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1.
Femina ; 51(6): 350-360, 20230630. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512418

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE O misoprostol é um análogo da prostaglandina E1 (PGE1) que consta na Lista de Medicamentos Essenciais da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) desde 2005 O Brasil possui uma das regulações mais restritivas do mundo relacionadas ao uso do misoprostol, estabelecendo que o misoprostol tem uso hospitalar exclusivo, com controle especial, e venda, compra e propaganda proibidas por lei Atualmente, o misoprostol é a droga de referência para tratamento medicamentoso nos casos de aborto induzido, tanto no primeiro trimestre gestacional quanto em idades gestacionais mais avançadas O misoprostol é uma medicação efetiva para o preparo cervical e indução do parto O misoprostol é um medicamento essencial para o manejo da hemorragia pós-parto


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Misoprostol/adverse effects , Misoprostol/pharmacokinetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Abortion, Legal , Carcinogenic Danger , Parturition/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Postpartum Hemorrhage/drug therapy
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(3): 410-414, Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422666

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal anxiety in the third trimester and changes in fetal and maternal circulation assessed by Doppler velocimetry. METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study. The inclusion criteria were good health, a singleton pregnancy, maternal age between 18 and 40 years, and gestational age between 34 and 40 weeks. Doppler measurements included mean uterine artery pulsatility index, fetal middle cerebral artery pulsatility index, peak of systolic velocity, umbilical artery, and umbilical vein. The Beck Anxiety Inventory questionnaire, validated for the Brazilian population, with 21 self-reported items, was applied. RESULTS: The study included 34 pregnant women, and 6 (17.7%) presented a total Beck Anxiety Inventory score showing moderate or severe maternal anxiety. The mean maternal age was 28.1 years (SD 5.7 years); the mean gestational age at interview was 36.5 weeks (SD 1.8 weeks), and the mean Beck Anxiety Inventory total score was 12.3 (SD 9.8). The group with moderate or severe anxiety, compared to the group with minimal or mild anxiety, presented an association with lower maternal age (median 21.5 vs. 29.5 years, p=0.019), lower fetal umbilical vein blood flow (median 189.4 vs. 249.5 mL/min, p=0.047), and lower umbilical vein-corrected blood flow (median 68.5 vs. 84.9 mL/kg/min, p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Maternal anxiety may affect fetal circulation patterns in late pregnancy and is associated with reduced blood flow in the fetal umbilical vein. The underlying physiopathology needs further investigation.

6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(1): 136-141, Jan. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422592

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess fetal thymus size by ultrasound in growth-restricted fetuses due to placental insufficiency and compare to high-risk and low-risk pregnancy fetuses with normal placental function. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study of pregnant women followed up at a university hospital (July 2012 to July 2013). In all, 30 pregnant women presenting small fetuses for gestational age (estimated fetal weight <p10) due to placental insufficiency (umbilical artery Doppler >p95) were compared to 30 high-risk and 30 low-risk pregnancies presenting normal Doppler indices. The thymus transverse diameter and perimeter were converted into zeta score according to the normal values for gestational age. Head circumference and femur length were used to calculate ratios. RESULTS: Fetal thymus were significantly lower in pregnancies with placental insufficiency when compared to high-risk and low-risk pregnancies presenting, respectively, transverse diameter zeta score (-0.69±0.83 vs. 0.49±1.13 vs. 0.83±0.85, p<0.001) and P zeta score (-0.73±0.68 vs. 0.45±0.96 vs. 0.26±0.89, p<0.001). There was also a significant difference (p<0.05) in the ratios among the groups: pregnancies with placental insufficiency (TD/HC=0.10, P/FL=1.32, and P/HC=0.26), high-risk pregnancies (TD/HC=0.11, P/FL=1.40, and P/HC=0.30), and control group (DT/HC=0.11, P/FL=1.45, and P/HC=0.31). CONCLUSION: Fetal thymus size is reduced in growth-restricted fetuses due to placental insufficiency, suggesting fetal response as a consequence of the adverse environment.

7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(12): e20230967, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521517

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women with sickle cell disease (SS hemoglobinopathy and SC hemoglobinopathy) to healthy controls and report the maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: This is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Pregnant women with a diagnosis of sickle cell disease and control group were recruited in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal anthropometric data and dietary intake data were collected at the second and third trimesters. RESULTS: A total of 49 pregnancies complicated by sickle cell disease were included. Prepregnancy body mass index was significantly lower in the SS hemoglobinopathy group (n=26, median 20.3 kg/m2) than the SC hemoglobinopathy group (n=23, 22.7 kg/m2) or control group (n=33, 23.2 kg/m2, p<0.05). The prepregnancy nutritional status revealed significantly more women classified as underweight in the SS hemoglobinopathy group (15.4%) than in the SC hemoglobinopathy group (4.4%) and control group (1.6%, p=0.009). In the second trimester, maternal protein intake was significantly lower in SS hemoglobinopathy (73.2 g/day) and SC hemoglobinopathy (68.8 g/day) than in the control group (95.7 g/day, p=0.004). In the third trimester, only SS hemoglobinopathy mothers showed dietary intake of protein significantly lower than that of the controls (67.5 g/day vs. 92.8 g/day, p=0.02). Vitamin A and E consumption was also reduced in the third trimester in the SS hemoglobinopathy group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The nutritional status of pregnant women with SS hemoglobinopathy is characterized by a state of undernutrition. The lower protein intake in the second and third trimesters of pregnant women with SS hemoglobinopathy may contribute to this condition. Undernourishment is a serious complication of sickle cell disease, primarily during pregnancy, and it should be addressed during the prenatal period.

8.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy in eight public university hospitals, distributed in the five regions that make up Brazil. METHODS A secondary analysis of a national multicenter cross-sectional study, carried out in eight public university hospitals between June 1 and August 31, 2020, in Brazil. Convenience sample including women who gave birth within sixty consecutive days and met the following criteria: over 18 years old; gestational age over 36 weeks at delivery; with a single and live newborn, without malformations. RESULTS Sample composed of 1,120 postpartum women, of whom 756 (67.5%) declared that the pregnancy had not been planned. The median prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 59.7%. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy across hospitals differed significantly: Campinas (54.8%), Porto Alegre (58.2%), Florianópolis (59%), Teresina (61.2%), Brasília (64.3%), São Paulo (64.6%), Campo Grande (73.9%) and Manaus (95.3%) (p < 0.001). Factors significantly associated with unplanned pregnancy were maternal age, black color, lower family income, greater number of children, greater number of people living in household, and not having a partner. CONCLUSION In the studied sample, about two thirds of the pregnancies were declared as unplanned. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancies was related to social and demographic factors and varied significantly across the university hospitals evaluated.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a prevalência de gestação não planejada (GNP) em oito hospitais públicos universitários, distribuídos nas cinco regiões que compõem o Brasil. MÉTODOS Análise secundária de um estudo transversal multicêntrico nacional, realizado em oito hospitais universitários públicos, entre 1º de junho e 31 de agosto de 2020, no Brasil. Amostra por conveniência incluindo mulheres que deram à luz em período de sessenta dias consecutivos e atenderam aos seguintes critérios: maiores de 18 anos; idade gestacional acima de 36 semanas no parto; com recém-nascido único e vivo, sem malformações. RESULTADOS Amostra composta por 1.120 puérperas, das quais 756 (67,5%) declararam que a gravidez não tinha sido programada. A mediana da prevalência de GNP foi de 59,7%. Observou-se diferença significativa na prevalência de GNP entre os hospitais: Campinas (54,8%), Porto Alegre (58,2%), Florianópolis (59%), Teresina (61,2%), Brasília (64,3%), São Paulo (64,6%), Campo Grande (73,9%) e Manaus (95,3%) (p < 0,001). Foram fatores significativamente associados a GNP a idade materna, cor negra, menor renda familiar, maior número de filhos, maior número de pessoas convivendo em casa e não ter parceiro. CONCLUSÃO Na amostra estudada, cerca de dois terços das gestações foram declaradas como não programadas. A prevalência de gestação não planejada teve relação com fatores sociais e demográficos e variou significativamente entre os hospitais universitários avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Reproductive Rights , Family Development Planning
9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(1): 3-10, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between pain intensity in the active phase of the first stage of labor with the use or not of nonpharmacological methods for pain relief in a real-life scenario. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study. The variables analyzed were obtained by a questionnaire with the mothers (up to 48 hours postpartum) to investigate the intensity of pain during labor using the visual analog scale (VAS). The nonpharmacological pain relief methods routinely used in obstetric practice were evaluated by consulting medical records. The patients were separated into two groups: Group I - patients who did not use nonpharmacological methods for pain relief and Group II -patients who used these methods. Results A total of 439 women who underwent vaginal delivery were included; 386 (87.9%) used at least 1 nonpharmacological method and 53 (12.1%) did not. The women who did not use nonpharmacological methods had significantly lower gestational age (37.2 versus 39.6 weeks, p < 0.001) and shorter duration of labor (24 versus 114 min, p < 0.001) than those who used the methods. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain scale score using the VAS between the group that used nonpharmacological methods and the group that did not (median 10 [minimum 2- maximum 10] versus 10 [minimum 6-maximum 10] p = 0.334). Conclusion In a real-life setting, there was no difference in labor pain intensity between the patients who used nonpharmacological methods and those who did not use them during the active phase of labor.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a associação da intensidade da dor na fase ativa da dilatação do parto em mulheres de acordo com a utilização ou não de métodos não farmacológicos para alívio da dor em cenário de vida real. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo observacional de corte transversal. As variáveis analisadas foram obtidas através de questionário com as puérperas (até 48 horas pós-parto) investigando a intensidade da dor no parto pela escala visual analógica (EVA). As medidas não farmacológicas de alívio da dor, utilizadas rotineiramente na prática obstétrica, foram avaliadas pela consulta aos prontuários. As pacientes foram separadas em dois grupos: Grupo I - pacientes que não utilizaram medidas não farmacológicas para alívio da dor e Grupo II - pacientes que utilizaram estas medidas. Resultados Foram incluídas 439 mulheres que tiveram parto vaginal, sendo que 386 (87,9%) utilizaram, pelo menos, uma medida não farmacológica e 53 (12,1%) não utilizaram. As mulheres que não utilizaram as medidas não farmacológicas apresentaram idade gestacional significativamente menor (37,2 versus 39,6 semanas, p < 0,001) e menor duração do trabalho de parto (24 versus 114 minutos, p < 0,001) quando comparadas às que utilizaram as medidas. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na pontuação da escala da dor pela EVA de acordo com a categorização pelo uso ou não de métodos não farmacológicos (mediana 10 [mínimo 2-máximo 10] versus 10 (mínimo 6-máximo 10), p = 0,334]. Conclusão Em cenário de vida real, as pacientes submetidas aos métodos não farmacológicos não apresentaram diferença em relação à intensidade da dor quando comparadas às que não os utilizaram durante a fase ativa do trabalho de parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pain Measurement , Labor Pain
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(4): e20221625, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431242

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of obstetric simulation training on undergraduate medical students to improve their self-confidence. METHODS: Fifth-year undergraduate medical students were invited to a 2-week course of simulation in obstetrics during their clerkship. The sessions included were as follows: (1) care for the second and third periods of childbirth, (2) partograph analysis and pelvimetry, (3) premature rupture of membranes at term, and (4) diagnosis and management of third-trimester bleeding. Before the first session and at the end of the training period, a questionnaire about self-confidence in obstetric procedures and skills was applied. RESULTS: A total of 115 medical students were included, of whom 60 (52.2%) were male and 55 (47.8%) were female. Comparing initial and final scores, the median results of the subscales "comprehension and preparation" (18 vs. 22, p<0.001), "knowledge of procedures" (14 vs. 20, p<0.001), and "expectation" (22 vs. 23, p<0.01) were significantly higher at the end of the training period in all items of the questionnaire than in the beginning. Differences were found based on the students' gender, i.e., female students had a significantly higher sum of scores than the male students in the initial subscale for "expectation" (median, 24 vs. 22, p<0.001) and "interest" (median, 23 vs. 21, p=0.032), and a higher sum of scores in the subscale for "expectation" (median, 23 vs. 21, p=0.010) in the final questionnaire. CONCLUSION: Obstetric simulation enhances the improvement of students' self-confidence in understanding both the physiology of childbirth and the obstetric care procedures. Further studies are needed to understand the influence of gender on obstetric care.

11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(5): e20221678, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431248

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Fetal thymus involvement in prematurity has been studied, and this study aimed to evaluate its relationship with short cervix and amniotic fluid sludge in the second trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 79 pregnant women (19+0 to 24+6 weeks) were included, and cervical length and the presence or absence of amniotic fluid sludge were evaluated. In the three-vessel view of the fetal thorax, the thymus was identified, and its perimeter and transverse diameter were measured and transformed to a zeta score based on gestational age. RESULTS: Data from 22 women with short cervix (<25 mm) and 57 patients with normal cervix (≥25 mm) were analyzed. The transverse diameter of the fetal thymus was significantly greater in the short cervix group compared to that of the normal cervix group (z-score 2.708 vs. −0.043, p=0.003). There were no significant differences in the perimeter (z-score −0.039 vs. −0.071, p=0.890) or the transverse diameter (z-score 1.297 vs. −0.004, p=0.091) of the fetal thymus associated with the presence (n=21) or absence of sludge (n=58). CONCLUSION: A short cervix is associated with an increased transverse diameter of the fetal thymus during the second trimester of gestation.

12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 932-939, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357094

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To study maternal anxiety in pregnant women without comorbidities in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil and to study maternal knowledge and concerns about the pandemic. Methods This is a secondary analysis from a national multicenter cross-sectional study performed in 10 cities, from June to August, 2020, in Brazil. Interviewed postpartum women, without medical or obstetrical comorbidities, were included in the present subanalysis. A structured questionnaire and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were applied. Results Out of the 1,662 women, 763 (45.9%) met the criteria for the current analysis and 16.1% presented with moderate and 11.5% with severe maternal anxiety. Moderate or severe maternal anxiety was associated with high school education (odds ratio [OR]:1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.04-2.40). The protective factor was cohabiting with a partner (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.73). There was a positive correlation between the total BAI score and receiving information about care in the pandemic (rpartial 0.15; p < 0.001); concern about vertical transmission of COVID-19 (rpartial 0.10; p = 0.01); receiving information about breastfeeding (rpartial 0.08; p = 0.03); concerns about prenatal care (rpartial 0.10; p = 0.01), and concerns about the baby contracting COVID-19 (rpartial 0.11; p = 0.004). The correlation was negative in the following aspects: self-confidence in protecting from COVID-19 (rpartial 0.08; p = 0.04), having learned (rpartial 0.09; p = 0.01) and self-confidence in breastfeeding (rpartial 0.22; p < 0.001) in the context of the pandemic. Conclusion The anxiety of pregnant women without medical or obstetrical comorbidities was associated to high school educational level and not living with a partner during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-confidence in protecting against COVID-19 and knowledge about breastfeeding care during the pandemic reduced maternal anxiety.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar a ansiedade materna em gestantes sem comorbidades no contexto do surto de COVID-19 no Brasil e estudar o conhecimento e as preocupações maternas sobre a pandemia. Métodos Trata-se de análise secundária de um estudo transversal multicêntrico nacional realizado em 10 cidades, de junho a agosto de 2020, no Brasil. Mulheres no pós-parto entrevistadas, sem comorbidades médicas ou obstétricas, foram incluídas nesta subanálise. Foram aplicados um questionário estruturado e o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI, na sigla em inglês). Resultados Das 1.662 mulheres, 763 (45,9%) atenderam aos critérios da análise atual e 16,1% apresentaram ansiedade materna moderada e 11,5% ansiedade materna grave. A ansiedade materna moderada ou grave foi associada à escolaridade no ensino médio (odds ratio [OR]: 1,58; intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,04-2,40). O fator protetor foi coabitar com companheiro (OR: 0,46; IC95%: 0,29-0,73). Houve correlação positiva entre a pontuação total do BAI e o recebimento de informações sobre cuidados na pandemia (rparcial 0,15; p < 0,001); preocupação com a transmissão vertical de COVID-19 (rparcial 0,10; p = 0,01); receber informações sobre amamentação (rparcial 0,08; p = 0,03); preocupações sobre cuidados pré-natais (rparcial 0,10; p = 0,01) e preocupações sobre o bebê contrair COVID-19 (rparcial 0,11; p = 0,004). A correlação foi negativa com os seguintes aspectos: ter autoconfiança para se proteger (rparcial 0,08; p = 0,04), aprender (rparcial 0,09; p = 0,01) e ter autoconfiança para amamentar (rparcial 0,22; p < 0,001) no contexto da pandemia. Conclusão A ansiedade de gestantes sem comorbidades médicas ou obstétricas esteve associada à escolaridade no ensino médio e não morar com companheiro durante a pandemia de COVID-19. A autoconfiança na proteção contra COVID-19 e o conhecimento sobre os cuidados com a amamentação durante a pandemia reduziram a ansiedade materna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(9): 562-568, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present comprehensive review aims to show the full extent of what is known to date and provide a more thorough view on the effects of SARS-CoV2 in pregnancy. Methods Between March 29 and May, 2020, the words COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID- 19 and pregnancy, SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy, and SARS and pregnancy were searched in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the guidelines from well-known societies and institutions (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [RCOG], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology [ISUOG], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]) were also included. Conclusion The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a pandemic with > 3.3 million cases and 230 thousand deaths until May 2nd. It is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus and may lead to severe pulmonary infection and multi-organ failure. Past experiences show that unique characteristics in pregnancy make pregnant women more susceptible to complications from viral infections. Yet, this has not been reported with this new virus. There are risk factors that seem to increase morbidity in pregnancy, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 35), asthma and cardiovascular disease. Current reports describe an increased rate of pretermbirth and C-section. Vertical transmission


Resumo Objetivo A presente revisão detalhada busca fornecer dados objetivos para avaliar o que se sabe até o momento e possibilitar uma visãomais ampla dos efeitos do SARSCoV2 na gravidez. Métodos Entre 29 demarço e 2 de maio de 2020, foi realizada uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed e Google Scholar com as palavras COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 e gravidez, SARS-CoV2 e gravidez, e SARS e gravidez. As recomendações dos principais órgãos sobre o tema também foram acessadas. Conclusão O surto de COVID-19 resultou em uma pandemia com> 3.3 milhões de casos e 230 mil mortes até 2 de maio. É uma condição causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV2 e pode levar ao acometimento pulmonar difuso e à falência de múltiplos órgãos. Características únicas da gestante tornam essa população mais propensas a complicações de infecções virais. Até o momento, essa tendência não foi observada para esse novo vírus. Os fatores que parecem estar associados à maior morbidade materno-fetal são obesidade (índice demassa corporal [IMC] > 35), asma e doença cardiovascular. Há descrição de aumento de parto prematuro e parto cesáreo. Não se pode descartar a possibilidade de transmissão vertical da doença, devido a relatos de positividade de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RT-PCR) de swab nasal, RT-PCR de líquido amniótico e imunoglobulina M (IgM) de recém-nascidos. Tratamentos devem ser analisados caso a caso, dada a falta de qualidade de estudos que comprovem a sua eficácia e segurança na gravidez. O corpo clínico deve utilizar equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) ao manusear pacientes suspeitos ou confirmados e ficar atento aos sinais de descompensação respiratória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 36(11): 519-524, 11/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-730574

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Validar questionário para conhecer e descrever a percepção dos médicos especialistas em ginecologia e obstetrícia quanto à vivência e autoconfiança no atendimento de emergências no parto vaginal. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de validação de instrumento constituído por afirmativas sobre atendimento nas emergências: parto pélvico (n=23), distocia de ombros (n=20), hemorragia pós-parto (n=24), parto fórcipe (n=32) e vácuo extrator (n=5). Os participantes opinaram sobre cada item segundo escala de Likert (0=discordo plenamente, 1=discordo parcialmente, 2=indiferente, 3=concordo parcialmente e 4=concordo plenamente). O questionário foi aplicado a 12 especialistas em ginecologia e obstetrícia esperando-se encontrar nível de compreensão superior a 80%. Uma escala de cinco pontos foi empregada para avaliar a compreensão de cada questão (de 0=não entendi nada a 5=entendi perfeitamente e não tenho dúvidas). Valores acima de 4 foram considerados indicadores de compreensão suficiente. O instrumento utilizado foi especialmente elaborado para atender às especificidades demandadas. A análise da confiabilidade interna foi pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Para a validação externa foram calculadas a proporção de itens com plena compreensão, por cada grupo. Para fins de investigação, o alfa deve ser maior do que 0,7. RESULTADOS: Os participantes apresentavam média de idade de 33,3 anos, com desvio padrão (DP) de 5,0 anos, e tempo de formado médio de 5,8 anos (DP=1,3anos). Todos eram especialistas com residência médica em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. A média da proporção de participantes que compreenderam plenamente os itens de cada emergência estudada foi: parto pélvico 97,3%, distocia de ombros 96,7%, hemorragia ...


PURPOSE: To validate a questionnaire to be applied in order to learn and describe the perceptions of specialists in obstetrics and gynecology about their experience and self-confidence in the emergency care for vaginal delivery. METHODS: This was a prospective study for the validation of an instrument that contains statements about emergency obstetrical care: breech delivery (n=23), shoulder dystocia (n=20), postpartum haemorrhage (n=24), forceps delivery (n=32), and vacuum extractor (n=5). Participants gave their opinions on each item by applying the Likert scale (0=strongly disagree, 1=partially disagree, 2=indifferent, 3=partially agree and 4=strongly agree). The questionnaire was applied to 12 specialists in obstetrics and gynecology and it was expected to be found a level of comprehension exceeding 80%. A five-point scale was used to assess the understanding of each question (from 0=did not understand anything to 5=understood perfectly and I have no doubt). A score above 4 was considered to indicate sufficient understanding. The instrument used was specially designed to suit the specific demands. The analysis of internal reliability was done using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. For external validation, we calculated the proportion of items with full understanding for each subscale. For research purposes, the alpha should be greater than 0.7. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 33.3 years, with 5.0 standard deviation (SD), and an average interval time since graduation from medical school of 5.8 years (SD=1.3 years). All were specialists with residency in obstetrics and gynecology. The mean proportion of participants who fully understood the items in each emergency was 97.3% for breech delivery, 96.7% for shoulder dystocia, 99.7% for postpartum hemorrhage, 97.4% for forceps delivery, and 98.3% for the use of a vacuum extractor. The results of Cronbach's alpha for the items in each emergency studied were: 0.85 for breech delivery, ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Obstetric Surgical Procedures , Surveys and Questionnaires , Validation Study , Delivery, Obstetric
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 60(4): 327-334, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720979

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. Methods: semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: in both capitals, the women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (p<0.01 in Natal; p = 0.02 in São Paulo-SP) and, simultaneously, as the one who could have avoided it (p < 0.01 in Natal; p = 0.03 in São Paulo). In Natal-RN, induced abortion was associated with the partner's absence at the time pregnancy was confirmed (p = 0.02) and, in Sao Paulo-SP, with their negative reaction to news of the pregnancy (p = 0.04) and lack of participation in the abortion process (p < 0.01). Conclusion: despite having achieved independence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health. .


Objetivo: analisar a percepção das mulheres quanto às reações e às condutas do parceiro no processo do abortamento, associando as variáveis entre mulheres que sofreram abortamento espontâneo e que o provocaram, nas cidades de Natal (RN) e de São Paulo (SP). Métodos: foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com 285 mulheres que sofreram abortamento espontâneo e 31 mulheres que referiram tê-lo provocado. Os dados foram analisados pela Técnica de Análise Temática e, posteriormente, utilizou-se o programa IBM SPSS. O nível de significância utilizado foi p < 0,05. Resultados: em ambas as capitais, as mulheres que provocaram o abortamento referiram o parceiro como alguém que não poderia saber do abortamento (p < 0,01 em Natal; p = 0,02 em São Paulo) e, ao mesmo tempo, como aquele que poderia tê-lo evitado (p < 0,01 em Natal; p = 0,03 em São Paulo). Em Natal, o abortamento provocado foi associado à ausência do parceiro no momento da confirmação da gestação (p = 0,02) e, em São Paulo, a reações negativas quando noticiada a gravidez (p=0,04) e a não participação no processo do abortamento (p < 0,01). Conclusão: apesar da independência feminina conquistada, os resultados obtidos indicam que as mulheres que provocaram o abortamento percebem a participação masculina como importante no processo. As particularidades de cada capital denotam influência da dimensão geográfica e cultural, demonstrando a necessidade de uma assistência integral à saúde da mulher que respeite as especificidades de cada região do Brasil. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Abortion, Induced/psychology , Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Spouses/psychology , Abortion, Induced/statistics & numerical data , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Women's Health
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 60(3): 270-275, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-713063

ABSTRACT

Objective: the aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of transient FHR accelerations (10 bpm and 15 bpm) in the third trimester of pregnancy, comparing the occurrence of this event before and after the 32nd gestational week. Methods: This is a prospective study comparing the results of the computerized cardiotocography of 46 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, maternal age between 18 and 40 years, gestational age between 28 and 40 weeks, absence of maternal morbidity and adequate fetal growth according to ultrasound. Computed Cardiotocography (8002 Sonicaid System and Fetal Care System) was performed for 30 minutes to analyze the variables of FHR. Results: twenty-three pregnant women underwent cardiotocography before 32 weeks (mean = 29.9 weeks, SD = 1.4 weeks) and were compared with 23 pregnant women who were examined after 32 weeks (mean = 36.3 weeks, SD = 2.5 weeks). Regarding the characteristics of FHR, fetuses evaluated between 32 1/7 weeks and 40 weeks showed a significantly greater number of accelerations above 15 bpm (median = 5, variation 0-18) than the group of pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks (median = 4, variation 0 to 10; P = 0.048). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of accelerations above 15 bpm and the gestational age at examination (rho = 0.33; P = 0.026). Conclusion: computerized cardiotocography showed an association regarding the number of transient accelerations greater than 15 bpm in the assessment of both periods before and after 32 weeks of gestational age, suggesting the influence of the maturation of the fetal autonomic nervous system with pregnancy progression. .


Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os padrões das acelerações transitórias da FCF (de 10 e 15 bpm) no terceiro trimestre da gestação, comparando a ocorrência desse evento antes e após a 32ª semana gestacional. Métodos: trata-se de estudo prospectivo comparando os resultados do exame de cardiotocografia computadorizada de 46 gestantes de baixo risco, com feto único, idade materna entre 18 e 40 anos, idade gestacional entre 28 e 40 semanas, ausência de morbidades maternas e crescimento fetal adequado pela ultrassonografia. Foi realizada a cardiotocografia computadorizada (Sonicaid System 8002 e Fetal Care System) por 30 minutos para análise das variáveis da FCF. Resultados: vinte e três gestantes que realizaram a cardiotocografia antes da 32ª semana (média = 29,9 semanas, DP = 1,4 semanas) foram comparadas com 23 que realizaram o exame após a 32ª semana (média = 36,3 semanas, DP = 2,5 semanas). Quanto às características da FCF, os fetos avaliados entre 32 1/7 semanas e 40 semanas apresentaram número significativamente maior de acelerações acima de 15 bpm (mediana = 5, variação 0 a 18) que o grupo de gestantes de 28 a 32 semanas (mediana = 4, variação 0 a 10; P = 0,048). Houve correlação significativa e positiva entre o número de acelerações transitórias acima de 15 bpm e a idade gestacional no momento do exame (rho = 0,33; P = 0,026). Conclusão: a cardiotocografia computadorizada revelou associação entre o número de acelerações transitórias acima de 15 bpm quando avaliados os períodos antes e após 32 semanas de idade gestacional, sugerindo influência da maturação do sistema nervoso autônomo fetal com a progressão da gestação. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Cardiotocography/instrumentation , Fetal Movement/physiology , Heart Rate, Fetal/physiology , Gestational Age , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prospective Studies
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(4): 392-399, jul.-ago. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-685533

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estudar a dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média fetal em gestações complicadas pela insuficiência placentária e verificar o seu papel no prognóstico de sobrevida neonatal. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo prospectivo de 93 gestantes com diagnóstico de insuficiência placentária estabelecida antes da 34ª semana. A insuficiência placentária foi caracterizada pelo Doppler de artéria umbilical (AU) alterado (> p95). Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: índice de pulsatilidade (IP) da artéria umbilical (AU), IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM), relação cerebroplacentária -RCP(IP-ACM/IP-AU), pico de velocidade sistólicada ACM (PVS-ACM) e IP para veias (IPV) do ducto venoso (DV). Os parâmetros foram analisados pelos valores absolutos, em escores zeta (desvios padrão a partir da média) ou múltiplos da mediana (MoM). O desfecho investigado foi o óbito neonatal no período de internação após o nascimento. RESULTADOS: Nas 93 gestações analisadas, ocorreram 25 (26,9%) óbitos neonatais. No grupo que evoluiu com óbito neonatal, quando comparado com o grupo com sobrevida, houve associação significativa com o diagnóstico de diástole zero ou reversa (88% vs. 23,6%, p < 0,001), com maior mediana do IP da AU (2,9 vs. 1,7, p < 0,001) e seu escore zeta (10,4 vs. 4,9, p < 0,001); maior valor do PVS-ACM MoM (1,4 vs. 1,1, p = 0,012); menor valor da RCP (0,4 vs. 0,7, p < 0,001); maior valor do IPV-DV (1,2 vs. 0,8, p < 0,001) e no escore zeta do DV (3,6 vs.0,6, p<0,001). Na regressão logística, as variáveis independentes para a prediçãodoóbito neonatal foram a idade gestacional no parto (OR = 0,45; IC95% 0,3 a 0,7, p < 0,001) e o escore zeta do IP-AU (OR 1,14, IC95% 1,0 a 1,3, p = 0,046). CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da associação verificada pela análise univariada entre a morte neonatal e os parâmetros da dopplervelocimetria cerebral fetal, a análise multivariada identificou a prematuridadeeograude insuficiência da circulação placentária como fatores independentes relacionados com o óbito neonatal em gestações complicadas por insuficiência placentária.


OBJECTIVE: To study the Doppler velocimetry of the fetal middle cerebral artery in pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency, and to verify its role in the prognosis of neonatal survival. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 93 pregnant women with diagnosis of placental insufficiency detected before the 34th week of pregnancy. Placental insufficiency was characterized by abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler (> 95th percentile). The following parameterswere analyzed: umbilical artery (UA) pulsatility index (PI); middle cerebral artery (MCA) PI; brain-placenta ratio - BPR (MCA-PI/UA-PI); MCA peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV); and PI for veins (PIV) of ductus venosus (DV). The parameters were analyzed in terms of absolute values, z-scores (standard deviations from the mean), or multiples of the median (MoM). The outcome investigatedwas neonatal death during the hospitalization period after birth. RESULTS: Of the 93 pregnancies analyzed, there were 25 (26.9%) neonatal deaths. The group that died, when compared to the survival group, presented a significant association with the diagnosis of absent or reversed end-diastolic flow (88% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001), with a higher median of UA PI (2.9 vs. 1.7, p < 0.001) and UA PI z-score (10.4 vs. 4.9, p < 0.001); higher MCAPSV MoM (1.4 vs. 1.1, p = 0.012); lower BPR (0.4 vs. 0.7, p < 0.001); higher PIV-DV (1.2 vs. 0.8, p < 0.001) and DV z-score (3.6 vs. 0.6, p < 0.001). In the logistic regression, the independent variables predictive of neonatal death were: gestational age at birth (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.7; p < 0.001) and UA PI z-score (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.3, p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Despite the association verified by the univariate analysis between neonatal death and the parameters of fetal cerebral Doppler velocimetry, the multivariate analysis identified prematurity and degree of insufficiency of placental circulation as independent factors related to neonatal death in pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Middle Cerebral Artery , Placental Insufficiency , Umbilical Arteries , Analysis of Variance , Blood Flow Velocity , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Placental Insufficiency/mortality , Survival Analysis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(2): 113-119, mar.-abr. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-673377

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da asma materna sobre a gravidez, analisando as repercussões da gravidade da doença no comprometimento do bem-estar fetal, bem como as complicações maternas e perinatais associadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 117 gestações complicadas pela asma materna e sem outras comorbidades, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação única; diagnóstico de asma prévio à gestação; início do pré-natal antes da 28ª semana de gravidez; parto realizado na instituição; peso do recém-nascido acima de 500g e idade gestacional no parto acima de 22 semanas; ausência de malformações fetais ou anomalias cromossômicas; ausência de comorbidades maternas. A gravidade da asma foi classificada em intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada, persistente grave. Foram analisados os resultados do perfil biofísico fetal e da dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical realizados até 14 dias antes do parto. RESULTADOS: Do total de 117 gestantes asmáticas analisadas: 41 (35,0%) eram intermitentes, 33 (28,2%) persistentes leves, 21 (17,9%) persistentes moderadas e 22 (18,8%) persistentes graves. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao tipo de parto: a cesárea foi realizada em 65,8% dos casos, a corticoterapia materna no momento do parto em 20,5%, a idade gestacional no parto apresentou média de 38,6 semanas (DP 1,9 semanas) e o peso ao nascimento apresentou média de 3056 g (DP 581 g). O perfil biofísico fetal realizado no período anteparto (n = 90, 76,9%) apresentou resultado normal (8 ou 10) em 99% dos casos. A dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical foi avaliada em 23,9% (n = 28) das gestantes, e apresentou-se normal em 100% dos casos. O uso de corticoterapia sistêmica foi significativamente (p< 0,001) diferente entre os grupos intermitente (4,9%) e persistente leve (9,1%), persistente moderada (28,6%), persistente grave (45,5%). quanto ao início do parto, houve maior proporção de cesárea eletiva no grupo com asma persistente moderada (52,5%) e persistente grave (54,6%) quando comparados aos grupos intermitente (21,9%) e persistente leve (24,2%) (p = 0,039). CONCLUSÃO: A gravidade da asma materna não parece influenciar diretamente os resultados perinatais e não compromete a vitalidade fetal. A conduta ativa proporcionando melhor quadro clínico materno promove evolução favorável para a gestação complicada pela asma.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of maternal asthma on pregnancy, analyzing the consequences of the severity of the disease in the impairment of fetal well-being, as well as the related maternal and perinatal complications. METHODS: A retrospective study with 117 pregnancies complicated by maternal asthma and with no other comorbidities, in the period from January, 2005 to December, 2010. Inclusion criteriawere as follows: singleton pregnancy; pregnantwomen diagnosed with asthma prior to pregnancy; initiation of prenatal care before the 28th week of pregnancy; birth at this institution; newborn weighing over 500 g and gestational age at delivery of 22 weeks or more; absence of fetal malformations or chromosomal abnormalities; absence of maternal comorbidities. Asthma was classified as intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, or severe persistent. The results of fetal biophysical profile and of Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery performed 14 days prior to birth were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total of 117 pregnant women with asthma, 41 (35.0%) had intermittent, 33 (28.2%) mild persistent, 21 (17.9%) moderate persistent, and 22 (18.8%) severe persistent asthma. There was no significant difference among the groups as to the type of birth: cesarean section was performed in 65.8% of the cases, maternal corticosteroid therapy was used at the moment of birth in 20.5%, the gestational age at birth averaged 38.6 weeks (SD 1.9 weeks), and birth weight averaged 3,056 g (SD 581 g). The fetal biophysical profile performed during the antepartum period (n = 90, 76.9%) showed a normal result (8 or 10) in 99% of the cases. Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery was assessed in 23.9% (n = 28) of the pregnant women, and delivered normal results in 100% of the cases. The use of systemic corticosteroid therapy was significantly (p < 0.001) different among the intermittent (4.9%), mild persistent (9.1%), moderate persistent (28.6%), and severe persistent (45.5%) groups. Regarding the beginning of birth, there was a higher proportion of elective cesarean section in the groups with moderate persistent asthma (52.5%) and severe persistent (54.6%) when compared to the intermittent (21.9%) and mild persistent (24.2%) groups (p = 0.039). CONCLUSION: The severity of maternal asthma does not appear to have any direct influence on perinatal outcomes, and does not compromise fetal well-being. Active conduct to enable a better maternal clinical condition provides a favorable prognosis for pregnancy complicated by asthma.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Asthma/complications , Fetus/physiology , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Outcome , Analysis of Variance , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Brazil , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Fetal Distress/complications , Maternal Age , Prenatal Care/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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