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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2343-2351, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981310

ABSTRACT

This study explored the molecular mechanism of acteoside against hepatoma 22(H22) tumor in mice through c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) signaling pathway. H22 cells were subcutaneously inoculated in 50 male BALB/c mice, and then the model mice were classified into model group, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose acteoside groups, and cisplatin group. The administration lasted 2 weeks for each group(5 consecutive days/week). The general conditions of mice in each group, such as mental status, diet intake, water intake, activity, and fur were observed. The body weight, tumor volume, tumor weight, and tumor-inhibiting rate were compared before and after administration. Morphological changes of liver cancer tissues were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining, and the expression of phosphorylated(p)-JNK, JNK, B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Beclin-1, and light chain 3(LC3) in each tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of JNK, Bcl-2, Beclin-1, and LC3. The general conditions of mice in model and low-dose acteoside groups were poor, while the general conditions of mice in the remaining three groups were improved. The body weight of mice in medium-dose acteoside group, high-dose acteoside group, and cisplatin group was smaller than that in model group(P<0.01). The tumor volume in model group was insignificantly different from that in low-dose acteoside group, and the volume in cisplatin group showed no significant difference from that in high-dose acteoside group. Tumor volume and weight in medium-dose and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.001). The tumor-inhibiting rates were 10.72%, 40.32%, 53.79%, and 56.44% in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group, respectively. HE staining showed gradual decrease in the count of hepatoma cells and increasing sign of cell necrosis in the acteoside and cisplatin groups, and the necrosis was particularly obvious in the high-dose acteoside group and cisplatin group. Immunohistochemical results suggested that the expression of Beclin-1, LC3, p-JNK, and JNK was up-regulated in acteoside and cisplatin groups(P<0.05). The results of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and qRT-PCR indicated that the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the medium-dose and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group(P<0.01). Western blot showed that the expression of Beclin-1, LC3, and p-JNK was up-regulated in acteoside and cisplatin groups(P<0.01), and there was no difference in the expression of JNK among groups. qRT-PCR results showed that the levels of Beclin-1 and LC3 mRNA were up-regulated in the acteoside and cisplatin groups(P<0.05), and the level of JNK mRNA was up-regulated in medium-dose and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group(P<0.001). Acteoside promotes apoptosis and autophagy of H22 cells in mice hepatoma cells by up-regulating the JNK signaling pathway, thus inhibiting tumor growth.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Beclin-1 , Apoptosis , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Necrosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Autophagy
2.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 57-60, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992465

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) defines a kind of Immune-mediated acute inflammatory peripheral neuropathy. Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a special variant of GBS, with mostly one-way course and rare clinical recurrence. Only a few recurrent cases have been reported in China. Here we report a case of a young male patient with double vision and progressive aggravation of limb numbness, acute onset, with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection before onset, accompanied by pupil abnormalities and autonomic nervous dysfunction, who was was admitted to our hospital for similar symptoms 3 years ago and was improved by immunotherapy. The patient had a triad of “ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia”. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein-cell separation. Serum anti-Sulfatides antibody IgM, anti-GT1a antibody IgG, anti-GQ1b antibody IgG and anti-GM3 IgM were positive. Recurrent MFS was diagnosed and the symptoms improved after immunotherapy. This case suggests that MFS is clinically heterogeneous, a few patients can present with relapse and generally have a better prognosis with immunotherapy. Pre-existing infection and anti-GQ1b antibody production may be predisposing factors for MFS recurrence.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2835-2840, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the mechanism of Yishen tongluo formula (YSTLF) in improving abnormal lipid metabolism based on the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) pathway. METHODS Using C57BLKS/J (db/db) mice as model and C57BLKS/J (db/m) mice as normal control, the mechanism of 1, 2.5 and 5 g/kg YSTLF improving abnormal lipid metabolism of db/db mice was investigated by determining the liver coefficient, the contents of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), observing steatosis and lipid accumulation in liver tissue of mice, detecting the protein expressions of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 as well as mRNA transcription levels of Srebp- 1c, Srebp-2 and their downstream lipid metabolism-related target genes (Fasn, Acc1, Scd5, Fads1, Hmgcr, Dhcr24, Insig-1, Fdps) in liver tissue of mice. Using low-fat cultured human liver cancer cell HepG2 as an in vitro cell model for abnormal lipid metabolism, and 25-HC (SREBPs inhibitor, 10 μmol/L) as the control, the effects of 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL YSTLF on protein expressions of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 as well as mRNA transcription of SREBP-1c, SREBP-2 and their downstream lipid metabolism-related target genes were investigated to verify the mechanism in vitro. RESULTS 1, 2.5, 5 g/kg YSTLF significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG and LDL, the percentage of lipid droplet-positive region in liver tissue and liver coefficient, significantly down-regulated protein expressions of Pre-SREBP-1, n-SREBP-1, Pre-SREBP-2 and n-SREBP-2, and mRNA transcription of Srebp-1c, Srebp-2 and their downstream target genes in liver tissue, while significantly increased HDL level, with statistical significance (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In the cell experiment in vitro, the expressions of the above-mentioned proteins and genes in the cells treated with YSTLF at 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL for 24 hours were consistent with those in the animal experiment; there was no significant difference in the expressions of the above-mentioned proteins and genes between inhibitor control group and 250, 500 μg/mL YSTLF groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS YSTLF can regulate the expression of transcription factor SREBPs, so as to inhibit the high expression of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis-related genes, promote the degradation of TC and TG, improve the abnormality of lipid metabolism and inhibit lipid accumulation, thus playing the role of lipid-lowering.

4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 179-187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980995

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of glutaminolysis of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in hypertension-induced myocardial fibrosis. C57BL/6J mice were administered with a chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II, 1.6 mg/kg per d) with a micro-osmotic pump to induce myocardial fibrosis. Masson staining was used to evaluate myocardial fibrosis. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with BPTES (12.5 mg/kg), a glutaminase 1 (GLS1)-specific inhibitor, to inhibit glutaminolysis simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect protein expression levels of GLS1, Collagen I and Collagen III in cardiac tissue. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat CFs were treated with 4 mmol/L glutamine (Gln) or BPTES (5 μmol/L) with or without Ang II (0.4 μmol/L) stimulation. The CFs were also treated with 2 mmol/L α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) under the stimulation of Ang II and BPTES. Wound healing test and CCK-8 were used to detect CFs migration and proliferation respectively. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein expression levels of GLS1, Collagen I and Collagen III. The results showed that blood pressure, heart weight and myocardial fibrosis were increased in Ang II-treated mice, and GLS1 expression in cardiac tissue was also significantly up-regulated. Gln significantly promoted the proliferation, migration, mRNA and protein expression of GLS1, Collagen I and Collagen III in the CFs with or without Ang II stimulation, whereas BPTES significantly decreased the above indices in the CFs. α-KG supplementation reversed the inhibitory effect of BPTES on the CFs under Ang II stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo intraperitoneal injection of BPTES alleviated cardiac fibrosis of Ang II-treated mice. In conclusion, glutaminolysis plays an important role in the process of cardiac fibrosis induced by Ang II. Targeted inhibition of glutaminolysis may be a new strategy for the treatment of myocardial fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Fibroblasts , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Fibrosis , Collagen/pharmacology , Collagen Type I/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980994

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short-term ketogenic diet on the low temperature tolerance of mice and the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: normal diet (WT+ND) group and ketogenic diet (WT+KD) group. After being fed with normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The changes in core temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure of mice under low temperature condition were detected, and the protein expression levels of PPARα and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were detected by Western blot. PPARα knockout mice were divided into normal diet (PPARα-/-+ND) group and ketogenic diet (PPARα-/-+KD) group. After being fed with the normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The above indicators were also detected. The results showed that, at room temperature, the protein expression levels of PPARα and UCP1 in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group were significantly up-regulated, compared with those of WT+ND group. Under low temperature condition, compared with WT+ND, the core temperature and blood glucose of WT+KD group were increased, while mean arterial pressure was decreased; The ketogenic diet up-regulated PPARα protein expression in brown adipose tissue, as well as UCP1 protein expression in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group. Under low temperature condition, compared to WT+ND group, PPARα-/-+ND group exhibited decreased core temperature and down-regulated PPARα and UCP1 protein expression levels in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. Compared to the PPARα-/-+ND group, the PPARα-/-+KD group exhibited decreased core temperature and did not show any difference in the protein expression of UCP1 in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the ketogenic diet promotes UCP1 expression by up-regulating PPARα, thus improving low temperature tolerance of mice. Therefore, short-term ketogenic diet can be used as a potential intervention to improve the low temperature tolerance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , PPAR alpha/pharmacology , Diet, Ketogenic , Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Temperature , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1424-1430, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978803

ABSTRACT

In recent years, monotherapy and combination therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have achieved good efficacy in a variety of malignancies from solid tumors to lymphomas and have become a standardized and systematic treatment modality for many cancers. However, there is still a lack of studies on the safety of ICIs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with malignancies, and early studies have reported HBV reactivation due to ICI antitumor therapy in clinical practice. With reference to related literature, this article reviews the recent clinical trials and application of ICIs in cancer patients with chronic viral infection and clarifies the efficacy and safety of ICIs in this special population, in order to provide a reference for clinical medication.

7.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 188-197, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973004

ABSTRACT

@#Acetyl dipeptide-1 cetyl ester (AD-1) is a synthetic peptide composed of acetic acid and cetyl alcohol with arginine and tyrosine, which has certain anti-inflammatory and skin barrier enhancement effects, has been used in cosmetics for sensitive skin.Meanwhile, the ingredient has also been used in anti-aging cosmetics, but there is a lack of published scientific evidence on anti- senescence aspect.In this study, we investigated the related effects of AD-1 by evaluating its in vitro antioxidant and antiglycation efficacies.Furthermore, we established a photoaging model on primary rat dermal fibroblasts by repeated exposures to UVA irradiation.MTT assay was used to detect the effects of AD-1 on the cell viability.RT-qPCR was used to determine the effects of AD-1 on the mRNA levels of senescence-related p21, p53, MMPs, IL6, Col1, Col3 and autophagy-related p62, ATG5, ATG7.Western blot was used to detect the effects of AD-1 on the protein levels of p16, p21, p53, Col1, LC3B and p62.SA-β-gal was performed to indicate senescence level of the cell.MDC was performed to indicate autophagy level.Intracellular reactive oxygen species were monitored by fluorescent probes DCFH-DA.The results showed that AD-1 could reduce UVA-induced the cell damage and regulate the abnormal expression of mRNA levels. It alleviated the abnormal protein levels of p16, p21, p53, Col1, LC3B and p62 induced by UVA. These results suggested that AD-1 has not only antioxidant and antiglycation effects but also can activate autophagy to achieve anti-senescence effect.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 12-17, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the effect mechanism of ethanol extract from Atractylodes macrocephala (EEAM) on microglial phagocytosis and degradation of amyloid β (Aβ) based on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR- γ) signaling pathway. METHODS Taking neuromicroglial cell BV2 as subjects, confocal microscopy was used to observe the effects of EEAM (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mg/mL, similarly hereinafter) on phagocytosis and degradation of Aβ in microglia. Human embryonic kidney cell HEK293 was used to investigate the effects of EEAM on luciferase transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ. The effect of EEAM on nuclear translocation of PPAR-γ was investigated by immunofluorescence. Alzheimer’s disease BV2 cell model was induced by Aβ1-42, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the effects of EEAM on mRNA expressions of PPAR-γ downstream target genes (Lxra, Lxrb, Abca1, Abcg1, Cd36, Sra and Apoe). RESULTS The results of Aβ uptake experiment showed that after the intervention of medium and high doses of EEAM, fluorescence intensity of Aβ in BV2 cells increased significantly (P<0.05). The degradation experiment of Aβ showed that after the intervention of medium and high doses of EEAM, fluorescence intensity of Aβ in BV2 cells decreased significantly (P<0.05). After the intervention of different doses of EEAM, luciferase transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ in HEK293 cells increased significantly (P<0.05); fluorescence intensity of PPAR-γ in BV2 cells and nuclei (except for low-dose group) increased significantly (P<0.05). mRNA expressions of Lxra, Lxrb, Abca1, Abcg1, Cd36, Sra and Apoe in BV2 cells were increased significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS EEAM can promote the uptake and degradation of Aβ in microglia by activating PPAR-γ signaling pathway, thus improving Alzheimer’s disease.

9.
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology ; (12): 527-537, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) has been explored as a potential biomarker for various inflammatory diseases and cardiovascular events. This study aimed to assess the predictive role of GDF-15 levels in cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, considering traditional risk factors and other biomarkers.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted and 3699 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled into the research. Baseline GDF-15 levels were measured. Median follow-up was 3.1 years during the study. We analyzed clinical variables and several biomarkers. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic performance of GDF-15 levels in predicting myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, stroke, cardiovascular death, and non-cardiovascular death.@*RESULTS@#Baseline GDF-15 levels for 3699 patients were grouped by quartile (≤ 1153, 1153-1888, 1888-3043, > 3043 ng/L). Higher GDF-15 levels were associated with older age, male gender, history of hypertension, and elevated levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2), and creatine (each with P < 0.001). Adjusting for established risk factors and biomarkers in Cox proportional hazards models, a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in GDF-15 was associated with elevated risk of clinical events [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.52-3.11)], including: MI [HR = 2.83 95% CI: (1.03-7.74)], heart failure [HR = 2.71 95% CI: (1.18-6.23)], cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death [HR = 2.48, 95% CI (1.49-4.11)] during the median follow up of 3.1 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Higher levels of GDF-15 consistently provides prognostic information for cardiovascular events and all cause death, independent of clinical risk factors and other biomarkers. GDF-15 could be considered as a valuable addition to future risk prediction model in secondary prevention for predicting clinical events in patient with stable CAD.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 453-460, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927989

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the pharmaceutical effect and underlying mechanism of Zexie Decoction(ZXD) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in vitro and in vivo via the LKB1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway based on palmitic acid(PA)-induced lipid accumulation model and high-fat diet(HFD)-induced NAFLD model in mice. As revealed by the MTT assay, ZXD had no effect on HepG2 activity, but dose-dependently down-regulated alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the liver cell medium induced by PA, and decreased the plasma levels of ALT and AST, and total cholesterol(TC) and triglyceride(TG) levels in the liver. Nile red staining showed PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, significantly increased lipid accumulation of hepatocytes induced by PA, suggesting that the lipid accumulation model in vitro was properly induced. ZXD could effectively improve the lipid accumulation of hepatocytes induced by PA. Oil red O staining also demonstrated that ZXD improved the lipid accumulation in the liver of HFD mice. JC-1 staining for mitochondrial membrane potential indicated that ZXD effectively reversed the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential caused by hepatocyte injury induced by PA, activated PGC-1α, and up-regulated the expression of its target genes, such as ACADS, CPT-1α, CPT-1β, UCP-1, ACSL-1, and NRF-1. In addition, as revealed by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ZXD up-regulated the protein expression levels of LKB1, p-AMPK, p-ACC, and PGC-1α in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, ZXD can improve NAFLD and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the LKB1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 428-432, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927985

ABSTRACT

Three sesquiterpenoids were isolated and purified from the 95% ethanol extract of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and physiochemical properties as(7Z)-8β,13-diacetoxy-eudesma-4(15),7(11)-diene(1), 7-oxo-7,8-secoeudesma-4(15),11-dien-8-oic acid(2), and guai-10(14)-en-11-ol(3). Compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds and compound 3 was obtained from Compositae family for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities against sterol regulatory element-binding proteins(SREBPs).


Subject(s)
Atractylodes/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane/pharmacology , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 589-601, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Infant adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) collected from excised polydactyly fat tissue, which was surgical waste, could be cultured and expanded in vitro in this study. In addition, the collecting process would not cause pain in the host. In this study, the proliferation, reduction of senescence, anti-oxidative ability, and differentiation potential in the infant ADSCs were compared with those in the adult ADSCs harvested from thigh liposuction to determine the availability of infant ADSCs. @*METHODS@#Proliferation was determined by detecting the fold changes in cell numbers and doubling time periods.Senescence was analyzed by investigating the age-related gene expression levels and the replicative stress. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression, adipogenic, neurogenic, osteogenic, and tenogenic differentiation were compared by RTqPCR. The chondrogenic differentiation efficiency was also determined using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. @*RESULTS@#The proliferation, SOD (SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3) gene expression, the stemness-related gene (c-MYC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase of the infant ADSCs at early passages were enhanced compared with those of the adults’Cellular senescence related genes, including p16, p21 and p53, and replicative stress were reduced in the infant ADSCs. The adipogenic genes (PPARγ and LPL) and neurogenic genes (MAP2 and NEFH) of the infant ADSC differentiated cells were significantly higher than those of the adults’ while the expression of the osteogenic genes (OCN and RUNX) and tenogenic genes (TNC and COL3A1) of both demonstrated opposite results. The chondrogenic markers (SOX9, COL2 and COL10) were enhanced in the infant ADSC differentiated chondrogenic pellets, and the expression levels of SODs were decreased during the differentiation process. @*CONCLUSION@#Cultured infant ADSCs demonstrate less cellular senescence and replicative stress, higher proliferation rates, better antioxidant defense activity, and higher potential of chondrogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic differentiation.

13.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 298-304, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930141

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Ginsenoside Re on the proliferation and protein secretion of primary cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) cultured in high glucose by vitro, and the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.Methods:The myocardial fibroblast proliferation model induced by high glucose in vitro was used. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT method, cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry, concentration of type Ⅰ,Ⅲ collagens and TGF-β 1 protein were tested by ELISA assay. Protein expression of β-catenin, GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β were determined by Western blot. Results:Compared with the model group, the cell proliferation in Ginsenoside Re high, medium, low group were significantly decreased ( P<0.01), the percentage of cells in G 0 + G 1 phase was increased ( P<0.01), and the percentage of cells in S + G 2 + M phase was decreased ( P<0.01), the content of TGF-β 1 was significantly decreased( P<0.01). The content of type Ⅲ collagen [(6.566±1.620)ng/ml,(7.170±0.470)ng/ml vs. (11.241±2.234)ng/ml] in Ginsenoside Re high, medium group were significantly decreased ( P<0.01). The expression of β-catenin (0.281±0.016, 0.301±0.021 vs. 0.409±0.037) was significantly decreased and the expression of p-GSK-3β (0.369±0.049 vs. 0.268±0.048) in Ginsenoside Re high, medium group were significantly increased ( P<0.01). Conclusion:Ginsenoside Re plays an important role in inhibiting CFs proliferation and reducting the synthesis of collagen and TGF-β 1 by regulating abnormal expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. It has the potential to delay the myocardial fibrosis of diabetes mellitus.

14.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E312-E316, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961729

ABSTRACT

Objective By establishing finite element model of the proximal femur, the injury risk of proximal femur under the conditions of self-selected speed rise and rapid rise at initial stage of standing during sit-to-stand (STS) transition was analyzed.Methods CT images of proximal femur in the elderly were processed with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and reverse modeling, so as to complete the solid model. The finite element model was established through material assignment and meshing. Based on the finite element analysis software ANSYS, the boundary conditions were constrained, and 1.733 kN and 1.837 kN loads were applied to obtain stress distributions and strain of proximal femur at different rising speeds. Results The stress concentrated at medial edge of the greater trochanter and the femoral neck. The peak stress and micro-strain appeared on inner edge of the larger rotor. The peak stress was 30.16 MPa and peak micro-strain was 2 553.5 at rapid rising speed. The peak stress and peak micro-strain at self-selected rising speed were 28.69 MPa and 2 430.4, respectively, which were relatively lower. For stress concentration area of femoral neck, the stress ranges at rapid rising speed and self-selected rising speed were 13.42-23.46 MPa and 12.76-25.51 MPa, respectively.Conclusions Frequent STS transition may increase the risk of fatigue fractures for proximal femur in the elderly. Rapid STS transition has a higher injury risk for proximal femur than STS transition at self-selected speed.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 20-29, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940203

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Jiangtang Xiaozhi tablet (JTXZT) on metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and to study the mechanism from the perspective of circadian clock-related genes such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (BMAL1), reverse-eritroblastosis receptor (REV-ERB)α and β. MethodA total of 50 male SPF C57BL/6J mice were randomized into normal group (n=10) and modeling group (n=40). The normal group was fed with normal diet, and the modeling group with high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Then the model mice were randomly classified into model group, high-dose (12.5 g·kg-1) and low-dose (6.25 g·kg-1) Jiangtang Xiaozhi tablet groups, and orlistat group (70 mg·kg-1), with 10 mice in each group. The normal group and model group received equivalent volume of distilled water (8 weeks). Then, the body weight of mice was measured, and the content of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was determined with biochemical method. Serum content of free fatty acid (FFA) and leptin was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathological changes of liver tissue and epididymal adipose tissue were observed based on hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Liver fibrosis was examined based on Masson's trichrome staining, and changes of lipids based on oil red O staining. The expression of CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, and REV-ERBβ was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group had high content of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, ALT, FFA, and leptin (P<0.05, P<0.01), showed ballooning degeneration and focal microvesicular steatosis of liver cells, enlarged adipocytes, and inflammatory cell clusters and fibrous tissue hyperplasia, and displayed increased protein expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) 1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)γ (P<0.01) and decreased protein expression of PPARα (P<0.05), CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα and β (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, JTXZT-H group down-regulated the content of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, ALT, FFA, and leptin in mice (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the JTXZT groups demonstrated reduction in the degree and range of ballooning degeneration of liver tissue, alleviation of the compression of hepatic sinusoidal tissue, unobvious inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue proliferation, reduction in the expression of SREBP1 and PPARγ (P<0.05, P<0.01), and rise of the protein expression of PPARα (P<0.01), CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, and REV-ERBβ (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionJTXZT can significantly alleviate the metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease in mice caused by high-fat diet. The mechanism is the likelihood that it regulates downstream related lipid metabolism proteins (such as SREBP1, PPARγ, and PPARα).

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 20-29, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940106

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Jiangtang Xiaozhi tablet (JTXZT) on metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and to study the mechanism from the perspective of circadian clock-related genes such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (BMAL1), reverse-eritroblastosis receptor (REV-ERB)α and β. MethodA total of 50 male SPF C57BL/6J mice were randomized into normal group (n=10) and modeling group (n=40). The normal group was fed with normal diet, and the modeling group with high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Then the model mice were randomly classified into model group, high-dose (12.5 g·kg-1) and low-dose (6.25 g·kg-1) Jiangtang Xiaozhi tablet groups, and orlistat group (70 mg·kg-1), with 10 mice in each group. The normal group and model group received equivalent volume of distilled water (8 weeks). Then, the body weight of mice was measured, and the content of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was determined with biochemical method. Serum content of free fatty acid (FFA) and leptin was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathological changes of liver tissue and epididymal adipose tissue were observed based on hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Liver fibrosis was examined based on Masson's trichrome staining, and changes of lipids based on oil red O staining. The expression of CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, and REV-ERBβ was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group had high content of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, ALT, FFA, and leptin (P<0.05, P<0.01), showed ballooning degeneration and focal microvesicular steatosis of liver cells, enlarged adipocytes, and inflammatory cell clusters and fibrous tissue hyperplasia, and displayed increased protein expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) 1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)γ (P<0.01) and decreased protein expression of PPARα (P<0.05), CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα and β (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, JTXZT-H group down-regulated the content of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, ALT, FFA, and leptin in mice (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the JTXZT groups demonstrated reduction in the degree and range of ballooning degeneration of liver tissue, alleviation of the compression of hepatic sinusoidal tissue, unobvious inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue proliferation, reduction in the expression of SREBP1 and PPARγ (P<0.05, P<0.01), and rise of the protein expression of PPARα (P<0.01), CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, and REV-ERBβ (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionJTXZT can significantly alleviate the metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease in mice caused by high-fat diet. The mechanism is the likelihood that it regulates downstream related lipid metabolism proteins (such as SREBP1, PPARγ, and PPARα).

17.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 1228-1233, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957681

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the expression of Macrophage migration-inhibitory factors (MIF) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its interaction with ERK1/2 signaling pathway, so as to establish a theoretical basis for further studying the molecular mechanism of MIF promoting HCC.Methods:From February 2020 to August 2021, 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues based on hepatitis B cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and 52 cases of adjacent tissues in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital and 940th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force of PLA were collected as the experimental group, including 39 males and 13 females, aged 35-65 years. And 20 cases of normal liver tissue were selected as the control group. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MIF, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 proteins in liver tissues of the two groups, and in situ hybridization was used to detect the expression of ERK1/2 nucleic acid in liver tissues of the two groups.HepG2 HCC cells and L-02 normal hepatocytes were co-cultured with different concentrations of rMIF, the expression and phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and JNK1 proteins in the two kinds of liver cells were detected by Western-blot, and the expression levels of ERK1/2 nucleic acids in the two kinds of liver cells were detected by RT-PCR. One-way ANOVA was used for measurement data and χ 2 test was used for counting data. Results:The expressions of MIF, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and ERK1/2 mRNA were significantly increased in HCC and para-cancer tissues (the expression of MIF in HCC group was 78.8%, and that in adjacent group was 75.0%; ERK1/2 80.8% in HCC group and ERK1/2 71.8% in paracancerous group. The expression of p-ERK1/2 75.0 % in HCC group and 46.2% in paracancerous group were respectively detected. ERK1/2 mRNA was expressed in HCC group 76.9%, ERK1/2 mRNA expression in paracancerous group 78.8%), and the differences were statistically significant compared with normal liver tissues ( P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between HCC and para-cancer tissues ( P>0.05). The expressions of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and ERK1/2 mRNA in HepG2 HCC cells were significantly increased with the increase of rMIF concentration, and the increase was most obvious when rMIF concentration was 200 ng/ml, and the difference was statistically significant compared with L-02 normal hepatocytes ( P<0.05). Conclusion:MIF, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 are highly expressed in HCC tissues and HepG2 HCC cells, suggesting that MIF promotes the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma through ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 111-118, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906338

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the extraction method and characteristics of vesicle-like nanoparticles (VLNs) in Astragali Radix decoction, and to explore the mechanism of the VLNs in reducing blood glucose by regulating the gut microbiota of db/db diabetic mice. Method:Ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography were used to enrich VLNs from Astragali Radix decoction, and the morphology, particle size and concentration of the VLNs were analyzed by transmission electron microscope and nanoparticle tracking analyzer. The db/db diabetic mice were randomly divided into model group, Astragali Radix VLNs high-, medium- and low-dose (21.1, 10.6, 5.3 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups and metformin group (0.25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) according to their blood glucose levels. There were 7 mice in each group, and another 7 C57BL/6 mice were set as the normal group. The mice were given intragastrically for 3 weeks (once a day), and the changes of fasting blood glucose were observed every week. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of liver and pancreas of diabetic mice. The feces of mice were collected for 16S rRNA diversity detection of intestinal microbes. Result:The size of the nanoparticles obtained by the two methods was about 200 nm. Astragali Radix VLNs extracted by ultracentrifugation had a typical saucer-like shape with the concentration of 3.0×10<sup>11</sup> particles·mL<sup>-1</sup>. The morphology of Astragali Radix VLNs obtained by size exclusion chromatography was relatively poor with the concentration of 2.2×10<sup>11</sup> particles·mL<sup>-1</sup>. After 3 weeks of administration, compared with the model group, Astragali Radix VLNs high-, medium- and low-dose groups could significantly reduce the fasting blood glucose of diabetic mice (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The VLNs could improve the gut microbiota dysbiosis, significantly decrease the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidota, and increase the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria and reduce the relative abundance of harmful bacteria. Conclusion:Astragali Radix VLNs may reduce the blood glucose of db/db diabetic mice by adjusting the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidota in the intestinal flora.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 147-157, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906282

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the molecular mechanism of Jiangtang Xiaozhi tablets (JTXZT) in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of network pharmacology and molecular docking. Method:With the help of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), TCMs Integrated Database (TCMID), Encyclopedia of TCM (ETCM) and Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM), the chemical compositions of medicinal materials in JTXZT were obtained, the compound targets were predicted in SwissTargetPrediction database and STITCH database. The targets of NAFLD were searched by The Human Gene Database (GeneCards), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and DisGeNET, and intersection analysis was performed with the targets of the active ingredients to obtain the targets of JTXZT for treatment of NAFLD. Based on STRING 11.0 database, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of therapeutic targets was constructed, and the enrichment analysis of therapeutic targets was carried out by DAVID 6.8. Finally, the interaction characteristics of key components and core therapeutic targets of JTXZT for treatment of NAFLD were verified based on molecular docking. Result:The key components of JTXZT for treatment of NAFLD were quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, berberine, isorhamnetin, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid. formononetin and hexitol, and the core targets of JTXZT for treatment of NAFLD were mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), Jun proto-oncogene, activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor subunit (JUN), MAPK3, protein kinase B1 (AKT1 or Akt1), tumor protein p53 (TP53), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (FOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF),amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1 (CYP2E1). Biological function and pathway enrichment analysis showed that JTXZT mainly through xenobiotic metabolic process, oxidation-reduction process, cholesterol metabolic process and other biological processes, regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, NAFLD and insulin signaling pathway to play a role in the treatment of NAFLD. The results of molecular docking showed that the active components of JTXZT had a good affinity with the core targets of JTXZT for the treatment of NAFLD. Conclusion:JTXZT treats NAFLD through multiple active components, multiple key targets and multiple action pathways.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 59-64, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the intervention of phlegm-stasis co-treatment on the myocardial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-<italic>κ</italic>B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B)/nuclear factor-<italic>κ</italic>B inhibitor (I<italic>κ</italic>B) signaling pathway, and to investigate its mechanism in improving myocardial inflammation in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Method:Forty-five male SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group, a phlegm-resolving (Xiao Xianxiongtang, 4.05 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, a stasis-resolving (Xuefu Zhuyutang, 7.02 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, a co-treatment (Didang Xianxiong decoction, 8.10 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, an alagebrium chloride (3 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and a model group. Except for normal group, the other rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg·kg<sup>-1 </sup>streptozotocin (STZ) to establish DM model. After adaptive feeding for three weeks, the rats were treated correspondingly by gavage daily for eight weeks. Rats were sampled under anesthesia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the protein expression of TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) in myocardial tissues. The expression levels of NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65 and I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic> were detected by immunohistochemistry. NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic>, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and TLR4 mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR). Result:The protein and mRNA levels of TLR4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic>, and TNF-<italic>α </italic>were higher in the model group than those in the normal group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). TLR4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic>, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> protein and mRNA expression levels were reduced to varying degrees in the groups with drug intervention as compared with those in the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The inter-group comparison revealed that the co-treatment group showed more manifest reduction in protein and mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α,</italic> and TNF-<italic>α </italic>than the phlegm-resolving group and the stasis-resolving group (<italic>P</italic><0.05<italic>,P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:The co-treatment of phlegm and stasis can improve myocardial inflammation in DM rats, with superior effect to either the phlegm-resolving method or the stasis-resolving method. The underlying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B/I<italic>κ</italic>B signaling pathway activation.

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