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1.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(4): 300-304, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356187

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the complications of surgical treatment in a group of patients with spinal metastasis with epidural compression, undergoing surgical treatment. Methods: This is a comparative retrospective study (level of evidence III), which evaluated 96 patients with spinal metastases undergoing surgical treatment. Intra- and postoperative complications were obtained from the patients' medical records and correlated with the following clinical characteristics: tumor type, tumor location, neurological deficit, age, number of affected vertebrae, Tokuhashi scale, Tomita scale, Karnofsky performance scale, and type of approach. Results: Complications of surgical treatment were observed in 29 (30.20%) patients. Surgical wound infection was the most frequent complication, observed in 15% of patients. Conclusions: Surgical treatment of spinal metastases presents complications in about 30% of patients and their occurrence should be considered in the treatment planning, weighing the risks and benefits for achieving the treatment goals. Level III evidence; Retrospective Study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as complicações do tratamento cirúrgico em grupo de pacientes com metástase da coluna vertebral, compressão epidural e submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo comparativo (nível de evidência III), que avaliou 96 pacientes com metástase da coluna vertebral, submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. As complicações intra e pós-operatórias foram obtidas dos prontuários dos pacientes e correlacionadas com características clínicas: tipo de tumor, localização do tumor, déficit neurológico, idade, número de vértebras acometidas, escala de Tokuhashi, escala de Tomita, escala de performance de Karnofsky e tipo de acesso. Resultados: As complicações do tratamento cirúrgico foram observadas em 29 (30,20%) pacientes. A infecção da ferida operatória foi a complicação mais frequente e observada em 15% dos pacientes. Conclusões: O tratamento cirúrgico das metástases da coluna vertebral apresenta complicações em cerca de 30% dos pacientes, e a sua ocorrência deve ser considerada na elaboração do tratamento frente aos riscos e benefícios para a obtenção dos objetivos do tratamento. Evidência nível III; Estudo Retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar las complicaciones del tratamiento quirúrgico en un grupo de pacientes con metástasis vertebrales, compresión epidural y sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio comparativo retrospectivo (nivel de evidencia III), que evaluó a 96 pacientes con metástasis en la columna vertebral sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico. Las complicaciones intra y postoperatorias se obtuvieron de la historia clínica de los pacientes y se correlacionaron con las características clínicas: tipo de tumor, localización del tumor, déficit neurológico, edad, número de vértebras afectadas, escala de Tokuhashi, escala de Tomita, escala de rendimiento de Karnofsky y tipo de acceso. Resultados: Se observaron complicaciones del tratamiento quirúrgico en 29 (30,20%) pacientes. La infección de la herida quirúrgica fue la complicación más frecuente y se observó en el 15% de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El tratamiento quirúrgico de las metástasis de columna vertebral presenta complicaciones en aproximadamente el 30% de los pacientes, y su ocurrencia debe ser considerada en la elaboración del tratamiento, considerando los riesgos y beneficios para lograr los objetivos del mismo. Evidencia de nivel III; Estudio retrospectivo.

2.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(1): 64-67, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of the study was to report the prevalence of spinal metastasis with unknown primary tumor, clinical features, treatment results and patient survival. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of 103 patients with spinal metastasis and epidural compression, who underwent surgical treatment between March 2009 and August 2015. The prevalence of metastatic spinal tumor with unknown primary tumor was evaluated, as well clinical features, survival and treatment results. Results: Of 103 patients with spinal metastasis and epidural compression, seven patients (6.8%) with unknown primary tumor site were identified; five (71.4%) male and two (28.6%) female, with ages ranging from 37 to 67 years (50.7 years). The metastasis was located in the thoracic spine in six of the patients (85.7%) and in the cervical spine in one (14.3%). The mean survival time was 44.8 days. Conclusion: Spinal metastasis with unknown primary tumor was found in 6.8% of patients. The prognosis and outcomes were poor, and patients had poor survival rates. Level of evidence III; Experimental study.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar a prevalência de metástases vertebrais em tumores primários desconhecidos, suas características clínicas, resultados do tratamento e sobrevida dos pacientes. Métodos: Avaliação retrospectiva de 103 pacientes com metástase da coluna vertebral e compressão epidural, submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico entre março de 2009 e agosto de 2015. Avaliou-se a prevalência de tumores metastáticos vertebrais com tumor primário desconhecido, assim como as características clínicas, a sobrevida e os resultados do tratamento. Resultados: Dos 103 pacientes com metástase vertebral e compressão epidural, foram identificados sete pacientes (6,8%) com tumor primário de origem desconhecida; cinco pacientes (71,4%) eram do sexo masculino e dois pacientes (28,6%) do sexo feminino, com idades variando de 37 a 67 anos (50,7 anos). A localização da metástase vertebral era na coluna torácica em seis pacientes (85,7%) e na coluna cervical em um paciente (14,3%). A média de sobrevida dos pacientes foi de 44,8 dias. Conclusões: As metástases vertebrais com tumor primário de origem desconhecida foram observadas em 6,8% dos pacientes. O prognóstico e os resultados foram ruins, e os pacientes tiveram sobrevida bastante baixa. Nível de evidencia III; Estudo Comparativo Retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue relatar la prevalencia de metástasis vertebrales en tumores primarios desconocidos, sus características clínicas, resultados del tratamiento y sobrevida de los pacientes. Métodos: Evaluación retrospectiva de 103 pacientes con metástasis de la columna vertebral y compresión epidural, sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico entre marzo de 2009 y agosto de 2015. Se evaluó la prevalencia de tumores metastásicos con tumor primario desconocido, así como las características clínicas, la sobrevida y los resultados del tratamiento. Resultados: De los 103 pacientes con metástasis vertebral y compresión epidural, fueron identificados siete pacientes (6,8%) con tumor primario de origen desconocido; cinco pacientes (71,4 %%) eran del sexo masculino y dos (28,6%) del sexo femenino, con edades variando de 37 a 67 años (50,7 años). La localización de la metástasis vertebral era en la columna torácica en seis pacientes (85,7%) y en la columna cervical en un paciente (14,3%). El promedio de sobrevida de los pacientes fue de 44,8 días. Conclusiones: Las metástasis vertebrales con tumor primario de origen desconocido fueron observadas en 6,8% de los pacientes. El pronóstico y los resultados fueron malos y los pacientes tuvieron sobrevida bastante baja. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio Comparativo Retrospectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Neoplasm Metastasis
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047684

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Weight gain frequently occurs during treatment for breast cancer. Objective: To evaluate changes in dietary intake and physical activity in the weight evolution of women on systemic oncologic treatment for breast cancer. Method: The prospective and comparative study included 89 women submitted to systemic oncologic treatment for breast cancer, grouped according to the occurrence of weight gain in relation to body weight documented before beginning treatment. Patients were classified as 1) Group with weight gain (those with an increase in body weight greater than or equal to 2% over pre-treatment weight); 2) Group without weight gain (those who maintained or lost weight during treatment). We calculated body mass index (BMI) of patients and analyzed their body composition by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Changes in food intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, and physical activity level, as well as reductions in muscle and fat mass, were documented. Results:Tumor staging (p=0.24), use of antineoplastic drugs (p=0.23) and intention of treatment (p=0.61) were no different between the weight gain group (n=36) and no weight gain group (n=53). No difference was found in anthropometric and BIA data between the groups during oncologic treatment. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms was not different between the groups. However, increased food intake and bed rest, and a decrease in physical activity level were more frequent among women who gained weight during therapy. Conclusions: Weight gain in women undergoing systemic oncologic therapy for breast cancer may be, at least in part, caused by higher energy intake and lower physical activity.


Introdução: O ganho ponderal ocorre com frequência durante o tratamento oncológico para o câncer de mama. Objetivo: Avaliar as mudanças da ingestão alimentar e da atividade física na evolução ponderal de mulheres sob tratamento oncológico sistêmico para câncer de mama. Método: Estudo prospectivo e comparativo que incluiu 89 mulheres submetidas a tratamento oncológico sistêmico para neoplasia mamária, agrupadas de acordo com a ocorrência de aumento ponderal em relação ao peso corporal documentado antes do início do tratamento. As pacientes foram classificadas em 1) Grupo com ganho ponderal (aumento ≥2% em relação ao peso pré-tratamento); 2) Grupo sem ganho ponderal (ganho ou manutenção do peso durante o tratamento). O índice de massa corporal foi calculado e a composição corporal foi determinada por impedância bioelétrica. Foram documentadas mudanças na ingestão de alimentos e no padrão de atividade física, queixas digestivas e alterações da massa corporal muscular e adiposa. Resultados: Os grupos com ganho ponderal (n=36) e sem ganho ponderal (n=53) foram semelhantes quanto ao estadiamento tumoral (p=0,24), emprego das classes de drogas antineoplásicas (p=0,23) e modalidade de tratamento oncológico (p=0,61). Durante o tratamento oncológico sistêmico, a composição corporal foi semelhante entre os grupos de estudo. Comparadas com o grupo sem ganho de peso, houve maior proporção de aumento na ingestão alimentar e de restrição na atividade física entre as mulheres que ganharam peso. Conclusão: O ganho ponderal em mulheres com neoplasia mamária em tratamento oncológico sistêmico pode ser atribuído à maior ingestão energética e à redução na atividade física.


Introducción: El aumento de peso es frecuente durante el tratamiento oncológico para el cáncer de mama. Objetivo: Evaluar los cambios de la ingesta alimentaria y de la actividad física en la evolución ponderal de las mujeres en tratamiento oncológico sistémico para el cáncer de mama. Método: El estudio prospectivo y comparativo incluyó 89 mujeres sometidas a tratamiento sistémico oncológico por neoplasia mamaria, agrupadas de acuerdo con la ocurrencia de aumento ponderal en relación al peso corporal al início del tratamiento. Las pacientes fueron clasificadas en 1) Grupo con ganancia ponderal (≥2% en relación al peso pretratamiento); 2) Grupo sin ganancia ponderal (mantenimiento o pérdida de peso durante el tratamiento). El índice de masa corporal fue calculado y la composición corporal fue determinada por impedancia bioeléctrica. Fueron documentadas las variaciones en la ingestión de alimentos y el patrón de actividad física, quejas digestivas y redución en la masa corporal. Resultados: Los grupos con ganancia ponderal (n=36) y sin ganancia ponderal (n=53) fueron semejantes cuanto a estadificación tumoral (p=0,24), empleo de medicamentos antineoplásicos (p=0,23) y modalidad del tratamiento oncológico (p=0,61). Durante el tratamiento oncológico, la composición corporal fue semejante entre los grupos de estudio. Comparados con el grupo sin aumento de peso, se observó aumento en la ingestión de alimentos y restricción en la actividad física entre las mujeres que ganaron peso. Conclusión: El aumento de peso en mujeres sometidas a tratamiento oncológico para cáncer de mama, puede ser atribuido a mayor ingestión energética y reducción de actividad física.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Exercise , Weight Gain , Eating
4.
Mastology (Impr.) ; 28(1): 46-50, jan.-mar.2018.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-915928

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a growing clinical condition around the world, considered a risk factor for numerous diseases such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, diabetes, and cancer. Among the neoplasms related to overweight, breast cancer stands out. Therefore, the objective of this review is to elucidate the impact of obesity on the most prevalent cancer among women, either as a direct risk factor for its onset or as a determinant of survival


A obesidade aponta como condição clínica em ascensão pelo mundo, considerada fator de risco para inúmeras doenças como hipertensão, infarto, diabetes e câncer. Dentre as neoplasias relacionadas com o excesso de peso, destaca-se o câncer de mama. O objetivo desta revisão é, portanto, elucidar o impacto que a obesidade causa no câncer mais prevalente entre as mulheres, seja como fator de risco direto para seu aparecimento, seja como determinante na sobrevida

5.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 51(3): 167-176, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979591

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients usually require palliative care. One of the reasons for this is malnutrition, which is common in these patients, affecting their prognosis and quality of life. Data on nutritional care in palliative care are still scarce. Objective: To characterize the diagnosis and nutritional care in palliative care cancer patients hospitalized in a public health setting. Methods: Descriptive retrospective cohort study on clinical, laboratory, and nutritional data obtained from medical records of cancer patients in palliative care. Results: A total of 128 admissions of cancer patients in palliative care were analyzed. Main primary cancer sites were in digestive, urologic and pulmonary systems. Mean age was 64.3±16.6 years. Patients were clinically and nutritionally compromised ­ mean performance status of 17.77±7.15, hemoglobin 9.6±2.37U/dL, albumin 2.64±0.64g/dL, C-reactive protein 125.37±68.37ml/L, and 60.8% of malnutrition (mean BMI of 20.19±5.57kg/m2). Oral route was the main route of administration (62.5%) and analysis of agreement revealed nutritional provision in excess of estimated daily requirements. No association was found between fasting condition, hospitalization outcome (death) and nutritional diagnosis (p=0.51). Conclusions: These cancer patients received palliative care just at the end stage of life, when most of them were malnourished, symptomatic, without specific oncologic treatment, and with a poor performance status. There was a preference for oral nutritional therapy, however, energy and protein supply were higher than the estimated nutritional requirements. The realization of fasting during hospitalization in the moments before death was not associated with the patient's outcome. (AU)


Objetivo: Caracterizar o diagnóstico e o cuidado nutricional em pacientes em cuidados paliativos hospitalizados em um serviço de saúde pública. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo descritivo sobre dados clínicos, laboratoriais e nutricionais obtidos de prontuários de pacientes oncológicos em cuidados paliativos. Resultados: Foram analisadas 128 internações de pacientes oncológicos em cuidados paliativos. Os principais sítios tumorais primários estavam nos sistemas digestivo, urológico e pulmonar. A média de idade foi de 64,3 ± 16,6 anos. Os pacientes estavam clínica e nutricionalmente comprometidos - desempenho médio de 17,77 ± 7,15, hemoglobina 9,6 ± 2,37 U/dL, albumina 2,64 ± 0,64 g/dL, proteína C-reativa 125,37 ± 68,37 ml/L e 60,8% de desnutrição (IMC médio de 20,19 5,57 kg/m2). A via oral foi a principal via de administração (62,5%) e a análise de concordância revelou o suprimento nutricional em excesso às necessidades diárias estimadas. Não foi encontrada associação entre condição de jejum, desfecho da hospitalização (morte) e diagnóstico nutricional (p = 0,51). Conclusões: Esta população de pacientes oncológicos recebeu cuidados paliativos no estágio final de vida, quando a maioria estava desnutrida, sintomática, sem tratamento oncológico e com baixo desempenho funcional. Houve a preferência pelo uso da via oral para a realização da terapia nutricional, contudo, observou-se fornecimento energético e proteico superior às necessidades nutricionais estimadas. A realização de jejum durante o período de internação hospitalar que antecede o óbito não foi associada com o desfecho dos pacientes. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Palliative Care , Nutrition Assessment , Public Health , Nutritional Status , Neoplasms
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(12): 875-880, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888280

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant glioma and represents 29% of all brain tumors. Tumorigenesis is intimately connected with characteristics acquired in the physiologic pathway of cellular death. Objective: In the present study, the expression of anti-apoptotic (XIAP and Bcl-2) and apoptotic (cytochrome C, caspase 9, APAF-1), caspase 3 and the Smac/DIABLO genes related to the apoptosis pathway were evaluated in 30 samples of glioblastoma. Methods: The gene expression was evaluated in 30 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) and compared to 10 white matter control samples with real-time PCR. Results and Conclusion: There were higher expressions of XIAP (p = 0.0032) and Bcl-2 (p = 0.0351) in the glioblastoma samples compared to the control samples of normal brain. These results raise the question of whether Bcl-2 and XIAP genes can be responsible for the inhibition of programmed cell death in glioblastomas. Moreover, they provide additional information capable of allowing the development of new target therapy strategies.


RESUMO O glioblastoma (GBM) é o glioma mais maligno e representa 29% de todos os tumores cerebrais. A tumorigênese está intimamente ligada à características adquiridas na via fisiológica de morte celular. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão de genes anti-apoptóticos (XIAP e Bcl-2) e apoptóticos (citocromo C, a caspase 9, APAF-1), caspase 3 e SMAC/DIABLO, relacionados à apoptose, em 30 amostras de tecido de pacientes com glioblastoma. Métodos: A expressão gênica foi avaliada em trinta glioblastomas e comparada a dez amostras controles de substância branca por PCR em tempo real. Resultados e Conclusão: Houve maior nível de expressão de XIAP (p = 0,0032) e Bcl-2 (p = 0,0351) em comparação com as amostras controle, de cérebro normal. Estes resultados levantam a questão de que os genes Bcl-2 e XIAP podem ser responsáveis pela inibição da morte celular programada em glioblastomas, além disso, proporcionam informação adicional capaz de permitir o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de terapia alvo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioblastoma/genetics , Glioblastoma/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(4): 209-215, Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT One of the different genetic mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis of meningiomas is influenced by interactions between proteins that induce and inhibit apoptosis. Objective To evaluate the expression of c-FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspase 3, 8 and 9, cytochrome c, APAF 1 and Smac/DIABLO genes related to apoptosis pathways. Methods The gene expression was evaluated in 30 meningiomas (WHO grades I and II) and in 10 normal samples (from arachnoid tissue) through PCR-RT. Results The results showed higher expression of anti-apoptotic genes in meningiomas when compared to the control group, which had a low expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Conclusion There is a possible block in the activation of caspases through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in meningiomas. c-FLIP modulates caspase 8 and, by inhibiting its activation due to the lack of connection with the receiver, there is a block to the FAS activation of apoptosis by its extrinsic pathway.


RESUMO Um dos diferentes mecanismos genéticos envolvidos na carcinogênese de meningiomas é influenciado por interações entre proteínas que induzem e inibem a apoptose. Objetivos Avaliar a expressão de c-FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspase 3, 8 e 9, citocromo C, APAF 1 e Smac/DIABLO, genes relacionados com as vias da apoptose. Métodos A expressão gênica foi avaliada em trinta amostras de meningiomas (OMS grau I e II) e em dez amostras normais (de aracnóide) por PCR em tempo real. Resultados Os resultados mostraram maior expressão de genes antiapoptóticos em meningiomas quando comparados com controle, em contraste com a menor expressão de genes próapoptóticos. Conclusão Há um possível bloqueio na ativação de caspases através da via intrínseca da apoptose em meningiomas. O c-FLIP modula a caspase 8 e, desse modo, inibindo a sua ativação pela ausência de ligação com o receptor, há um bloqueio na ativação de FAS pela via extrínseca da apoptose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Meningioma/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Grading
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 243-250, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837691

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the expression of EGFR, KRAS genes, microRNAs-21 and 203 in colon and rectal cancer samples, correlated with their age at diagnosis, histological subtype, value of pretreatment CEA, TNM staging and clinical outcome. Methods: Expression of genes and microRNAs by real time PCR in tumor and non-tumor samples obtained from surgical treatment of 50 patients. Results: An increased expression of microRNAs-21 and 203 in tumor samples in relation to non-tumor samples was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes and microRNAs when compared to age at diagnosis and histological subtype. The EGFR gene showed higher expression in relation to the value of CEA diagnosis. The expression of microRNA-203 was progressively lower in relation to the TNM staging and was higher in the patient group in clinical remission. Conclusions: The therapy of colon and rectum tumors based on microRNAs remains under investigation reserving huge potential for future applications and clinical interventions in conjunction with existing therapies. We expect, based on the exposed data, to stimulate the development of new therapeutic possibilities, making the treatment of these tumors more effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Gene Expression , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/analysis , Genes, ras , Genes, erbB-1 , MicroRNAs/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Staging
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(1): 24-28, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on fatigue intensity and quality of life of patients during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 24 patients on chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma in a tertiary care public hospital. The study patients received zinc capsules 35mg (Zinc Group, n=10) or placebo (Placebo Group, n=14) orally, twice daily (70mg/day), for 16 weeks, from the immediate postoperative period to the fourth chemotherapy cycle. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of the tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen. Before each of the four cycles of chemotherapy, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale was completed. We used a linear mixed model for longitudinal data for statistical analysis. Results The scores of quality of life and fatigue questionnaires were similar between the groups during the chemotherapy cycles. The Placebo Group presented worsening of quality of life and increased fatigue between the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy, but there were no changes in the scores of quality of life or fatigue in the Zinc Group. Conclusion Zinc supplementation prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral de zinco sobre a intensidade da fadiga e a qualidade de vida de pacientes durante a quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal. Métodos Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego conduzido em um hospital universitário público terciário, com 24 pacientes em regime quimioterápico para adenocarcinoma colorretal. Os pacientes receberam cápsulas de zinco 35mg (Grupo Zinco, n=10) ou placebo (Grupo Placebo, n=14) por via oral, duas vezes ao dia (70mg/dia), durante 16 semanas, desde o período pós-operatório imediato até o quarto ciclo de quimioterapia. Todos os pacientes receberam quimioterapia por aproximadamente 45 dias após a ressecção cirúrgica do tumor. A escala Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue foi preenchida antes de cada um dos quatro ciclos de quimioterapia. Utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear misto para dados longitudinais para análise estatística. Resultados Os escores de qualidade de vida e de fadiga foram semelhantes entre os grupos de estudo durante os ciclos de quimioterapia. O Grupo Placebo apresentou piora da qualidade de vida e da fadiga entre o primeiro e o quarto ciclos de quimioterapia, mas não houve mudança nos escores de qualidade de vida e fadiga no Grupo Zinco. Conclusão A suplementação com zinco previne a fadiga e preserva a qualidade de vida de pacientes em quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Zinc/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue/prevention & control , Time Factors , Zinc/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Adenocarcinoma/physiopathology , Linear Models , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Fatigue/physiopathology
10.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 30(supl.1): 197-208, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892058

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Despite the technical and scientific progress that improved therapeutic resources available in Oncology, adverse effects of treatment can be prominent, impacting the quality of life (QoL). Objective: This research aims to determine the prevalence of post-radiotherapy pelvic symptoms in prostate cancer (PC) and its impact on QoL. Methods: We assessed three groups of patients at different stages during radiotherapy (RT): Pre-RT, evaluated before of RT; Post-RT#1, evaluated between six months and one year post-RT; Post-RT#2, evaluated between two and a half and four years post-RT. The presence of urinary incontinence (UI), its characteristics and impact on daily living activities (DLA) were evaluated by ICIQ-SF questionnaire. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess QoL. Student t test was used, considering significant p < 0.05. Results: Thirty-three men were assessed (pre-RT, n = 12; Post-RT#1, n = 10; Post-RT#2, n = 11). The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was highest in Post-RT#1 group. Post-RT#2 group had the highest prevalence of post-RT UI. In QoL, Pre-RT and Post-RT#2 groups experiencing the greatest impact on physical, environmental and overall QoL. Conclusion: Acute effect of RT is characterized by a high prevalence of LUTS. Post-RT#2 group experienced the most adverse effects on DLA due to a higher prevalence of post-RT UI.


Resumo Introdução: Apesar do progresso técnico e científico que melhorou recursos terapêuticos disponíveis na Oncologia, efeitos adversos do tratamento podem ser proeminentes, impactando a qualidade de vida (QoL). Objetivo: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência de sintomas pélvicos pós-radioterapia no câncer de próstata (CaP) e seu impacto na QoL. Métodos: Avaliou-se três grupos de pacientes com CaP em diferentes estágios da radioterapia (RT): (1) Pré-RT, avaliados antes da RT; (2) Pós-RT #1, avaliados entre seis meses e um ano pós-RT; (3) Pós-RT #2, avaliados entre dois anos e meio e quatro anos pós-RT. A presença de incontinência urinária (IU), suas características e o impacto sobre as atividades da vida diária (AVD) foram avaliados através do questionário ICIQ-SF. O questionário WHOQOL-BREF foi utilizado para avaliar a QoL. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para análise estatística, considerando significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Trinta e três homens foram avaliados (pré-RT, n = 12; Pós-RT #1, n = 10; Pós-RT #2, n = 11). A prevalência de sintomas do trato urinário inferior (STUI) foi maior no grupo Pós-RT #1. O grupo Pós-RT #2 teve a maior prevalência de IU pós RT. Na avaliação da QoL, os grupos Pré-RT e Pós-RT #2 apresentaram maior impacto negativo sobre os índices relacionados aos quesitos físico, ambiental e global. Conclusão: O efeito agudo da RT foi caracterizado por uma elevada prevalência de STUI. O grupo Pós-RT #2 experimentaram maior impacto negativo as AVD, devido a uma maior prevalência de IU pós RT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Medical Oncology , Urinary Incontinence , Public Health , Prevalence , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(7): 659-663, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829516

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To compare nutritional risk in adult patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the beginning, middle, and end of oncologic treatment. Method: This prospective, comparative study included 83 adult patients, 44 undergoing chemotherapy (CT group) and 39 undergoing radiotherapy (RT group) at an oncology treatment center. Nutritional risk was determined by NRS-2002 in the beginning, middle, and end of therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 8.0 software. Results: No differences in food intake or body mass index were observed between the CT (24.6±4.8 kg/m²) and RT groups (25.0±5.9 kg/m², p=0.75). Weight loss in the preceding 3 months was detected in 56.8% of CT group and 38.5% of RT group (p=0.09). The weight loss percentage compared with the usual weight within 3 months was greater (p<0.001) in the CT (11.4±6.5%) than in the RT group (3.9±6.8%). In the beginning of treatment, we observed high percentages of patients at moderate (18.2 vs. 15.4%, p=0.73) and high nutritional risk (61.4 vs. 48.7%, p=0.25), with no statistical difference between the CT and RT groups, respectively. During therapy, the nutritional risk remained unaltered in both groups. In the end of therapy, the majority of patients were at moderate (18.2 vs. 12.8%, p=0.50) or severe nutritional risk (50.0 vs. 51.3%, p=0.91), in the CT and RT groups, respectively, regardless of the type of oncologic treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of patients at moderate or high nutritional risk in the beginning of treatment indicates the need for an early and continuous follow-up of the nutritional status of patients undergoing oncologic treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: comparar o risco nutricional de pacientes adultos submetidos a quimio e radioterapia no início, no meio e ao término do tratamento oncológico. Método: estudo prospectivo e comparativo conduzido com 83 pacientes adultos de um centro de tratamento oncológico, sendo 44 sujeitos sob quimioterapia (grupo QTx) e 39 sob radioterapia (grupo RTx). O risco nutricional foi determinado pelo questionário NRS-2002 no início, ao meio e ao término da terapia. A análise estatística foi feita com o software Statistica 8.0. Resultados: não houve diferença no padrão de ingestão alimentar e no IMC (24,6±4,8 vs. 25±5,9 kg/m²; p=0,75) nos grupos QTx e RTx, respectivamente. Perda de peso nos 3 meses precedentes ocorreu em 56,8% dos pacientes sob quimioterapia e em 38,5% daqueles sob radioterapia (p=0,09). Os pacientes do grupo QTx apresentaram maior porcentagem de perda de peso em relação ao habitual em 3 meses (11,4±6,5 vs. 3,9±6,8%; p<0,001). No início do tratamento, houve alta taxa de risco nutricional moderado (18,2 vs. 15,4%; p=0,73) e grave (61,4 vs. 48,7%; p=0,25), sem diferença estatística entre os grupos QTx e RTx, respectivamente. No meio do tratamento, o risco nutricional foi mantido em ambos os grupos. Ao término da terapia, mais da metade dos pacientes apresentava risco nutricional moderado (18,2 vs. 12,8%; p=0,50) ou grave (50 vs. 51,3%; p=0,91), independentemente da modalidade de tratamento oncológico. Conclusão: a alta prevalência de risco nutricional moderado ou grave no início do tratamento aponta para a necessidade de abordagem nutricional precoce e permanente durante a terapia oncológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Malnutrition/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/complications , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Weight Loss , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Eating/drug effects , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/radiotherapy
12.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 62(1): 51-58, jan.- mar 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847285

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O glioblastoma multiforme é a neoplasia de sistema nervoso central mais letal, com sobrevida média em torno de 13 meses e a de pior prognóstico dentre todos os gliomas. A abordagem terapêutica do glioblastoma consiste em neurocirurgia com ressecção máxima possível do volume tumoral, seguida de radioterapia e quimioterapia. A radioterapia reduz o risco de recidiva tumoral por meio de lesão direta e indireta ao ácido desoxirribonucleico tumoral. Os efeitos em longo prazo da radioterapia incluem necrose tecidual, vasculopatia e neoplasia induzida pela radiação. Os tumores malignos intracranianos secundários mais reportados incluem meningiomas, gliomas e sarcomas. O período de latência entre a radioterapia de crânio e o surgimento de lesões radioinduzida varia na literatura entre seis meses a 47 anos, com média de 18,7 anos. Relato de caso: O presente relato descreve o surgimento de sarcoma fusocelular de alto grau radioinduzido após dez meses em paciente que recebeu tratamento de glioblastoma no Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Conclusão: A raridade dessa associação se deve provavelmente à baixa sobrevida dos pacientes com glioblastoma, limitando assim o tempo para desenvolvimento de neoplasias secundárias.


Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme and neoplasia is the deadliest cancer of the central nervous system, with survival rates averaging around 13 months and it shows the worst prognosis among all gliomas. The therapeutic approach of glioblastoma is based on a full neurosurgical resection of the tumor volume followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of recurrence by direct and indirect deoxyribonucleic acid damage of the tumor. The long-term effects of radiotherapy include tissue necrosis, vascular injury and neoplasia induced by radiation. The majority of secondary intracranial tumors and most commonly reported include meningiomas, gliomas and sarcomas. The latency period between the cranial radiotherapy and the onset of radiation-induced injuries in the literature varies between six months to 47 years, with an average of 18.7 years. Case report: This report describes the onset of spindle cell sarcoma of highly radiation-induced after ten months in a patient who received treatment of Glioblastoma at the General Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ribeirao Preto. Conclusion: The rarity of this association is probably due to poor survival of patients with Glioblastoma, thus limiting the time for development of secondary malignancies.


Introducción: El glioblastoma multiforme es el cáncer más mortal del sistema nervioso central, con una supervivencia media acerca de 13 meses, y tiene el peor pronóstico entre todos los gliomas. El enfoque terapéutico del glioblastoma es la resección neurocirugica completo del volumen del posible tumor, seguido por radioterapia y quimioterapia. La radioterapia reduce el riesgo de reincidencia debido a daño directo e indirecto para el ácido desoxirribonucleico del tumor. Los efectos a largo plazo de la terapia de radiación incluyen necrosis de los tejidos, lesión vascular y el cáncer inducido por radiación. Los tumores intracraneales malignos secundarios más comunes incluyen meningiomas, gliomas y sarcomas. El período de latencia entre la radioterapia craneal y la aparición de las lesiones inducidas por radio en la literatura varía entre seis meses a 47 años, con una media 18,7 años. Caso clínico: Este caso describe la aparición de sarcoma de células fusiformes de grado alto inducida por radiación después de diez meses en un paciente que recibió tratamiento de glioblastoma en el Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto, de la Universidad de Sao Paulo. Conclusión: Esta asociación poco común es probablemente debida a la mala supervivencia de los pacientes con glioblastoma, lo que limita el tiempo para el desarrollo de neoplasias malignas secundarias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Glioblastoma/complications , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Sarcoma/radiotherapy , Glioblastoma/mortality , Survival
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(2): 155-160, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776448

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on improvement of fatigue and quality of life of patients with high-grade glioma during radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. Method This is a longitudinal, experimental study. Twenty-three patients with high-grade glioma were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory, and one of the groups received the educational intervention. The groups did not show any change in quality of life and fatigue in this study, for this reason, the educational program did not present any significant difference. However, there was a significant difference in depressive symptoms during the educational program showing positive evidence for its applicability.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a efetividade de um programa educativo na melhora da fadiga e dos sintomas depressivos em pacientes com glioma de alto grau durante o tratamento com radioterapia e quimioterapia. Método Trata-se de estudo longitudinal e experimental. Foram incluídos 23 pacientes com glioma de alto grau e divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos. Os dois grupos responderam os questionários Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue e Inventário de Depressão de Beck, porém somente um foi inserido ao programa educativo. Resultados e Conclusões Os grupos não apresentaram alteração na fadiga ao longo desse estudo, assim o programa educativo não mostrou diferença significativa, porém nos sintomas depressivos, o programa educativo trouxe diferença quando estava sendo realizado mostrando evidências positivas para sua aplicabilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Fatigue/etiology , Glioma/complications , Quality of Life , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Fatigue/prevention & control , Glioma/therapy , Neoplasm Staging
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(supl.1): 34-39, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779758

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this paper we report clinical variables on colon cancer series. Oncological outcomes were compared to low-income and high-income countries. METHODS: We analysed a prospective database of 51 colon cancer patients submitted to primary tumor resection between 2010 and 2011, showing clinical variables and oncologic outcomes. RESULTS: R0 resection obtained in 80.4%, 21.6% of patients was TNM stage IV, and only 13.7% showed TNM stage I. Disease-free survival was 32 months, overall survival was 46 months, and the tumoral recurrence rate was 9.8%. Univariate analysis showed association of serum CEA levels ≥ 5 ng/dl (p= 0.004), presence of metastasis at diagnosis (p= 0.012), compromised surgical margins (p < 0.001) and poorer tumor differentiation (p= 0.041) to death. Multivariate analysis identified compromised surgical margins as an independent risk factor for death due to colon cancer (P=0.003; odds ratio=0.36; 95% confidence interval=0.004-0.33). Nowadays, 62.7% of patients are alive. CONCLUSION: Recurrence rate, disease-free survival and overall survival was similar to those observed in more developed countries. Serum CEA levels ≥ 5 ng/dl, the presence of metastasis at diagnosis, compromised surgical margins and poorer tumor differentiation were associated with death. A compromised surgical margin was the only independent risk factor for death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Time Factors , Brazil , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Developed Countries , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Databases, Factual , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Developing Countries , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Income , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(supl.1): 13-18, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779760

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This paper describes the ability of miRNA value predict oncological outcomes in CRC patients and correlates to clinical and pathologic variables. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the serological expression of microRNA-21, microRNA-34a, and microRNA-126 in 37 stage II - IV CRC patients and correlate to seven fit counterparts. Serological microRNAs were extracted using the miRNeasy Mini Kit(r) (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Quantification of microRNAs was performed using TaqMan Master Mix(r) reagent (Applied Biosystems, USA). RESULTS: We obtained serological underexpression microRNA-21, microRNA-34a, and microRNA-126 in CRC group. However, miRNAs serological values do not impact prognosis. Furthermore, miRNAs was not influenced by CEA values, TNM staging, and histological subtype. CONCLUSION: Despite lower expression of miR-21, miR-34a and miR-126 in the CRC group, no association with poor prognosis was found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Adenoma/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Prognosis , Reference Values , Carcinoma/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Adenoma/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(supl.1): 29-33, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779761

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this paper we report the oncological outcomes from clinical series of patients with rectal cancer submitted to local excision after neoadjuvant therapy and discuss the indications for local excision in partial clinical responders. METHODS: We analysed a prospective database of 39 patients submitted to a transanal endoscopic operation for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation between 2006 and 2015, comparing clinical and pathological variables, perioperative complications, recurrence rate and overall survival. RESULTS: We obtained 15.4% ypT0, 17.9% ypT1, 35.9% ypT2 and 28.2% ypT3. After a median follow-up of 24 months, tumoral recurrence was observed in 4 patients, one of them with isolated pulmonary metastasis. R0 resection was achieved in 79.5%, and postoperative complications were observed in 30.2% patients and no perioperative mortality occur. Compromise surgical margins do not affect recurrence rate, and 94.9% of patients are alive nowadays. CONCLUSION: Local excision could be associated with low recurrence rate and good overall survival. Short hospitalization time and low level of serious complications observed could be an interesting option for patients who would not tolerate a radical procedure or for those who declined a total mesorectal excision. A strict long-term follow-up must be warranted to detect early tumoral recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Operative Time , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Radiol. bras ; 47(6): 355-360, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-732751

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A oferta de radioterapia de alta tecnologia para população atendida pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) é limitada, por não pertencer ao rol de procedimentos e, muitas vezes, pela capacidade instalada frente à demanda e dificuldade de retenção de recursos humanos especializados. Dessa forma, o acesso à radioterapia de intensidade modulada (IMRT) é restrito a poucos serviços no Brasil. Pretendemos apresentar as características dos primeiros 508 tratamentos de IMRT durante os primeiros anos de instalação da técnica em um hospital universitário. Materiais e Métodos: Foram analisados 508 tratamentos de IMRT, de maio de 2011 a setembro de 2013, que completaram a radioterapia. A técnica empregada foi multilâminas estático. Resultados: De um total de 4.233 pacientes tratados no período, 12,5% realizaram IMRT. As principais indicações foram para crânio, cabeça e pescoço, e próstata. Aproximadamente 30% das radioterapias de crânio e 50% das de próstata foram por IMRT. A toxicidade total foi 4%. Conclusão: Em razão das restrições de acesso à radioterapia e da não cobertura deste procedimento, as indicações de IMRT para pacientes do SUS devem ser apoiadas nos protocolos clínicos das instituições em acordo com sua realidade, com especial atenção à redução da toxicidade. .


The Bosniak classification for renal cysts was developed in the late 1980s in an attempt to standardize the description and management of complex cystic renal lesions. Alterations were made to such a classification in the 1990s and, the last one, in 2005. Currently, five categories of cystic renal lesions are defined - namely, I, II, II-F, III and IV –, according to their degree of complexity and likelihood of malignancy. Despite being initially described for computed tomography, this classification has been also utilized with some advantages also for magnetic resonance imaging. The present article reviews the different phases of this classification, its diagnostic efficacy and the most controversial features of its use.

18.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 48(2): 139-144, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-623374

ABSTRACT

Os tumores neuroendócrinos primários de mama (TNPMs) são incomuns e não há consenso quanto a tratamento e prognóstico. No presente trabalho, foram revisados os diagnósticos de 1.184 pacientes com câncer de mama atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), identificando três casos que preenchiam os critérios de TNPM, segundo classificação estabelecida pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) em 2003. Foram avaliados os achados clinicopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos e as terapias realizadas, buscando caracterizar os padrões histopatológicos e de comportamento distintos dos carcinomas convencionais de mama.


Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NECs) are uncommon. Moreover, there is no consensus as to its treatment and prognosis. In this study, the diagnoses of 1,184 cases of breast cancer treated at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto/Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMRP/USP) were reviewed. Three among them fulfilled the criteria for primary NEC according to the classification established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical features and treatments were assessed in order to characterize histopathological and distinct patterns of conventional breast carcinomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Immunohistochemistry
19.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 69(1,esp)jan. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639226

ABSTRACT

Background: Ipilimumab monotherapy (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight), as compared with glycoprotein 100, improved overall survival in a phase 3 study involving patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. We conducted a phase 3 study of ipilimumab (10 mg per kilogram) plus dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma. Methods: We randomly assigned 502 patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma, in a 1:1 ratio, to ipilimumab (10 mg per kilogram) plus dacarbazine (850 mg per square meter of body-surface area) or dacarbazine (850 mg per square meter) plus placebo, given at weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10, followed by dacarbazine alone every 3 weeks through week 22. Patients with stable disease or an objective response and no dose-limiting toxic effects received ipilimumab or placebo every 12 weeks thereafter as maintenance therapy. The primary end point was overall survival. Results: Overall survival was significantly longer in the group receiving ipilimumab plus dacarbazine than in the group receiving dacarbazine plus placebo (11.2 months vs. 9.1 months, with higher survival rates in the ipilimumab-dacarbazine group at 1 year (47.3% vs. 36.3%), 2 years (28.5% vs. 17.9%), and 3 years (20.8% vs. 12.2%) (hazard ratio for death, 0.72; P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 56.3% of patients treated with ipilimumab plus dacarbazine, as compared with 27.5% treated with dacarbazine and placebo (P<0.001). No drug-related deaths or gastrointestinal perforations occurred in the ipilimumab-dacarbazine group. Conclusions: Ipilimumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram) in combination with dacarbazine, as compared with dacarbazine plus placebo, improved overall survival in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma...


O tratamento do melanoma em estágios avançados ainda é um desafio, com taxas de sobrevida em dois anos entre 10% e 20% relatadas na literatura. Em 2010 foi demonstrado em estudo fase III ganho de sobrevida global e taxas de resposta significativas associadas ao ipilimumabe (IgG1 que inibe CTLA-4) em segunda linha de tratamento para melanoma metastático.Estudos prévios de fase II com ipilimumabe demonstraram relação entre dose-resposta e que sua associação na dose de 3 mg/kg com dacarbazina (250 mg/d por 5 dias) demonstrou respostas objetivas. Neste contexto, foi desenvolvido o presente estudo prospectivo, multicêntrico, randomizado 1:1 (ipilimumabe 10 mg/kg + dacarbazina 850 mg/m2 ou dacarbazina 850 mg/m2 + placebo - semanas 1, 4, 7, 10), seguido de dacabarzina droga isolada até a 22ª semana (indução). Os pacientes com respostas objetivas ou doença estável a partir da 24ª semana receberam terapia de manutenção com ipilimumabe ou placebo a cada 12 semanas, até progressão, toxicidade ou final do estudo.Dentre os pontos de destaque estão a associação com a dacarbazina que, apesar de não demonstrar ganhos de sobrevida como droga isolada, é rotineiramente utilizada na prática clínica e também na divisão do tratamento em fase de indução e manutenção.Os grupos foram bastante homogêneos e o objetivo principal foi avaliar a sobrevida global que demonstrou ser significativamente superior para o grupo com ipilimumabe associado (11,2 x 9,1 meses), com taxas de sobrevida em 1 e 2 anos também estatisticamente superiores. Dentre os efeitos colaterais se destacam que a não ocorrência de perfurações intestinais ou morte relacionada ao tratamento, apesar de serem mais frequentes os eventos adversos no grupo com ipilimumabe associado, com destaque para as alterações de função hepática. No estudo se conclui que a associação ipilimumabe+dacarbazina trouxe ganho de sobrevida para pacientes com melanoma metastático em primeira linha de tratamento...


Subject(s)
Humans , Melanoma/mortality , Melanoma/drug therapy , Survival Rate
20.
Clinics ; 66(8): 1313-1320, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Locally advanced breast cancers are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries. Targeted therapy has been improved to identify hallmarks that are specific to these subtypes of tumors. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively assess the expression of Hypoxia inducible factor-1 α and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in locally advanced breast cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty women underwent incisional biopsies for the histopathological diagnosis of breast carcinoma and participated in neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The association of Hypoxia inducible factor-1 α and vascular endothelial growth factor-C with age, tumor size, histological grade, clinical staging, hormonal and axillary status, clinical and pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and the presence of c-erbB-2 antigen was studied. RESULTS: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 α expression and Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression were observed in 66.7 percent and 63.3 percent of all patients, respectively, and were marginally associated with each other (p = 0.06). Among the studied variables, only positive axillary status was associated with the presence of HIF-1α (p = 0.02). Complete pathological response was significantly associated (p = 0.04) with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: We concluded that Hypoxia inducible factor-1 α was associated with a poor prognosis and that vascular endothelial growth factor-C could be used as a predictive factor in locally advanced breast cancer patients with complete pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Staging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , /metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism
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