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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923563

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To investigate the occurrence and characteristics of dysphagia and aspiration in the elderly in nursing home in Weifang, Shandong, China.Methods From January to June, 2021, 837 elderly people from 10 nursing homes in Weifang were randomly selected and investigated with general situation questionnaire, Fried Frailty Phenotype, Ohkuma questionnaire and Volume-Viscosity Swallowing Test.Results The prevalence of dysphagia and aspiration was 44.2% and 12.3% respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of dysphagia among ages and health condition (χ2 > 8.437, P<0.05). The prevalence of dysphagia and aspiration was higher in men than in women (χ2 > 4.060, P < 0.05). The incidence of oral dysphagia was higher in men than in women, and the incidence of esophageal dysphagia was lower (χ2 > 20.830, P<0.001). Oral dysphagia was predominant in the elderly with stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease (χ2=27.579, P<0.001), and esophageal dysphagia and airway protection dysfunction were predominant in the elderly with chronic respiratory disease (χ2 > 20.241, P<0.01).Conclusion The dysphagia and aspiration are prevalent in the elderly in nursing homes, and varies with different genders and basic diseases.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929233

ABSTRACT

Iron overload injury is considered to be a part of blood stasis syndrome of arthralgia in traditional Chinese medicine. Its primary therapies include clearing heat and detoxification, activating blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. Lonicera japonica flos (LJF) has long been known as an excellent antipyretic and antidote. Luteoloside (Lut) is one of the main components of LJF and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. However, the protection of Lut against iron overload injury and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, HUVECs were exposed to 50 μmol·L-1 iron dextran for 48 h to establish an iron overload damage model and the effects of Lut were assessed. Our results showed that 20 μmol·L-1 Lut not only increased cell viability and weakened LDH activity, but also significantly up-regulated DDAHⅡ expression and activity, increased p-eNOS/eNOS ratio and NO content, and reduced ADMA content in HUVECs exposed to iron overload. Furthermore, Lut significantly attenuated intracellular/mitochondrial ROS generation, improved SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, reduced MDA content, maintained MMP, inhibited mPTP opening, prevented cyt c from mitochondria released into cytoplasm, reduced cleaved-caspase3 expression, and ultimately decreased cell apoptosis induced by iron overload. The effects of Lut were similar to those of L-arginine (an ADMA competitive substrate), cyclosporin A (a mPTP blocker agent), and edaravone (a free radical scavenger) as positive controls. However, addition of pAD/DDAH II-shRNA adenovirus reversed the above beneficial effects of Lut. In conclusion, Lut can protect HUVECs against iron overload injury via the ROS/ADMA/DDAH II/eNOS/NO pathway. The mitochondria are the target organelles of Lut's protective effects.


Subject(s)
Endothelium, Vascular , Glucosides , Humans , Iron Overload , Luteolin , Reactive Oxygen Species
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 111-125, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929188

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally. Although mixed liver impairment has been reported in COVID-19 patients, the association of liver injury caused by specific subtype especially chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with COVID-19 has not been elucidated. In this multi-center, retrospective, and observational cohort study, 109 CHB and 327 non-CHB patients with COVID-19 were propensity score matched at an approximate ratio of 3:1 on the basis of age, sex, and comorbidities. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examinations, disease severity, and clinical outcomes were compared. Furthermore, univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to explore the risk factors for disease severity and mortality, respectively. A higher proportion of CHB patients (30 of 109 (27.52%)) developed into severe status than non-CHB patients (17 of 327 (5.20%)). In addition to previously reported liver impairment markers, such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin, we identified several novel risk factors including elevated lactate dehydrogenase (⩾ 245 U/L, hazard ratio (HR) = 8.639, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.528-29.523; P < 0.001) and coagulation-related biomarker D-dimer (⩾ 0.5 µg/mL, HR = 4.321, 95% CI = 1.443-12.939; P = 0.009) and decreased albumin (< 35 g/L, HR = 0.131, 95% CI = 0.048-0.361; P < 0.001) and albumin/globulin ratio (< 1.5, HR = 0.123, 95% CI = 0.017-0.918; P = 0.041). In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with CHB were more likely to develop into severe illness and die. The risk factors that we identified may be helpful for early clinical surveillance of critical progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940694

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Scutellariae Radix (SR)-Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) combination of different proportions on the expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and phosphatidylinositol kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in liver tissues of rats with hepatic fibrosis and explore the mechanism against hepatic fibrosis. MethodSixty male SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a positive control (silymarin) group, and SR-PRR 1∶1, SR-PRR 1∶2, and SR-PRR 1∶4 groups, with 10 rats in each group. The hepatic fibrosis model was induced in rats except for those in the normal group by intraperitoneal injection of 40% tetrachloromethane (CCl4)-olive oil solution at 3 mL·kg-1, 5 mL·kg-1 for the first time, for 8 weeks, twice per week. After 4 weeks, rats were treated correspondingly at 10 mL·kg-1 by intragastric administration, and the body weight of rats in each group was weighed for 8 weeks. After administration, histopathological changes in the liver were observed. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), albumin (ALB), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydroxyproline (HYP) content in liver tissues were detected. The mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, PI3K, Akt, and mTOR in the liver of rats were detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). ResultCompared with the model group, SR-PRR combination of different proportions could recover the body weight and improve the pathological injury of the liver. As revealed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, compared with the normal group, the model group showed increased ALT, AST, HA, LN, AKP, MDA, and HYP levels to different degrees (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed decreased levels of ALT, AST, HA, LN, AKP, MDA, and HYP, potentiated SOD activity, and increased level of ALB (P<0.05). As revealed by Real-time PCR results, compared with the normal group, the model group showed increased mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, PI3K, Akt, and mTOR (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed reduced mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, PI3K, Akt, and mTOR in the liver of rats (P<0.05). ConclusionSR-PRR combination of different proportions can improve the histopathological injury in liver tissues caused by CCl4, with the optimal effect observed in the SR-PRR 1∶4 group. SR-PRR may inhibit the development of liver fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways, thereby alleviating chemical-induced liver injury.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940576

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors are currently seriously endangering human health and life, which has become one of the main causes of death in China. In modern Western medicine, they are mainly tackled by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, but the death toll continues to rise year by year. At present, most of the anti-tumor chemotherapeutics used in clinical practice have toxic and side effects, affecting the anti-tumor efficacy and the conditions after treatment. Long-term medication will also induce drug resistance, making the good anti-tumor effect difficult to be achieved. With the vigorous development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it has played a crucial role in the fight against tumors. It is believed in TCM that "heat toxin" is one of the important causes of tumors. Therefore, the methods of clearing away heat and removing toxin are often emphasized in the treatment of tumors, and the resulting outcomes are satisfactory. There are many Chinese herbs and Chinese herbal compounds classified into the heat-clearing and toxin-removing type. Xihuangwan, a classic heat-clearing prescription, is composed of Calculus Bovis, Moschus, Olibanum, and Myrrh and has the effects of clearing away heat, removing toxin, eliminating edema, and dissipating mass, which is mainly used to treat carbuncle, pustule, scrofula, multiple abscess, and cancer caused by heat-toxin obstruction. In modern clinical practice, it has been employed in patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and other malignant tumors, especially during the advanced stage, as a routine or adjuvant treatment for alleviating their clinical symptoms and improving their quality of life. The main active components of Xihuangwan are pentacyclic triterpenoids (such as masticinic acids), volatile oils, steroids (like porcine deoxycholic acid), and bilirubin, which have been proved effective in anti-tumor. This paper reviewed the prescription source, pharmaceutical research, clinical anti-tumor research, and pharmacological mechanisms of Xihuangwan, which has provided reference for further expanding the anti-tumor applications of Xihuangwan and enhancing its secondary development.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940564

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study on the suitable cryopreservation conditions of Carthamus tinctorius seeds. MethodThe germination rate,relative conductivity,soluble sugar,soluble protein, and related enzyme activities of C. tinctorius seeds, as well as the hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) content in Carthami Flos after storage and breeding for four months were detected under different temperature conditions (long-term storage,medium-term storage,short-term storage,room temperature,and ultra-low temperature refrigerator),different water content (8.1%,6.6%,5.2%,and 3.9%),and different storage time (2,4,6,8, 10 months). SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. ResultDuring the storage for 10 months,the changing trend of the germination rate of C. tinctorius seeds revealed that it was more suitable to store seeds with low water content at a lower temperature. The differences in germination rate of seeds caused by storage temperature,seeds water content, and storage time were statistically significant. After storage for 10 months,the germination rate was significantly correlated with other detection indexes. ConclusionThe proper water content of C. tinctorius seeds in long-term and medium-term storage is 5.2% or 6.6%,and that in short-term and ultra-low temperature refrigerator is 3.9% or 5.2%. As revealed by the comparison results, the optimal storage conditions for C. tinctorius seeds were long-term storage and water content of 5.2%, which resulted in the highest germination rate and content of soluble sugar and soluble protein and the lowest relative conductivity after storage for 10 months. Additionally, the content of hydroxy safflor yellow A (HSYA) in Carthami Flos obtained after breeding and regeneration for four months was higher than that obtained after room temperature storage.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940468

ABSTRACT

Xiao Xumingtang in The Catalogue of Famous Ancient Classics (The First Batch) issued by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine is derived from the Important Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergency (Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang) written by SUN Si-miao in the Tang dynasty. The present study systematically explored the origin, development, historical evolution, and clinical application of Xiao Xumingtang. As revealed by the results, Xiao Xumingtang as well as its analogues are primary prescriptions indicated for apoplexy before the Tang and Song dynasties and serve as the benchmark for the treatment of apoplexy. After the Song dynasty, due to the changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis of apoplexy and the limitations of the understanding of Xiao Xumingtang, its clinical application to apoplexy gradually decreased. In modern times, it has been re-recognized and applied, during which its clinical applications have undergone great changes. Its clinical applications are extensive, involving a variety of diseases related to the brain and nervous systems, such as stroke and its sequelae, peripheral facial paralysis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and other diseases related to the motor nervous system. Its primary indications are stroke and its sequelae, followed by peripheral facial paralysis. Other new indications are gradually found. This study is expected to provide references for the clinical application of Xiao Xumingtang and the transformation of new drugs.

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 169-174, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935366

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the association of spicy food consumption and risk of lip, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers (LOCPs) in Chinese adults. Methods: Based on the baseline survey and long-term follow-up of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study, Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for associations between spicy food consumption and LOCPs incidence. Results: Of the 510 145 participants included at baseline, 30.1% reported daily spicy food consumption. During a mean follow-up of 10.8 (2.0) years, we documented 767 LOCPs cases. Multivariate adjusted analyses showed that the risk of LOCPs incidence decreased with the frequency of spicy food intake (trend P=0.003), with HR of 0.69 (95%CI:0.54-0.88) for daily spicy food consumers, compared with never or occasional consumers. Participants who preferred moderate pungency degrees had the lowest risk of LOCPs, with a 33%[0.67(95%CI:0.52-0.87)] reduced risk compared to those who consumed spicy food less than once per week. The later the starting age, the lower the risk (trend P=0.004). Those who started eating spicy food after 18 years old had the lowest risk of LOCPs incidence, with adjusted HR (95%CI) of 0.70(0.54-0.92). Conclusions: Spicy food intake might be associated with a decreased risk of LOCPs incidence. Such association was independent of healthy lifestyles. Advocating moderate-pungency spicy food consumption and healthy lifestyles might help prevent LOCPs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Humans , Lip , Pharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spices
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935243

ABSTRACT

The toxicity data of chemicals and drugs increases rapidly, while the animal experimental-based tests method could not meet the current demand of health risk assessment. The high-throughput screening techniques based on in vitro alternative models, integrating with computational methods and information technology to establish toxicity tests strategy promises to address this problem. High-content screening (HCS) technology uses automated microscopy and quantitative image platforms to perform multi-parameter and high-throughput phenotypic analysis via a visualization and quantification manner, and to quickly and effectively assess toxicity and prioritization of chemicals, which promotes the development of in vitro toxicity tests and computational toxicology. HCS technology has been included as an important tool for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (Tox21) and chemical risk prioritization. Its applications have been widely utilized in the research field of toxicity tests and chemical toxicity mechanisms. In this review, we describe the development of HCS technology, technical points, toxicological applications, and the future directions and challenges of HCS, so as to provide references for the toxicity testing technology and risk assessment methodology.


Subject(s)
Animals , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Toxicity Tests
10.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 142-149, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935118

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of left bundle branch pacing(LBBP) in patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods: This is a retrospective study. A total of 35 patients underwent TAVI and received pacemaker implantation from January 2018 to December 2020 in Beijing Fuwai Hospital were enrolled. Patients were divided into LBBP group (n=12) and right ventricular apex pacing (RVAP) group (n=23) according to the pacing position. The success rate of operation in LBBP group was calculated, and the occurrence of complications were observed, and the parameters of pacemaker were measured on the 3rd day and 1, 3 and 6 months after operation. The N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), echocardiographic and ECG indexes were compared between the two groups on the 3rd day and 1, 3, and 6 months after pacemaker implantation. Result: A total of 35 patients were included, The age was (76.4±7.7) years, including 19 males (54.3%). The procedure time ((86.58±17.10)min vs. (68.74±9.18)min, P<0.001) and fluoroscopy duration ((20.08±4.44)min vs. (17.00±2.26)min, P<0.001) were significantly longer in LBBP group compared with RVAP group. The operation success rate of LBBP group was 11/12. There was no serious operation related complications such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, electrode dislocation, infection, and lower limb bleeding. The patients were followed up for 7.43 (5.21, 9.84) months. The programmed parameters of pacemaker were in the ideal range and stable during follow-up. At 3 and 6 months after operation, the left ventricular ejection fraction in LBBP group was higher than that in RVAP Group (at 3 months: (60.75±2.89)% vs. (57.35±3.33)%, P=0.004; at 6 months: (63.17±3.33)% vs. (56.17±3.97)%, P<0.001), NT-proBNP values was lower in LBBP group than that in RVAP Group (at 3 months: 822 (607, 1 150)ng/L vs. 1 052 (902, 1 536)ng/L, P=0.006; at 6 months: 440 (330,679)ng/L vs. 783 (588, 1 023)ng/L, P=0.001). At 1, 3 and 6 months after operation, the QRS duration was shorter in LBBP group than that in RVAP group (1 month: 99 (97, 107)ms vs. 126(124, 130)ms, P<0.001; 3 months: 98(96, 105)ms vs. 129(128, 133)ms, P<0.001; 6 months: 96(94, 104)ms vs. 130(128, 132)ms, P<0.001). Conclusions: For patients with permanent pacemaker indications after TAVI, LBBP is feasible, safe and reliable. It could improve the cardiac function in the short term, the long-term effect of LBBP needs to be further observed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bundle of His , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 216-222, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933784

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the characteristics of clinical, muscle pathology and gene mutation in patients with nemaline myopathy caused by NEB gene mutation.Methods:The clinical and pathological data of patients with nemaline myopathy caused by NEB gene were collected from Neuromuscular Center of Jiaozuo People′s Hospital from January 1997 to January 2020. The next generation sequencing was preformed to detect NEB gene in all patients, and characteristics of gene mutation were analyzed.Results:Among the 11 patients, there were 8 males and 3 females, and 6 of them came from 2 families. The age of seeing a doctor ranged from 11 to 52 years, the age of onset was from 6 to 23 years, and the course of disease ranged from 5 to 35 years. Neurological examination showed that among the 11 patients, 8 patients had high palatal arch and long face. The muscle tone of both upperlimbs was normal, the tendon reflex was depressed, the proximal muscle strength was grade Ⅲ-Ⅴ, and the distal muscle strength was grade Ⅴ. The muscle tone of both lower extremities was reduced and the tendon reflex was absent. The proximal muscle strength was grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ and the distal muscle strength was grade Ⅲ-Ⅴ. No dysphagia or respiratory muscle involvement was found. Muscle biopsies were performed in 7 of the 11 patients, the pathological changes were muscle fibers of different sizes, circular atrophic muscle fibers and compensatory hypertrophic fibers, and occasionally denatured and necrotic muscle fibers were found. Different degrees of rod aggregation could be seen in all the 7 patients. Electron microscopic examination of 5 patients showed that there was rod aggregation between myofibrils, and most of them were located near the Z band, but no intranuclear rod was found. NEB gene was found in all 11 patients, and a total of 9 different mutation sites were detected, including 8 in exon region and 1 in intron region. Among them, c.21522+3A>G was found in 10 cases, c.1623delT was found in 3 cases and c.17611C>T was found in 3 cases. There was 1 case of c.4417C>T, c.2549delA, c.21065dupA, c.3520G>A, c.20943G>A, c.192G>A respectively.Conclusions:The clinical phenotype of nemaline myopathy caused by NEB gene has great heterogeneity. Muscle pathology shows that rod aggregation is an important basis for the diagnosis of this disease. Mutation c.21522+3A>G in intron is the most common mutation in this group of NEB gene. And the novel mutation sites of NEB gene are respectively c.17611C>T, c.2549delA, c.3520G>A, c.21065dupA, c.20943G>A and c.192G>A.

12.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 673-677, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932551

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the optimal monochromatic level for evaluation of in-stent lumen after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) by dual-layer detector CT.Methods:Twenty-nine patients after TIPS were retrospectively enrolled who underwent abdomen enhanced examinations with portal venous phases by a dual-layer detector CT between December 2019 and July 2021. The mixed iterative image (conventional group) and monochromatic images (40 keV group, 50 keV group, 60 keV group and 70 keV group) were obtained by reconstruction. Circular regions of interest were placed in the in-stent of the cross-sectional reconstructed image and in the vertical spinal muscle on the same plane to obtain the corresponding average CT value and noise. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. Then 4-point scale was performed to evaluate image quality subjectively by 2 physicians blindly and separately. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal Wallis H rank-sum test was used for the overall analysis between groups, and LSD test or Dunn′s Bonforoni test was used for pairwise comparison within groups. Results:There was no significant difference in noise values among the 5 groups ( P>0.05). The difference of CNR and SNR between the 5 groups was statistically significant ( F=72.28, 56.45, P<0.001). The CNR and SNR in the 40 keV group were the highest, which were 50.4±15.7 and 59.3±18.4 respectively, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.001). Subjective scores showed statistically significant differences among the 5 groups (χ2=101.61, P<0.001). The score of the 40 keV group was higher than that of the 60 keV group, 70 keV group, and conventional group ( P<0.001), and there was no significant difference when compared with the subjective score of the 50 keV group ( P>0.05). Conclusions:The 40 keV monochromatic image of dual detector spectral CT is the best image to observe the lumen of the stent after TIPS.

13.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 167-169, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931515

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the detection quality and external quality control assessment of fluorine and arsenic laboratories at all levels in Qinghai Province.Methods:Z-ratio scoring method was used to analyze and evaluate the results of provincial, municipal and county-level laboratories participating in the national fluorine and arsenic external quality control assessment from 2014 to 2020 in Qinghai Province, │Z│≤ 2 was qualified, 2 <│Z│ < 3 was basically qualified and│Z│≥ 3 was unqualified. At the same time, the feedback rate and pass rate of the participating laboratories were calculated.Results:From 2014 to 2020, the external quality control assessment results of water arsenic, urinary arsenic and brick tea fluorine in Qinghai Provincial laboratory were all qualified; except for the external quality control assessment of water fluorine in 2018 that was basically qualified, the results of other years were all qualified. Municipal and county-level laboratories did not give feedback the external quality control assessment results of water arsenic and urinary arsenic in 2017, and the feedback rate and pass rate in other years were 100.0%; except for the external quality control feedback rate and pass rate of water fluorine and brick tea fluorine in 2014 that were all 100.0%, there were laboratories that did not give feedback or failed the assessment in other years.Conclusion:The testing ability of provincial laboratory in Qinghai Province meets the standard, and the testing ability of municipal and county-level laboratories still need to be improved continuously.

14.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 164-166, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931514

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the water fluoride detection ability of county (city, district) level (referred to as the county-level) laboratories in Qinghai Province.Methods:During the "13th Five-Year Plan" period (2016 - 2020), 4, 4, 4, 43, 43 county-level laboratories in Qinghai Province were organized to participate in the national water fluoride external quality control assessment, and the assessment results were evaluated by Z-ratio scoring method.Results:The response rate of county-level laboratories was 86.05% (37/43) in 2019, and 100.00% in other years. The qualified rate of county-level laboratories was 100.00% from 2016 to 2018; in 2019 and 2020, the assessment was fully covered, and the qualified rate was 81.40% (35/43) and 95.35% (41/43), respectively. Compared with 2019, the response rate and qualified rate in 2020 increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 = 6.450, 4.074, P < 0.05). In the past 5 years, two assessment samples│Z│ < 1 in each laboratory were the most common, but with two assessment samples 2≤│Z│ < 3 in some qualified laboratories. Conclusion:The consistency of water fluoride determination in Qinghai Province is not very ideal, and the detection ability of county-level laboratories still needs to be strengthened.

15.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 120-125, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931505

ABSTRACT

Objective:To find out the variety, producing area, fluorine content of brick tea in Qinghai Province, and the drinking situation of brick tea among people, so as to provide basis for preventing and curing endemic fluorosis of drinking tea type.Methods:From April to November 2019, according to historical data, in 3 066 administrative villages in 39 counties (cities, districts, hereinafter referred to as counties) in Qinghai Province that had the habit of drinking brick tea, 10 families were randomly selected from each village to investigate the demographic data of each family and the drinking situation of brick tea, to collect brick tea samples to determine the fluorine content, and to calculate the daily average brick tea fluorine intake of the population > 16 years old.Results:A total of 31 067 brick tea samples were collected. The main brick tea consumed by the residents in the whole province was Fu brick tea, accounting for 89.97% (27 952/31 067), followed by Kang brick tea [5.12% (1 592/31 067)], Green brick tea [2.29% (710/31 067)], Black brick tea [1.85% (574/31 067)], and golden tip, mosaic, black wool and other brick tea [0.77% (239/31 067)]. There were 523 brands of brick tea in circulation in the province, among which there were 410 brands produced in Hunan Province, 26 brands in Sichuan Province, 11 brands in Hubei Province, and 76 brands in Henan Province and other provinces. The average content of fluorine in brick tea was 646.1 mg/kg, which ranged from 40.0 to 2 295.0 mg/kg. Brick tea with fluorine content ≤300 mg/kg accounted for 7.80% (2 422/31 067) of all samples. The annual average consumption of brick tea by population > 16 years old was 1.09 (0.35 - 7.40) kg, and the daily average brick tea fluorine intake was 1.93 (0.39 - 18.64) mg. There were 15 counties and 486 administrative villages in which the daily average brick tea fluorine intake exceeded the national standard (3.5 mg).Conclusion:The main brick tea in circulation in Qinghai Province is Fu brick tea, which has high fluorine content and is harmful to people, and prevention and control measures should be taken as soon as possible.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930967

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the application value of contrast-enhanced ultra-sound, enhanced computed tomography (CT) and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods:The clinical diagnositic trial was con-ducted. The clinicopathological data of 145 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Amy Medical University from January 2019 to June 2021 were collected. There were 121 males and 24 females, aged from 26 to 78 years, with a median age of 54 years. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI, and underwent surgical resection of liver lesions within one month. Observation indicators: (1) postoperative histopathological examinations of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma; (2) examination of small hepatocellular carcinoma by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI; (3) imaging features of small hepatocellular carcinoma in the contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI; (4) enhancement mode distribution of small hepatocellular carcinoma in the arterial, portal and delayed phases of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI; (5) the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD, and measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M(range). Count data were described as absolute numbers or percentages, and comparison between groups was conducted using the Cochran′s Q test or the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were used to analyze the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Results:(1) Postoperative histopathological examinations of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. There were 154 lesions detected in the postoperative histopathological examinations for the 145 small hepatocellular carcinoma patients, with the tumor diameter as (2.2±0.6)cm. (2) Examination of small hepatocellular carcinoma by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI. There were 153, 154 and 154 lesions detected in contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI for the 145 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, with the detection rate as 99.35%(153/154), 100.00%(154/154) and 100.00%(154/154), showing no significant difference among the 3 imaging examination methods ( Q=2.00, P>0.05). (3) Imaging features of small hepatocellular carcinoma in the contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI. Of the 153 lesions reported in contrast-enhanced ultrasound for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, 140 lesions showed "fast-in and fast-out" enhancement, 12 lesions showed "fast-in and slow-out" enhancement and 1 lesion showed isoenhancement in arterial phases and hypoenhancement in portal and delayed phase. Of the 154 lesions reported in enhanced CT for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, 112 lesions showed "fast-in and fast-out" enhancement, 13 lesions showed "fast-in and slow-out" enhancement, 14 lesions showed isoenhancement in arterial phase and hypoenhancement in portal and delayed phases, 5 lesions showed rim-like hyperenhancement in arterial phase and hypoenhancement in portal and delayed phases, 5 lesions showed hypoenhancement in the three phases, 3 lesions showed hyperenhancement in the three phases, 1 lesion showed isoenhancement in the three phases and 1 lesion showed isoenhancement in arterial and portal phases and hypoenhancement in delayed phase. Of the 154 lesions reported in enhanced MRI for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, 134 lesions showed "fast-in and fast-out" enhancement, 1 lesion showed "fast-in and slow-out" enhancement, 8 lesions showed isoenhancement in arterial phase and hypoenhance-ment in portal and delayed phases, 5 lesions showed rim-like hyperenhancement in arterial phase and hypoenhancement in portal and delay phases, 2 lesions showed rim-like hyperenhancement in the three phases, 1 lesion showed hyperenhancement in the three phases, 1 lesion showed hypoenhancement in the three phases, 1 lesion showed isoenhancement in arterial and portal phases and hypoenhancement in delayed late phase, 1 lesion showed edge delay enhancement in the three phases. (4) Enhancement mode distribution of small hepatocellular carcinoma in the arterial, portal and delayed phases of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI. Of the 153 lesions reported in contrast-enhanced ultrasound for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, there were 152 lesions with hyperenhancement and 1 lesion with iso or hypoenhance-ment in the arterial phase, there were 55 lesions with hyper or isoenhancement and 98 lesions with hypoenhancement in the portal venous phase, there were 12 lesions with hyper or isoenhancement and 141 lesions with hypoenhancement in the delayed phase. Of the 154 lesions reported in enhanced CT for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, there were 133 lesions with hyperen-hancement signal and 21 lesions with iso or hypoenhancement in the arterial phase, there were 53 lesions with hyper or isoenhancement and 101 lesions with hypoenhancement in the portal phase, there were 17 lesions with hyper or isoenhancement and 137 lesions with hypoenhancement in the delayed phase. Of the 154 lesions reported in enhanced MRI for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, there were 143 lesions with hyperenhancement and 11 lesions with iso or hypoenhance-ment in the arterial phase, there were 29 lesions with hyper or isoenhancement and 125 lesions with hypoenhancement in the portal phase, there were 5 lesions with hyper or isoenhancement and 149 lesions with hypoenhancement in the delayed phase. There were significant differences in the enhancement mode distribution of lesions in the arterial, portal and delayed phases among contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI ( χ2=19.47, 13.21, 6.92, P<0.05). (5) The efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Of the 153 lesions reported in contrast-enhanced ultrasound for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, there were 3 lesions misdiagnosed according to the postoperative histopathological examinations. Of the 154 lesions reported in enhanced CT and enhanced MRI for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma, there were 7 lesions and 2 lesions misdiagnosed according to the postoperative histopathological examinations, respectively. Lesions misdiagnosed in one imaging examination method were correctly diagnosed in the other two imaging examination methods. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 97.4%, 63.0%, 92.3% for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. The above indica-tors were 95.5%, 63.0%, 90.6% for enhanced CT and 98.7%, 63.0%, 93.4% for enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and accuracy among the 3 imaging examination methods ( Q=2.92, 0.00, 1.81, P>0.05). Conclusion:Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, enhanced CT and enhanced MRI all have good diagnostic value in diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma, and they complement each other.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929575

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the influenza viruses. Older people, infants and people with underlying medical conditions could have a higher risk of severe influenza symptoms and complications. The co-infection of Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) with influenza viruses could lead to the complication of prevention, diagnosis, control, treatment, and recovery of COVID-19. Influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine overlapped in target populations, vaccination time, and inoculation units. Although there was insufficient evidence on the immunogenicity and safety of co-administration of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine, World Health Organization and some countries recommended co-administration of inactivated influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine. This review summarized domestic and international vaccination policies and research progress, and put forward corresponding suggestions in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of vaccination strategy on seasonal influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Dissatisfaction with medications prescribed to treat FC may lead patients to seek alternative treatments. Numerous systematic reviews (SRs) examining the use of acupuncture to treat FC have reported inconsistent results, and the quality of these studies has not been fully evaluated.@*OBJECTIVE@#In this overview, we evaluated and summarized clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating FC and evaluated the quality and bias of the SRs we reviewed.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#The search strategy was structured by medical subject headings and search terms such as "acupuncture therapy" and "functional constipation." Electronic searches were conducted in eight databases from their inception to September 2020.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#SRs that investigated the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for managing FC were included.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two authors independently extracted information and appraised the methodology, reporting accuracy, quality of evidence, and risk of bias using the following critical appraisal tools: (1) A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2); (2) Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews (ROBIS); (3) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Acupuncture (PRISMA-A); and (4) the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). A κ index was used to score the level of agreement between the 2 reviewers.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen SRs that examined the clinical utility of acupuncture for treating FC were identified. Using the AMSTAR 2 tool, we rated 92.3% (12/13) of the SRs as "critically low" confidence and one study as "low" confidence. Using the ROBIS criteria, 38.5% (5/13) of the SRs were considered to have "low risk" of bias. Based on PRISMA-A, 76.9% (10/13) of the SRs had over 70% compliance with reporting standards. The inter-rater agreement was good for AMSTAR 2, ROBIS, and PRISMA-A. Using the GRADE tool, we classified 22.5% (9/40) of the measured outcomes as "moderate" quality, 57.5% (23/40) as "low" quality, and 20.0% (8/40) as "very low" quality. The inter-rater agreement was moderate when using GRADE. Descriptive analyses indicated that acupuncture was more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving weekly complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) and for raising the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) score. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving weekly spontaneous bowel movements, the total effective rate, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Although ten SRs mentioned the occurrence of adverse events, serious adverse events were not associated with acupuncture treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture may be more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving CSBMs and BSFS scores and may be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving bowel movement frequency, as well as quality of life. Limitations to current studies and inconsistent evidence suggest a need for more rigorous and methodologically sound SRs to draw definitive conclusions.@*SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO CRD42020189173.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Constipation/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928940

ABSTRACT

Computational medicine is an emerging discipline that uses computer models and complex software to simulate the development and treatment of diseases. Advances in computer hardware and software technology, especially the development of algorithms and graphics processing units (GPUs), have led to the broader application of computers in the medical field. Computer vision based on mathematical biological modelling will revolutionize clinical research and diagnosis, and promote the innovative development of Chinese medicine, some biological models have begun to play a practical role in various types of research. This paper introduces the concepts and characteristics of computational medicine and then reviews the developmental history of the field, including Digital Human in Chinese medicine. Additionally, this study introduces research progress in computational medicine around the world, lists some specific clinical applications of computational medicine, discusses the key problems and limitations of the research and the development and application of computational medicine, and ultimately looks forward to the developmental prospects, especially in the field of computational Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Simulation , Humans
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928000

ABSTRACT

Rich experience of clinical diagnosis and treatment has been accumulated in the developmental history of Chinese medicine, and the efficacy has been increasingly accepted by the public. However, the evaluation of clinical efficacy is currently based more on scientific evidence instead of merely the changes of patient symptoms. In Chinese medicine, the changes of major disease indicators, patient symptoms, and pathogenesis are the major criteria for the evaluation of clinical efficacy. The lack of well-accepted and uniform criteria and the uncertainty of subjective evaluation limit the development of clinical Chinese medicine. Evidence-based medicine combines clinical skills with the current best evidence. Narrative medicine, utilizing people's narratives in clinical practice, emphasizes patient feelings, willingness, and value orientation. The introduction of both evidence-based medicine and narrative medicine into the evaluation of clinical efficacy refers to the construction of the clinical efficacy evaluation system in a paradigm of participatory diagnosis and treatment. It can fully reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine, respect the values of patients, and achieve universal clinical evidence. Therefore, it helps to improve the diagnosis and treatment, the relationship between doctors and patients, patients' life quality and decision-making awareness, and finally the new evaluation model of clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Narrative Medicine , Physicians , Treatment Outcome
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