sample of fifty individuals was taken in the central region of Piauí state, Northeastern Brazil. The proposed method consisted of moving the head from its resting position. The methods achieving a success rate higher than 80% were compared to each other as for the stimulation time required for phallus eversion. The method as here proposed achieved 100% efficiency in the sex determination of specimens with a linear carapace length between 10 and 34 cm. Also, when compared to the second most efficient method, it substantially reduced the time needed for managing the specimens (91%), avoiding possible sequelae in the individuals handled.


Resumo A sexagem das espécies é uma ferramenta importante para o manejo populacional. Em tartarugas, cágados e jabutis, a sexagem geralmente é feita de acordo com características secundárias, como morfologia do plastrão ou técnicas de eversão do falo. Neste artigo, apresentamos o método de eversão do falo e comparamos sua eficiência com outras técnicas existentes. Este novo método visa encurtar o tempo de manejo e reduzir os efeitos colaterais físicos nos animais, promovendo o manejo clínico e reprodutivo do cágado-de-barbicha (Phrynops geoffroanus) e espécies relacionadas. Uma amostra de cinquenta indivíduos foi coletada na região central do estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. O método proposto consiste em remover a cabeça de sua posição de repouso. Os métodos que obtiveram índice de sucesso superior a 80% foram comparados entre si quanto ao tempo de estimulação necessário para a eversão do falo. O método aqui proposto alcançou 100% de eficiência na determinação do sexo de espécimes com comprimento de carapaça linear entre 10 e 34 cm. Além disso, quando comparado ao segundo método mais eficiente, reduziu substancialmente o tempo necessário para o manejo dos espécimes (91%), evitando possíveis sequelas nos indivíduos manuseados.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218128

ABSTRACT

Background: Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders worldwide. Thyroid hormones play a key role in regulating the synthesis, metabolism, and mobilization of lipids. Levels of circulating lipids may alter in thyroid dysfunction. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the alterations of lipid levels in thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as cross-sectional observational study and analysis of values was done by significant tests difference in means. 20 patients with hypothyroidism, 20 patients with hyperthyroidism, and 20 normal were participated in the study. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio were estimated and compared. Results: In patients with hypothyroidism, there was an increase in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels and decrease in HDL-C levels. In hyperthyroidism, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio were found to be significantly decreased. Conclusion: Altered thyroid function can lead to significant changes in the lipid profile. Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for heart diseases. Hence, routine screening of thyroid hormones may be of considerable help for early intervention and treatment of thyroid dysfunction-related cardiac disease.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217952

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine derangement met with in clinical practice. Deficiency of thyroid hormones can have a significant effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to study the association of insulin resistance and lipid profile with serum triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital after obtaining clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Thirty primary hypothyroid subjects were selected as cases based on their TSH values (>4 uIU/mL) and thirty normal subjects as controls after proper exclusion and after getting the informed consent. Their fasting plasma glucose levels, lipid profile, and serum T3, T4, TSH were measured. Homeostasis model Assessment using OXFORD HOMA 2 CALCULATOR was used to determine the insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: The mean values of HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly higher in hypothyroid group than in normal controls. HOMA-IR showed a significant negative correlation with T3 and T4. The correlations of HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides with TSH were positive. Conclusion: The present study shows that hypothyroidism leads to an elevated insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242086, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278530

ABSTRACT

Abstract The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Resumo Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Serotonin , Iguanas , Stomach , Immunohistochemistry , Gastrointestinal Tract
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468816

ABSTRACT

The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Stomach , Esophagus , Iguanas/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Serotonin/analysis , Somatostatin/analysis , Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469032

ABSTRACT

Abstract The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Resumo Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.

8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12682, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447681

ABSTRACT

Preventing the replication of adenovirus could have practical uses, such as controlling infection with wild-type virus or in applications involving recombinant vectors. Mainly transient methods have been used to inhibit adenovirus replication, including siRNA or drugs. Here, we tested whether stable expression of shRNA designed to target hexon, Iva2, or pol can inhibit the replication of a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad-LacZ (serotype 5, E1/E3 deleted), in 293T cells. Significant knockdown correlating with reduced Ad-LacZ replication was achieved only when hexon was targeted. Cell sorting and isolation of cellular clones further accentuated knockdown of the hexon transcript, reduced protein levels by more than 90%, and diminished adenovirus production. As visualized by transmission electron microscopy, the cellular clone expressing the hexon-specific shRNA yielded 89.2% fewer particles compared to the parental 293T cells. Full scale production followed by purification revealed a 90.2% reduction in Ad-LacZ biological titer. These results support the notion that stable expression of shRNA can be used as a means to control adenovirus replication.

9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12533, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505882

ABSTRACT

L-Arginine and chronic exercise reduce oxidative stress. However, it is unclear how they affect cardiomyocytes during cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The aim of this research was to investigate the possible effects of L-arginine supplementation and aerobic training on systemic oxidative stress and their consequences on cardiomyocytes during cardiometabolic disease onset caused by excess fructose. Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: control (C), fructose (F, 10% fructose in water), fructose training (FT; moderate running, 50-70% of the maximal velocity), and fructose arginine (FA; 880 mg/kg/day). Fructose was given for two weeks and fructose plus treatments for the subsequent eight weeks. Body composition, blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, nitrite, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, left ventricle histological changes, microRNA-126, -195, and -146, eNOS, p-eNOS, and TNF-α expressions were analyzed. Higher abdominal fat mass, triacylglycerol level, and insulin level were observed in the F group, and both treatments reversed these alterations. Myocardial vascularization was impaired in fructose-fed groups, except in FT. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in all fructose-fed groups. TNF-α levels were higher in fructose-fed groups than in the C group, and p-eNOS levels were higher in the FA than in the C and F groups. Lipid peroxidation was higher in the F group than in the FT and C groups. During CVD onset, moderate aerobic exercise reduced lipid peroxidation, and both training and L-arginine prevented metabolic changes caused by excessive fructose. Myocardial vascularization was impaired by fructose, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy appeared to be influenced by pro-inflammatory and oxidative environments.

10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12547, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430021

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this study was to determine whether oxidative imbalance mediated by AT1 receptor (AT1R) is responsible for deleterious endothelial responses to mental stress (MS) in overweight/obese class I men. Fifteen overweight/obese men (27±7 years old; 29.8±2.6 kg/m2) participated in three randomized experimental sessions with oral administration of the AT1R blocker olmesartan (40 mg; AT1R blockade) or ascorbic acid (AA; 3g) infusion or placebo [both intravenously (0.9% NaCl) and orally]. After two hours, endothelial function was determined by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before (baseline), 30 min (30MS), and 60 min (60MS) after a five-minute acute MS session (Stroop Color Word Test). Blood was collected before (baseline), during MS, and 60 min after MS for redox homeostasis profiling: lipid peroxidation (TBARS; thiobarbituric acid reactive species), protein carbonylation, and catalase activity by colorimetry and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by an ELISA kit. At the placebo session, FMD significantly decreased 30MS (P=0.05). When compared to baseline, TBARS (P<0.02), protein carbonylation (P<0.01), catalase (P<0.01), and SOD (P<0.01) increased during the placebo session. During AT1R blockade, FMD increased 30 min after MS (P=0.01 vs baseline; P<0.01 vs placebo), while AA infusion increased FMD only 60 min after MS. No differences were observed during MS with the AT1R blockade and AA regarding TBARS, protein carbonylation, catalase, and SOD. AT1R-mediated redox imbalances played an important role in endothelial dysfunction to mental stress.

11.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1437313

ABSTRACT

Une douleur aiguë postopératoire peut être source de complications à court voire à long terme si elle est sous-évaluée et sous traitée. Plusieurs facteurs interviennent à l'exacerbation de cette douleur. Notre objectif était de déterminer les facteurs cliniques influençant la sévérité de la douleur post opératoire immédiate après une césarienne. Méthodes : Une étude type cas-témoin portant sur les patientes césarisées était réalisée en salle de soins post-interventionnels du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Professeur Zafisaona Gabriel Mahajanga allant de janvier 2019 au décembre 2019. L'étude statistique a été réalisée avec le logiciel Epi-Info® 3.5.4 de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé Genève et CDC Atlanta. Les mesures d'association ont été mesurées par le calcul d'Odds ratio. Le seuil de signification statistique (p) a été fixé à une valeur < 0,05. Résultats : Nous avons retenu 32 cas pour 64 témoins. La population d'étude était jeune et la majorité appartenait dans la tranche d'âge de 16 à 29 ans. Les facteurs qui interviennent sur l'intensité de la douleur postopératoire étaient surtout des facteurs liés à la patiente tels que le jeune âge (OR= 3,46 [1,17 - 10,18]; p=0,009), la gestité en l'occurrence la primigestité et la paucigestité (OR=2,77 [1,33 - 5,79]; p=0,002), la primiparité et la pauciparité (OR=5,67 [2,16 - 14,94]; p=< 0,001), l'anxiété préopératoire (OR=5,04 [1,99 - 12,74]; p=0,0003) et l'appartenance à la classe 2 selon la classification de l'American Society ofAnesthesiologists (OR=4,2 [1,49 - 11,76]; p=0,004). Conclusion : La connaissance de ces fac


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative , Women , Cesarean Section , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors
12.
Rev. Anesth.-Réanim. Med. Urg. Toxicol. ; 15(1): 10-13, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1437318

ABSTRACT

Une analgésie multimodale est incontournable pour la prise en charge de la douleur post opératoire. L'objectif de notre étude était de montrer l'intérêt de l'utilisation de la kétamine, avec son effet analgésique, parmi les différentes molécules disponibles. Méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective monocentrique en simple aveugle de 31 cas d'hystérectomie programmée sur une période de 6 mois (mai­octobre 2016) divisée en deux groupes soumis au même protocole anesthésique : un groupe recevant de la kétamine en bolus suivi d'une perfusion continue peropératoire et sur les premières 24 heures et un groupe contrôle sans kétamine. En période post opératoire les deux groupes bénéficient d'une analgésie multimodale. L'analyse statistique a été faite par le test de Student. Résultats : Les scores de douleur diffèrent peu en moyenne sur les 24 heures de surveillance, tandis qu'une épargne morphinique importante est notée dans le groupe kétamine de l'ordre de 50% avec une valeur de p<0,001 fortement significative. A côté nous n'avons constaté aucun effet indésirable notable. Conclusion : L'adjonction de kétamine même de brève durée dans la prise en charge de la douleur post opératoire a permis de baisser considérablement la consommation morphinique


Subject(s)
Pain, Postoperative , Hysterectomy , Disease Prevention , Hyperalgesia , Ketamine , Morphine
13.
Rev. Anesth.-Réanim. Med. Urg. Toxicol. ; 15(1): 41-45, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1438427

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Le choc hypovolémique est une défaillance circulatoire aiguë et critique, mettant rapidement en jeu le pronostic vital. L'objectif de l'étude était de déterminer les aspects épidémio-cliniques et la prise en charge du choc hémorragique periopéraoire au centre hospitalier de Mahajanga. Méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, descriptive, observationnelle et monocentrique réalisée dans le service de Réanimation Chirurgicale du CHU PZaGa de Mahajanga, sur une période de 52 mois. Les données socio-démographiques, les paramètres cliniques périopératoires, la prise en charge médico-chirurgicale, l'évolution et les retentissements organiques de l'état de choc hémorragique ont été les paramètres étudiés. Résultats : Nous avons collecté 6896 dossiers des patients, dont 70 cas de choc hémorragique ont été recensés (1,02%) pour tout type de chirurgie ; 62 dossiers ont été retenus dans l'étude. La majorité des cas était du genre féminin (87,10%). Les pathologies gynéco-obstétricales étaient la principale source de l'état de choc de (77,4%), dont 59,4% d'hémorragie du post-partum. L'insuffisance rénale aiguë était la principale atteinte viscérale (61%, n=38) suivie de 10% (n=6) des cas des troubles neurologiques. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une oxygénothérapie, et d'un remplissage vasculaire par des cristalloïdes et 3,2% ont eu des colloïdes. Les substances vasoactives utilisées étaient l'éphédrine 41,9%, suivie de l'adrénaline 27,4% et de la noradrénaline 17,7%. Vingt-sept virgule quarante pourcent de nos patients étaient décédés, et la cause la plus incriminée était la coagulopathie par défibrination. Conclusion: Les hémorragies obstétricales constituent la première cause de choc hémorragique ; le taux de mortalité reste encore élevé.


Subject(s)
Female , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Hemorrhage , Shock , Mortality
14.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 113(1): 24-30, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1412845

ABSTRACT

Background. Many patients have their healthcare needs met at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), without having to travel to a hospital. Doctors form part of the teams at many PHC clinics throughout KZN, offering a decentralised medical service in a PHC clinic. Objectives. To assess the benefit of having a medical doctor managing patients with more complex clinical conditions at PHC clinic level in uMgungundlovu District, KZN. Two key questions were researched: (i) were the patients whom the clinic doctors managed of sufficient clinical complexity that they warranted a doctor managing them, rather than a PHC nurse clinician? and (ii) what was the spectrum of medical conditions that the clinic doctors managed? Methods. Doctors collected data at all medical consultations in PHC clinics in uMgungundlovu during February 2020. A single-page standardised data tool was used to collect data at every consultation. Results. Thirty-five doctors were working in 45 PHC clinics in February 2020. Twenty-six of the clinic doctors were National Health Insurance (NHI)-employed. The 35 doctors conducted 7 424 patient consultations in February. Staff in the PHC clinics conducted 143 421 consultations that month, mostly by PHC nurse clinicians. The doctors concluded that 6 947 (93.6%) of the 7 424 doctor consultations were of sufficient complexity as to warrant management by a doctor. The spectrum of medical conditions was as follows: (i) consultations for maternal and child health; n=761 (10.2%); (ii) consultations involving non-communicable diseases (NCDs), n=4 372 (58.9%) ­ the six most common NCDs were, in order: hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, epilepsy, mental illness and renal disease; (iii) consultations involving communicable diseases constituted 1 745 (23.5%) of cases; and (iv) consultations involving laboratory result interpretation 1 180 (15.9%).Conclusion. This research showed that at a PHC clinic the more complex patient consultations did indeed require the skills and knowledge of a medical doctor managing these patients. These data support the benefit of a doctor working at every PHC clinic: the doctor is a 'must-have' member of the PHC clinic team, offering a regular, reliable and predictable medical service.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Ambulatory Care Facilities , National Health Programs , Personnel, Hospital
15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217742

ABSTRACT

Background: Preeclampsia is one of the major complications affecting the pregnancy. It is an important cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the renal function and serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels in pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: Our study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 90 pregnant women in a tertiary care center in Kerala. The Institutional Ethics Committee approved the study. Blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum CRP levels were estimated in 30 normotensive pregnant women, 30 mild preeclamptic, and 30 severe pre eclamptic women. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The mean values of all the three parameters were highest in severe pre-eclampsia when compared to the normotensive pregnant women. The mean values in mild pre-eclampsia lies in between the values of other two groups. The results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Significant alteration in renal function tests and serum CRP levels prove to be an important indicator in assessing the severity of preeclampsia.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219353

ABSTRACT

Background: Human activities adversely affect the distribution and diversity of zooplankton. They are diverse group of organisms with little or no locomotive ability and quickly respond to changes in their environment. This research was aimed at providing updated information on the distribution and seasonal variation of zooplankton in Great Kwa River. Materials and Methods: Two sampling stations (S1- Obufa Esuk and S2- Esuk Atu) were mapped along the river bank, samples were collected using plankton net of 55祄 mesh size and preserved in 4% formalin. Species were identified using taxonomic keys. Data were analyzed using ecological indices. Results: The results revealed 12 taxa; belonging to 38 species. Tintinnida, Protozoa, Cladocera, Copepoda were 23.1%, 18.5%, 15.4% and 13.3% respectively. The lowest taxonomic groups were Diptera, Foraminitera, Atenatadata and Trichoptera having 1.85% for each order. The highest species was recorded in S2 having 31 species. In both Stations Ascampbelliella acuta was dominance over other species. Shannon-Weiner index (H) were 2.997 and 2.40 in S2 and S1 respectively. The evenness index were 0.576 and 0.547 for S1 and S2 respectively. Margalef,s diversity index were 8.171 and 4.111 for Esuk Atu-S2 and Obufa Esuk-S1 respectively. Zooplankton species were abundant in wet season than dry season. Conclusion: This present study provide updated information on the zooplankton distribution, diversity and seasonal variations of the Great Kwa River. The high dominance of Tintinnida in this study indicates a natural linkage between nano-planktons and macro-planktons in the food webs of the river.

17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e12110, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384141

ABSTRACT

In preparation for tracheal intubation during induction of anesthesia, the patient may be ventilated with 100% oxygen. To investigate the impact of acute isocapnic hyperoxia on endothelial activation and vascular remodeling, ten healthy young men (24±3 years) were exposed to 5-min normoxia (21% O2) and 10-min hyperoxia trials (100% O2). During hyperoxia, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) (hyperoxia: 4.16±0.85 vs normoxia: 3.51±0.84 ng/mL, P=0.04) and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) (hyperoxia: 8.40±3.84 vs normoxia: 5.73±2.15 pg/mL, P=0.04) increased, whereas matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activity (hyperoxia: 0.53±0.11 vs normoxia: 0.68±0.18 A.U., P=0.03) decreased compared to the normoxia trial. We concluded that even short exposure to 100% oxygen may affect endothelial activation and vascular remodeling.

19.
Rev. anesth.-réanim. med. urgence ; 14(1): 1-6, 2022. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1371624

ABSTRACT

Introduction : L'oxygène est un médicament. Une prescription non appropriée peut occasionner une insuffisance ou un excès d'apport source de dépenses hospitalières dans les pays en développement. L'objectif était d'évaluer la prescription de l'oxygénothérapie dans un service d'urgence et de soins intensifs et d'observer les modalités d'utilisation pour permettre d'ajuster les objectifs et les cibles thérapeutiques en prenant comme référence les recommandations. Matériels et Méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective descriptive sur trois mois, en 2018, de la prescription de l'oxygène au service des urgences et de soins intensifs dans un hôpital de référence de Mahajanga. Quatre obus et quatre extracteurs étaient les sources d'oxygène pour 18 lits d'accueil, de déchoquage et de soins intensifs. Ni un générateur d'oxygène ni des matériels de ventilation spécifique n'étaient disponibles. L'étude statistique a été réalisée avec le logiciel SPSS® v.20, le test Khi2 utilisé pour la comparaison des valeurs avec un seuil de signification p˂0,05. Résultats : Sur 599 admissions, 244 patients (40,7%) bénéficiant d'un apport en oxygène ont été inclus dans l'étude. L'âge moyen était de 47,6 ans avec prédominance masculine (sex-ratio de 1,4). Une saturation d'au plus 90% a été retrouvée dans 25% des cas. Les 40% des patients ont été référés pour une « oxygénothérapie ¼. Les pathologies en cause étaient neurologiques dans 34,4% des cas, touchant la tranche d'âge de 40 à 60 ans (p=0,006), respiratoires pour 21,7% et cardio-vasculaires dans 13,9%. Les lunettes à oxygène étaient utilisées à 71,7%, l'obus à oxygène à 69,3% dans les premières 24 heures (p=0,001). La mortalité était de 22,5% avec 60,6% des patients décédés qui avaient une saturation en oxygène de 90% au maximum (p=0,05). Conclusion : Un algorithme standard avec une saturation pulsée en oxygène ciblée et des techniques plus appropriées auraient permis d'économiser l'oxygène hospitalier et de réduire la mortalité.


Background: Oxygen is a drug. An inappropriate prescription can lead to insufficient or excessive intake, which is a source of hospital expenditure in low-income countries. The aim of the study was to assess the prescription of oxygen therapy in an emergency and intensive care unit and to observe the modalities of its use to allow adjustment of the therapeutic objectives and targets according to the current recommendations. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective descriptive study over three months, in 2018, of the prescription of oxygen in the Emergency and Intensive Care Department, of a referral hospital in Mahajanga. Four oxygen cylinder and 4 concentrators were available as oxygen sources for 18 beds intended for patient reception, destock and intensive care. The hospital did not have an oxygen generator or specific ventilation equipment. The statistical study was carried out with SPSS® v.20 software, the Khi2 test used for the comparison of values with a significance level p˂0.05. Results: Of 599 admissions, 244 patients (40.7%) receiving oxygen were included in the study. The average age was 47.6 years with a male predominance (sex ratio : 1.4). Oxygen saturation ≤90% was found in 25% of cases. The 40% of patients were referred for "oxygen therapy". The main disease were neurological in 34.4%, affecting the age group of 40 to 60 years (p=0.006); respiratory for 21.7% and cardiovascular in 13.9%. Nasal cannulas were used in 71.7%, the oxygen cylinder in 69.3% in the first 24 hours (p=0.001). Mortality was 22.5% of which 60.6% had oxygen saturation ≤90% (p=0.05). Conclusion: Using a standard algorithm with targeted SpO2 and more appropriate techniques would have saved hospital oxygen and reduced mortality.


Subject(s)
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Critical Care , Drug Evaluation
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