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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837484

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect and benefit of health education on schistosomiasis control in primary and secondary schools in Jingzhou from 2004 to 2018. Methods A retrospective survey and an on-site questionnaire investigation were used to collect data on schistosomiasis health education in primary and secondary schools in Jingzhou from 2004 to 2018, and to evaluate the modes and effects of health education. The unit benefit analysis was used to evaluate the benefit of health education investment. Results The awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the correct behavior formation rate in 2018 reached 98.68% and 98.31%, respectively, which were statistically significantly different compared with 87.65%% and 88.08%, respectively, in 2004 (F=8.57, 6.59, P2=-0.85, -0.84, P<0.01). In terms of total funding, students were 3.05 yuan/person/time lower than residents. Conclusion From 2004 to 2018, primary and secondary schools in Jingzhou implemented schistosomiasis health education and health promotion. On the basis of reduction in the total funding, students’ knowledge of schistosomiasis prevention and correct behavior formation were effectively increased, and the rate of schistosomiasis infection was reduced to zero. Therefore, changing the dangerous behavior of the target population through schistosomiasis health education is an important measure to control and stop the prevalence of schistosomiasis.

2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1116-1119, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797779

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the deaths with antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture from 2005 to 2015, in order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and to further reduce the mortality rate in Liangshan Prefecture.@*Methods@#The relevant information was collected through the Management Database of Antiretroviral Treatment from the National AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Information System.@*Results@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 14 219 adult HIV/AIDS patients received antiretroviral treatment and 1 425 death cases were reported during the treatment. The cause of death was mainly AIDS-related diseases (58.9%), and the cumulative mortality rate was 10.02%. Gender, age, the way of infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, clinical stage when received antiretroviral therapy, and CD4+ T lymphocyte levels were factors for the mortality rate (P<0.001). The mortality increased with older age, higher initiation clinical stage and lower level of CD4+ T lymphocyte. Among the death cases, 82.6% were male, 1 182 (82.9%) were married or cohabited, most aged between 30-39 years old (48.6%). At the initial point of receiving antiretroviral therapy, 49.7% of the cases with CD4+T lymphocytes levels< 200/μl, 61.2% of the deaths cases were>1 000 copies/ml during the last viral load test, and 16.2% of deaths were ≥500/μl in the last CD4+T lymphocyte test; 44.5% of deaths were received antiretroviral treatment within one year.@*Conclusion@#Early and timely antiretroviral therapy should be carried out. It is necessary to strengthen the propaganda of antiretroviral therapy and to improve the management quality of follow-up information of antiretroviral therapy case files, and to improve the medication compliance of patients.

3.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 96-100, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705460

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the simultaneous determination of four chromones in Saposhnikoviae Radix by multi-components with single marker ( QAMS) .Methods:An HPLC analysis was used to determine the contents of 4′-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol , cimifugin and sec-O-glucosylhamaudol in Saposhnikoviae Radix.Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin was chosen as the single maker.The contents of 4 chromones in 10 batches of samples were determined by both external standard method and QAMS .The reliability and feasibility of the method were evaluated by the comparison of the quantitative results between the external standard meth -od and QAMS.Results:The relative correction factor (RCF) was perfect.The results calculated by the single marker were consistent with the results from the external standard method .Conclusion:The method with single marker is accurate and feasible to evaluate the quality of Saposhnikoviae Radix.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806775

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effectiveness and to explore the releated factors of antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province.@*Methods@#The method of convenience sampling was adopted in July 2017 to select the research objects who were accepted antiretroviral therapy (ART) over 6 months, older than 18 years and had HIV viral load in 2016, totally 400 cases. A retrospective study was used to collect the data, including social demography, medicine use, information of medical service acquisition, their own behaviors and cognition. 395 questionnaires were effectively recovered. χ2 test and logistic regression were performed to examine relationships between factors and effects.@*Results@#All of the 395 respondents were Yi-nationality. The average age of all cases was (39.23±7.52) years old and 223 were male (56.5%). Among 395 cases patients who were detect Viral load in 2016, 221 cases were under the number of 400 copies, thze effective rate of ART was 55.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that HIV/AIDS patients who missed the medication during the antiviral therapy had poor antiviral effects. Compared to those who adhered to medication, the treatment-ineffective OR (95%CI) of the patients missing the medication during the therapy was 7.06 (3.67-13.58); Compared to those who had adverse reactions that affect the therapy, the treatment-ineffective OR (95%CI) of the patients with mild adverse reactions that did not affect the therapy was 0.45 (0.23-0.87); Compared to the patients who used drugs during the treatment, the treatment-ineffective OR (95%CI) value of the antiretroviral therapy effect of non-drug users was 0.39 (0.16-0.91);Compared to the patients who have a correct cognition that insisting on taking medicine correctly can extend their life expectancy as a common person, the treatment-ineffective OR (95%CI) values for those who hold the view that could be prolonged by 10-20 years and not/unknown were 4.18 (1.59-10.99) and 6.64 (2.67-16.53).@*Conclusion@#The HIV/AIDS patients who receive ART were less effective in Liangshan, Prefecture. Missings drugs is one of the main influencing factors for the ineffective treatment.

5.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 456-459, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determination of astragaloside in 4 Chinese patent medicines (BuZhong YiQi Pills, TongQiao BiYan Granules, XingNao ZaiZao Capsules, YuPing Feng Granules) by accelerate solvent extraction (ASE) combined with column post compensation liquid chromatography and charged aerosol detector (CAD) detection, and compare the result with that of the pharmacopoeia method. METHODS: The optimal extraction conditions were determined by the ASE test: water saturated n-butanol was used as solvent, ASE extraction temperature was 100℃, extraction time was 7 min and cycle time was 3. For the HPLC analysis, Thermo AQ-C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3 μm) was employed, the mobile phase for the analysis pump was composed of acetonitrile-water (15:85), and the flow rate was 0.3 mL•min-1. Gradient program was as follows: 0 min, 15% A; 0 - 4 min, 15% - 60%A; 4 - 5 min 60% A. The mobile phase for the compensating pump was acetonitrile, and the flow rate was 0.3 mL•min-1. RESULTS: The linear range of the calibration curve of astragaloside was 26.62 - 665.5 μg•mL-1. The RSD of sample analysis was 1.0% - 2.1%. The average recoveries were 98.80% - 100.80%. The method is in good agreement with the Pharmacopoeia method. CONCLUSION: The method is rapid, accurate and reproducible. It can be used for the determination of astragaloside in 4 kinds of Chinese patent medicines.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851720

ABSTRACT

Objective To analytically screen the volatile components from Chenxiang Huaqi Tablets (CHT) using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) combined with automated mass spectral deconvolution, and establish the methods of multiple components contents (camphor, bornyl acetate, and patchouli alcohol) from CHT using multi reaction monitor (MRM). Methods The chromatographic column was HP-5MS (30 m × 0.32 mm × 0.25 μm). Temperature program: the initial temperature was 100 ℃, at 15 ℃/min up to 300 ℃ for 2 min. Injection port temperature was 280 ℃; Ionization methods: EI ion source with ion source temperature of 230 ℃; Quadrupole temperature was 150 ℃; Interface temperature was 280 ℃; Inject volume was 1 μl. Results A total of thirteen components were screened by automated mass spectral deconvolution soft. Under the conditions of MRM collection, camphor, bornyl acetate, and patchouli alcohol were in the range of 4.5-90 mg/mL (r = 0.999 8), 3.3-66 mg/mL (r = 0.999 8), and 2.6-51.5 mg/mL (r = 0.999 9), respectively, the ratio of each component concentration to its peak area was linear, and the average recovery (n = 6) was 101.15%, 102.64%, and 100.10% respectively; The mass fraction of 10 batches of samples were in the ranges of 0.278-0.311, 0.381-0.438, and 0.229-0.381. Conclusion The method is accurate, simple, and good repeatability. It can be used for the simultaneous determination of camphor, bornyl acetate, and patchouli alcohol in CHT, which provides a reference for the improvement of the quality of this variety.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665507

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects and cost of four formulations of niclosamide ethanolamine salt in Oncomela-nia hupensis snail control in the field in marshland and lake regions,so as to provide the evidence for drawing up the plan of mol-luscicide using in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Methods One drainage channel and one channel without water in the same area with snails in Jiangling County,Jingzhou City were selected as the research fields. The drainage channel was divided into 9 sections,except one section as a blank control group where the natural death rate of snails was observed only,and the remaining 8 sections were taken as the observation groups,where different dosages of 4%niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder,5%ni-closamide ethanolamine salt granules,25% niclosamide ethanolamine salt suspending agent,26% metaldehyde and ni-closamide ethanolamine salt suspending agent,and 50%niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were used re-spectively. The channel without water were divided into 4 sections,except one section as a blank control group,the oth-er 3 segments were taken as the observation groups,where 4%niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder,5%niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules,and 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were used respectively. Before and after spraying molluscicide for 7 days and 15 days,the system sampling method was used to observe the effects of snail control. Meanwhile,the unit cost method was used to calculate the costs of the different mulluscicide formulations abovementioned in unit area(1 m2). Results In the field at the drainage channel,the snail mortality rates of the groups spraying 4%niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder(50 g/m2),5%niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules(40 g/m2),25% niclosamide ethanolamine suspending agent,26% metaldehyde and niclosamide ethanolamine salt sus-pending agent,and 50%niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder(2 g/m2 and 4 g/m2)for 7 days were 79.52%-97.87%,while the rates after spraying for 15 days were 71.00%-96.30%,and compared with those before spraying, the differences were statistically significant(all P<0.01). For the groups spraying with 2 g/m2 or 4 g/m2 suspending agent as well as wettable powder for 7 days,the snail mortality rates were significantly different(both P<0.05). In the field at the channel without water,the snail mortality rates of the 3 observation groups after spraying molluscicide for 7 days were 97.14%-100%,while for 15 days were 94.32%-100%,and compared with the rates before spraying,all the differences were statistically significant(all P<0.01). The unit costs per 1 m2 of the molluscicide abovementioned were ranged from 0.280 Yuan to 0.416 Yuan. Conclusions In marshland area inside embankment,the molluscicide formulations of the powder and granule are suitable for the environments without water or with instability water level , while the molluscicide formulations of the suspended agents and wettable powder are suitable for the water environment. Though the unit cost of powder is the lowest,the molluscicide in this formulation flies away seriously.

8.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 928-930, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-610155

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an accelerated solvent extraction(ASE)-HPLC method to determine chrysophanol and aurantio-obtusin in Cassia obtusifolia L.Methods: The optimal extraction conditions were defined by orthogonal tests using ASE.The method was carried out on an ACE Excel C18-PFP column (75 mm×2.1 mm,2.5 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% phosphoric acid solution-acetonitrile with gradient elution.The column temperature was 40 ℃,the flow rate was 0.4 ml·min-1, and the detection wavelength was 284 nm. Results: The best process parameters of ASE were as follows:the extraction solvent was methanol, the extraction temperature was 120 ℃ and the static extraction duration was 5 minutes for three cycles.The ASE method needed only 1/9 of the time as the pharmacopoeia method,while the extraction efficiency of the ASE method was higher.The linear ranges of cassia obtusifolia L.and Chrysophanol were at 0.73~58.57 μg·ml-1(r=0.999 7) and 1.09~87.29 μg·ml-1(r=0.999 6).The average recoveries were 102.7%(RSD=0.8%) and 98.2%(RSD=1.5%).Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, which can be used for the rapid determination of aurantio obtusin and chrysophanol in Cassia obtusifolia L.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350168

ABSTRACT

Among the literatures of the prevention and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) published in recent years, there were 16 kinds of classic prescription, including 52 RCTs about Maxingshigan Decoction, 21Chinese patent medicines. There are eight kinds of indications for the drug specification, among which the literatures of Tan Reqing injection accounted for the most about 136 RCTs; There were literatures about non-drug treatment, including: acupuncture, Chinese medicine paste, enema, Chinese medicine ionization, Chinese medicine fumigation, bamboo cans and so on. In this study, author has analysed the classic prescription, Chinese patent medicine and non-drug therapy referring to advantages and disadvantages of CAP, which could be used to treat virus infection instead of antibiotic therapy. Based on antibiotic therapy, Chinese medicine treatment could increase synergistic interaction while decrease the antibiotic side-effects. In addition, Chinese medicine could perform synergistic interaction in CAP every period, which resulted from classified analysis of basic studies about Chinese medicine treatment in CPA. This study is aimed to provides an important basis for clarifying the direction of scientific research.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1102-1106, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737783

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiologic and behavioral characteristics of HIV among community population in Liangshan prefecture.Methods We collected social demographic,behavioral and serological information by means of the monitoring questionnaire and serological tests.Data was analyzed by using the chi-square test and logistic regression.Results From April to June of 2010 to 2015,14 092 cases of community population were selected as the study objects,with 267 cases diagnosed as HIV positive patients.The HIV positive rates were 3.24%,3.07%,1.17%,1.38%,1.42% and 1.25%,respectively.We observed that when community population having the following characteristics as:living in Butuo country (OR=3.83),being males (OR=1.77),being Yi nationality (OR=4.40) being widowed (OR=28.57),with history of drug abuse (OR=3.71) or injecting drug use (PWID) (OR=4.92),or history of needle sharing among PWID (OR=8.53),were under higher risks for HIV infection.With histories as:having had secondary or above levels of schooling (OR=0.59),having protected sex with regular parmers (OR =0.21) and with non-regular partners (OR =0.46),they seemed to be somehow protected for getting HIV infection.Conclusion The positive HIV rates of HIV among community population in Dechang,Ningnan and Butuo varied from 0.10% to 8.77%while the HIV transmission among general population remained challenging.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 486-490, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737669

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the HIV-infection related behaviors among unmarried youths in rural areas of Liangshan prefecture from 2011 to 2013 and factors that influencing the HIV transmission in the population under research.Methods According to the HIV sentinel surveillance methods for data collection,EpiData 3.1 and SPSS 19.0 were used to handle data and both Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to explore the related factors.Results A total number of 5 871 qualified youths were involved in this study from 2011 to 2013 with the prevalence rate on HIV infection among those unmarried youths from the rural areas as 3.45% (201/5 833).27.56% (1 607/ 5 833) of them had been working outside their hometown area.31.72% (1 850/5 833) of the unmarried youths had sexual experiences,with 41.46% (767/1 850) of them had casual sex but the rate of consistent condom use was only 3.46% (64/1 850).5.04% (294/5 833) of the unmarried youths admitted of ever having used drugs,with 34.35% (101/294) of them having the experiences of injecting,with 84.16% (85/101) of them sharing needles.Rates on factors as:working outside the resident areas,ever having had casual sexual behaviors,drug use and injecting drug use were seen higher among HIV infections,with differences statistically significant (X2=88.72,104.43,4.20,154.39,55.94,P<0.05).Results from the logistic regression showed that factors as:being male,Yi ethnicity,illiteracy,experience of working outside the resident area,never or casual condom use and needle-sharing drug use etc.would significantly increase the risk of HIV infection.Conclusions HIV infection among unmarried youths from rural areas in Liangshan prefecture called for attention because of the high rates of risk behaviors.Factors as:having had sexual experiences with low condom use,popular injecting drug use with needle sharing,being male,under Yi ethnicity,with lower education level and ever working outside the resident area etc.were under risks that related to HIV infection for unmarried youths in this area.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1102-1106, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736315

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiologic and behavioral characteristics of HIV among community population in Liangshan prefecture.Methods We collected social demographic,behavioral and serological information by means of the monitoring questionnaire and serological tests.Data was analyzed by using the chi-square test and logistic regression.Results From April to June of 2010 to 2015,14 092 cases of community population were selected as the study objects,with 267 cases diagnosed as HIV positive patients.The HIV positive rates were 3.24%,3.07%,1.17%,1.38%,1.42% and 1.25%,respectively.We observed that when community population having the following characteristics as:living in Butuo country (OR=3.83),being males (OR=1.77),being Yi nationality (OR=4.40) being widowed (OR=28.57),with history of drug abuse (OR=3.71) or injecting drug use (PWID) (OR=4.92),or history of needle sharing among PWID (OR=8.53),were under higher risks for HIV infection.With histories as:having had secondary or above levels of schooling (OR=0.59),having protected sex with regular parmers (OR =0.21) and with non-regular partners (OR =0.46),they seemed to be somehow protected for getting HIV infection.Conclusion The positive HIV rates of HIV among community population in Dechang,Ningnan and Butuo varied from 0.10% to 8.77%while the HIV transmission among general population remained challenging.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 486-490, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736201

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the HIV-infection related behaviors among unmarried youths in rural areas of Liangshan prefecture from 2011 to 2013 and factors that influencing the HIV transmission in the population under research.Methods According to the HIV sentinel surveillance methods for data collection,EpiData 3.1 and SPSS 19.0 were used to handle data and both Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to explore the related factors.Results A total number of 5 871 qualified youths were involved in this study from 2011 to 2013 with the prevalence rate on HIV infection among those unmarried youths from the rural areas as 3.45% (201/5 833).27.56% (1 607/ 5 833) of them had been working outside their hometown area.31.72% (1 850/5 833) of the unmarried youths had sexual experiences,with 41.46% (767/1 850) of them had casual sex but the rate of consistent condom use was only 3.46% (64/1 850).5.04% (294/5 833) of the unmarried youths admitted of ever having used drugs,with 34.35% (101/294) of them having the experiences of injecting,with 84.16% (85/101) of them sharing needles.Rates on factors as:working outside the resident areas,ever having had casual sexual behaviors,drug use and injecting drug use were seen higher among HIV infections,with differences statistically significant (X2=88.72,104.43,4.20,154.39,55.94,P<0.05).Results from the logistic regression showed that factors as:being male,Yi ethnicity,illiteracy,experience of working outside the resident area,never or casual condom use and needle-sharing drug use etc.would significantly increase the risk of HIV infection.Conclusions HIV infection among unmarried youths from rural areas in Liangshan prefecture called for attention because of the high rates of risk behaviors.Factors as:having had sexual experiences with low condom use,popular injecting drug use with needle sharing,being male,under Yi ethnicity,with lower education level and ever working outside the resident area etc.were under risks that related to HIV infection for unmarried youths in this area.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335855

ABSTRACT

With Sophora japonica at the flowering stage as the object, the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on the yield composition factors, yield and quality of Flos Sophorae Immaturus (FSI) was studied. The results indicated that in early spring, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer on the amplification rate of S. japonica, FSI yield composition, yield and quality were different significantly, middle to high nitrogen (1.5-2.0 kg/plant) significantly increased the level of panicled clusters, raceme and flower bud number and yield. Phosphorus (1.5-2.0 kg/plant) could significantly increase the total buds of flower number and yield, potassium showed no significant increase in yield and yield components. Comprehensively considering yield and quality of FSI, nitrogen 1.5-2.0 kg/plant, phosphorus 1.5-2.0 kg/plant and potassium 0.6-0.9 kg/plant are appropriate.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296653

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the survival time and its impact factors among AIDS patients who initially received antiretroviral treatment (ART) of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the information of AIDS patients over 18 years old initially received ART in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture during 2005-2013, which were downloaded from Chinese AIDS Antiretroviral Therapy DATA Fax Information System. Cox proportion hazard regression model was used to identify impact factors related survival time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 8 310 ART AIDS patients who initially received ART, their mean age was (34.59 ± 9.10) years old, 65.50% (5 443 cases) were infected with HIV through injecting drug use, the mean time from testing HIV positive to starting ART were (24.68 ± 21.69) months. 436 cases died of AIDS related diseases, 28.67% (125 cases) of them died within the first 6 months of treatment. The cumulative survival rate of receiving ART in 1, 2, 3, 4 5 years were 97.11%, 93.41%, 90.61%, 88.81%, 86.02%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed the male patients receiveing ART were at a higher risk death of AIDS related diseases compared to the females (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13-2.182), the patients infected with HIV through injecting drug use were at a higher risk deathcompared to the infected through heterosexual transmission (HR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.20-2.24), before the treatment patients with tuberculosis in recent1 year had higher death hazard as compared to those without tuberculosis (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.05-2.21), in the treatment of the first 3 months of AIDS related diseases or symptoms of AIDS patients had higher death hazard as compared to those not suffer these diseases (HR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.39-2.34). The patients with baseline CD4 (+) T lymphocytes cell counts < 50/µl (HR = 9.79, 95% CI: 6.03-15.89), 50-199/µl (HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 2.32-4.59), 200-349/µl (HR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.22-2.34), were at a higher risk death than those with CD4 (+) T lymphocytes cell counts ≥ 350/µl.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Accumulate survival rate was higher after initial antiretroviral treatment among AIDS patients in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province. AIDS patients who are males, have tuberculosis in recent year, infected HIV via route of intravenous drug use, with AIDS-related illness or symptoms in 3 months before ART, lower baseline CD4 (+) T lymphocyte count have higher risk of death.</p>


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Asians , China , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Survival Rate , Tuberculosis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-470520

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate mivacurium-induced release of histamine in the patients undergoing general anesthesia.Methods Eighty patients of both sexes,aged 19-58 yr,weighing 42-75 kg,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,undergoing ureteroscopy under general anesthesia,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =40 each) using a random number table:rocuronium group (group R) and mivacurium group (group M).Anesthesia was induced with iv midazolam 0.04 mg/kg,fentanyl 3 μg/kg,etomidate 0.3 mg/kg,and mivacurium 0.20 mg/kg (group M) or rocuronium 0.75 mg/kg (group R).Streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA) was inserted for mechanical ventilation.PET CO2 was maintained at 35-40 mmHg.Anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl and propofol.Before muscle relaxant administration,at 3 min after muscle relaxant administration and at 5 min after insertion of SLIPA,venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma histamine concentrations (by HPLC) and the histamine release was classified.Results Compared with group R,the plasma histamine concentration and histamine release were increased at 3 min after muscle relaxant administration in group M.No fatal responses caused by histamine release were found in the two groups.Conclusion Although mivacurium induces release of histamine,it can still be safely used for the patients undergoing ureteroscopy under general anesthesia.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341801

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the molecular mechanism of extracts from Euodia rutaecarpa on hepatotoxicity in mice.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Totally 30 KM mice were divided into 3 groups and orally administrated extracts from E. rutaecarpa for consecutively 15 days. The expressions of Erkl/2, CDK8, CK1e, Stat3 and Src were detected by Western blotting method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The extracts from E. rutaecarpa could up-regulated Erkl/2, CDK8 and CK1e expressions (P <0.01) and down-regulate Stat3 and Src (P <0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The molecular mechanism of E. rutaecarpa on hepatotoxicity may be correlated with Erkl/2, CDK8, CKle, Stat3 and Src signal molecules.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Down-Regulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Evodia , Chemistry , Female , Fruit , Chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Plants, Medicinal , Signal Transduction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Triglycerides , Blood , Up-Regulation
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1329-1332, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335232

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the survival time and its impact factors among AIDS patients who initially received antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Liangshan prefecture during 2004-2012.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the information of AIDS patients who initially received ART. Data on patients was collected from the Chinese AIDS Antiretroviral Therapy DATAFax Information System. Life table was applied to calculate the survival proportion, and Cox proportion hazard regression model was used to identify impact factors that were related to the time of survival.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 5 525 AIDS patients who initially received ART, the median age was (34.5± 9.0) year old, with 73.9% being males, 65.8% were infected through injecting drug use, time from HIV tested HIV positive to starting ART was (23.0±20.1) months. 287 cases died of AIDS related diseases, and their median time of receiving ART was (12.7±10.6) months, and 32.8% of them died within the first 6 months of treatment. Cumulative survival rates of the patients who had received ART in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years were 97%, 93%, 89%, 88%, 84%, respectively. Results from multivariate Cox regression showed that female patients who received ART were at a lower risk to the death of AIDS related diseases(HR = 0.556, 95%CI:0.367-0.872), when compared to the males. Patients infected with HIV through injecting drug use were at a higher risk to death (HR = 1.569, 95% CI:1.061-2.321) when compared to those who were infected through heterosexual transmission. Patients with baseline CD4(+) T cells counts at <50 cells/mm(3) (HR = 11.996, 95% CI: 6.714-21.435) or 50-200 cells/mm(3) (HR = 2.481, 95%CI:1.620-3.798) were at a higher risk to death than those with CD4(+)T cell counts ≥350 cells/mm(3). Patients without pulmonary tuberculosis were at a lower risk to death(HR = 0.511, 95% CI:0.330-0.791)when compared to those with pulmonary tuberculosis a year before starting the treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Antiretroviral treatment could prolong the survival time of AIDS patients and with a better rate on survival. Programs on follow-up and CD4(+)T cell counts for AIDS patients should be conducted regularly, as well as timely initiated the antiretroviral therapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Young Adult
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302597

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the survival time and its related factors among AIDS patients in Liangshan prefecture of Sichuan province from 1995 to 2012.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the information of 5 263 AIDS patients. The data were collected from Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Information Management System. Life table method was applied to calculate the survival proportion, and Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportion hazard regression model were used to identify the factors related to survival time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 5 273 AIDS patients, 819 (15.6%)died of AIDS related diseases; 2 782(52.9%) received antiretroviral therapy. The average survival time was 126.7 (117.1-136.2) months, and the survival rate in 1, 5, 10, 15 years were 95.4%, 78.8%, 54.2%, and 31.8% respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant difference in survival time of age diagnosed as AIDS patients, nationality, transmission route, AIDS phase, CD4(+)T cell counts in the last testing, receiving antiretroviral therapy or not. Multivariate Cox regression showed age diagnosed AIDS below 50 years old ( < 15 years old:HR = 0.141, 95%CI:0.036-0.551;15-49 years old:HR = 0.343, 95%CI:0.241-0.489), HIV infection diagnosed phase (HR = 0.554, 95%CI:0.432-0.709), CD4(+)T cell counts last testing ≥ 350/µl (HR = 0.347, 95%CI:0.274-0.439) reduced the risk of dying of AIDS related diseases among AIDS patients. The patients having not received antiretroviral therapy had a higher risk of death(HR = 3.478, 95%CI:2.943-4.112) compared to those who received antiretroviral therapy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Survival time of AIDS patients was possibly mainly influenced by the age of diagnosed as AIDS patients, AIDS phase, CD4(+)T cell counts and whether or not received antiretroviral therapy. The early initiation of antiretroviral therapy could extend the survival time.</p>


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mortality , China , Epidemiology , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 28-32, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284245

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To map the frequency and types of EGFR gene mutations present in lung cancer tissues. To evaluate the clinical applicability of a novel real-time double-loop probe PCR of which the ADx-EGFR kit is based, and to compare its performance with traditional Sanger DNA sequencing in the detection of somatic mutations of tumor genes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 208 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples were tested. Genomic DNA of the tissue samples was extracted and purified, and subjected to both traditional PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing of EGFR gene in exon 18, 19, 20, 21, and ADx's EGFR mutation detection kit. The mutation rates for EGFR gene in exon 18, 19, 20, 21, as well as the frequency of each mutation detected by the two methods, were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The traditional Sanger DNA sequencing technique was successfully performed in 196 out of 208 (94.2%) lung cancer samples, and 22 samples (11.2%) showed EGFR gene mutations. ADx-EGFR kit was successfully used in the lung cancers of all of the 208 cases (100.0%), and 40 samples (19.2%) showed mutations. In the lung cancer samples analyzed, mutations were mainly detected in the exon 19 and exon 21 L858R point mutation, i.e. 4.8% (10/208) and 11.6% (23/208) of total mutations, respectively, and the remaining mutations were rare.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The success rate of ADx-EGFR real-time PCR for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues samples is significantly higher than that of Sanger sequencing (P < 0.01). There are significant differences between the two methods. ADx-EGFR real-time PCR shows a much higher successful detection rate and mutation rate of lung cancer tissues compared with that of Sanger sequencing. As a result, the real-time PCR with ADx-EGFR kit is proved to have a good clinical applicability and a strong advantage over the traditional Sanger DNA sequencing. It is an effective and reliable tool for clinical screening of somatic gene mutations in tumors.</p>


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Methods , Exons , Genes, erbB-1 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Genetics , Paraffin Embedding , Point Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods
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