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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 129-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and analyze factors associated with false-negative FNAC results in patients with parathyroid incidentaloma who were referred for ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules. @*Methods@#In this study, 121 patients with suspected parathyroid lesions were enrolled. The patients underwent US-guided FNAC with measurements of washout parathyroid hormone (PTH) between January 2015 and May 2020. The diagnostic performance of FNAC for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions was assessed using surgical results and elevated washout PTH as a reference standard. The clinical and radiologic features associated with false-negative results on FNAC for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions were evaluated. @*Results@#Among the 121 nodules assessed, 38 were parathyroid lesions (31.4%), and 83 were non-parathyroid lesions (68.6%). The diagnostic performance of FNAC for parathyroid incidentaloma showed a sensitivity of 31.6% (12/38), specificity of 100% (83/83), positive predictive values of 100% (12/12), negative predictive values of 76.1% (83/109), and accuracy of 78.5% (95/121). The FNAC results of non-parathyroid lesions included thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, neurogenic tumors, and fat tissue. True-positive results on FNAC were significantly associated with performing FNA twice (58.3% vs. 23.1%, P=0.043). @*Conclusion@#Considering the low sensitivity of FNAC, measuring washout PTH in addition to FNAC may help accurately diagnose parathyroid incidentaloma on thyroid US. Further, the falsenegative rate for FNAC can be reduced by obtaining two or more FNA samples.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1028-1037, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002415

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) features for diagnosing metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and validate the CT-based risk stratification system suggested by the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 463 LNs from 399 patients with DTC who underwent preoperative CT staging and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration were included. The following CT features for each LN were evaluated: absence of hilum, cystic changes, calcification, strong enhancement, and heterogeneous enhancement. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent CT features associated with metastatic LNs, and their diagnostic performances were evaluated. LNs were classified into probably benign, indeterminate, and suspicious categories according to the K-TIRADS and the modified LN classification proposed in our study. The diagnostic performance of both classification systems was compared using the exact McNemar and Kosinski tests. @*Results@#The absence of hilum (odds ratio [OR], 4.859; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.593–14.823; P = 0.005), strong enhancement (OR, 28.755; 95% CI, 12.719–65.007; P < 0.001), and cystic changes (OR, 46.157; 95% CI, 5.07–420.234; P = 0.001) were independently associated with metastatic LNs. All LNs showing calcification were diagnosed as metastases. Heterogeneous enhancement did not show a significant independent association with metastatic LNs. Strong enhancement, calcification, and cystic changes showed moderate to high specificity (70.1%–100%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (91.8%–100%). The absence of the hilum showed high sensitivity (97.8%) but low specificity (34.0%). The modified LN classification, which excluded heterogeneous enhancement from the K-TIRADS, demonstrated higher specificity (70.1% vs. 62.9%, P = 0.016) and PPV (92.5% vs. 90.9%, P = 0.011) than the K-TIRADS. @*Conclusion@#Excluding heterogeneous enhancement as a suspicious feature resulted in a higher specificity and PPV for diagnosing metastatic LNs than the K-TIRADS. Our research results may provide a basis for revising the LN classification in future guidelines.

3.
Ultrasonography ; : 434-443, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939273

ABSTRACT

Although differentiated thyroid cancer has an excellent prognosis and low mortality, its recurrence rate has been reported to be very high. While surgery is recommended as the standard treatment for recurrent thyroid cancer, reoperation may increase the incidence of complications due to fibrosis and anatomical distortion. In patients with high surgical risk or those who refuse repeated surgery, ultrasonography-guided ablation techniques including radiofrequency ablation, ethanol ablation, and laser ablation are suggested as alternative treatments. In this manuscript, we introduce an anatomy-based management concept for radiofrequency ablation for recurrent thyroid cancer, and present a review of the relevant literature, including indications, basic techniques, clinical outcomes, and complications.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 378-386, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919523

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the use of three criteria to determine the need for additional treatment of cystic thyroid nodules after their recurrence following ethanol ablation (EA). @*Methods@#In total, 154 patients (male:female=30:124; mean age, 53.4 years; range, 23 to 79 years) with 154 thyroid nodules (49 cystic and 105 predominantly cystic nodules) who presented between January 2014 and August 2017 were enrolled. All patients underwent follow-up ultrasonography (US) 1 month after EA, and were divided into therapeutic success and failure groups. Therapeutic success was defined as the absence of any residual fluid or sufficient volume reduction (≥50%) with improvement of nodule-related symptoms. The therapeutic failure was defined according to three previously suggested criteria for recommending additional treatment: nodules with ≥1 mL of remnant fluid (criterion 1), volume reduction <50% (criterion 2), and demonstration of a solid component with vascularity (criterion 3). @*Results@#Thyroid nodules treated by EA showed significant volume reduction (18.4±21.6 mL to 4.2±6.5 mL [1-month follow-up] to 1.9±3.3 mL [final follow-up], P<0.001) and improvement in clinical problems. Therapeutic failure were 26 patients according to criteria 1, 14 patients according to criteria 2, and 35 patients according to criteria 3. Additional treatment was unnecessary in 81.3%, 70.0%, and 77.8% of patients deemed to need it according to criteria 1, 2, and 3, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The choice to perform additional treatment after EA should be made according to a combination of clinical problems and US features. Understanding this concept will be useful in planning further treatment following US-guided EA.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 256-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919493

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Thermal ablation is a novel treatment alternative for benign thyroid nodules, and one of the most promising thermal ablation techniques is radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Considering the increasing use of thyroid RFA, some scientific societies have proposed clinical practice guidelines. We systemically reviewed and compared these guidelines for thyroid RFA to identify a standard treatment strategy that represents the positions of most societies. @*Methods@#We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies with human participants that were published in English between January 1, 2000 and August 2, 2019. Studies containing clinical practice guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules were included. We extracted data regarding indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, treatment techniques, and the need to obtain informed consent. @*Results@#Of the 83 studies found, four studies were included, and one study was added after searching the bibliographies of those articles. The five included studies were guidelines developed by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology, a group of experts from Italian scientific societies, the Italian Working Group on Minimally Invasive Treatments of the Thyroid, the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, and a group of four professional Austrian thyroid associations. Indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, and techniques were similar across studies; however, differences in each of these categories were found. @*Conclusion@#While the reviewed guidelines are similar with regard to major categories, international guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules should be established in the future.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1875-1885, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918211

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. @*Results@#A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. @*Conclusion@#Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 2094-2123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918179

ABSTRACT

Incidental thyroid nodules are commonly detected on ultrasonography (US). This has contributed to the rapidly rising incidence of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma over the last 20 years. The appropriate diagnosis and management of these patients is based on the risk factors related to the patients as well as the thyroid nodules. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published consensus recommendations for US-based management of thyroid nodules in 2011 and revised them in 2016. These guidelines have been used as the standard guidelines in Korea. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules have necessitated the revision of the original recommendations. The task force of the KSThR has revised the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and recommendations for US lexicon, biopsy criteria, US criteria of extrathyroidal extension, optimal thyroid computed tomography protocol, and US follow-up of thyroid nodules before and after biopsy. The biopsy criteria were revised to reduce unnecessary biopsies for benign nodules while maintaining an appropriate sensitivity for the detection of malignant tumors in small (1–2 cm) thyroid nodules. The goal of these recommendations is to provide the optimal scientific evidence and expert opinion consensus regarding US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894800

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 751-758, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894777

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Preoperative differentiation between inverted papilloma (IP) and its malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (IP-SCC) is critical for patient management. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging features and histogram parameters obtained from whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to predict IP-SCC in patients with IP, using decision tree analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed data generated from the records of 180 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed IP or IP-SCC who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging and 62 patients were included in the study. To obtain whole tumor ADC values, the region of interest was placed to cover the entire volume of the tumor. Classification and regression tree analyses were performed to determine the most significant predictors of IP-SCC among multiple covariates. The final tree was selected by cross-validation pruning based on minimal error. @*Results@#Of 62 patients with IP, 21 (34%) had IP-SCC. The decision tree analysis revealed that the loss of convoluted cerebriform pattern and the 20th percentile cutoff of ADC were the most significant predictors of IP-SCC. With these decision trees, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and C-statistics were 86% (18 out of 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65–95%), 100% (41 out of 41; 95% CI, 91–100%), 95% (59 out of 61; 95% CI, 87–98%), and 0.966 (95% CI, 0.912–1.000), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Decision tree analysis using conventional imaging features and histogram analysis of whole volume ADC could predict IP-SCC in patients with IP with high diagnostic accuracy.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902504

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 751-758, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902481

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Preoperative differentiation between inverted papilloma (IP) and its malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (IP-SCC) is critical for patient management. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging features and histogram parameters obtained from whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to predict IP-SCC in patients with IP, using decision tree analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed data generated from the records of 180 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed IP or IP-SCC who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging and 62 patients were included in the study. To obtain whole tumor ADC values, the region of interest was placed to cover the entire volume of the tumor. Classification and regression tree analyses were performed to determine the most significant predictors of IP-SCC among multiple covariates. The final tree was selected by cross-validation pruning based on minimal error. @*Results@#Of 62 patients with IP, 21 (34%) had IP-SCC. The decision tree analysis revealed that the loss of convoluted cerebriform pattern and the 20th percentile cutoff of ADC were the most significant predictors of IP-SCC. With these decision trees, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and C-statistics were 86% (18 out of 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65–95%), 100% (41 out of 41; 95% CI, 91–100%), 95% (59 out of 61; 95% CI, 87–98%), and 0.966 (95% CI, 0.912–1.000), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Decision tree analysis using conventional imaging features and histogram analysis of whole volume ADC could predict IP-SCC in patients with IP with high diagnostic accuracy.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1187-1195, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833578

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to determine the sonographic features suggestive of extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of thyroid cancers. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic images of 1656 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in 2017. The diagnostic performance of sonographic features suggestive of ETE was evaluated using operation and histopathologic reports. Sonographic features for gross ETE to the strap muscle and minor ETE were assessed for thyroid cancer abutting the anterolateral thyroid capsule. Sonographic features for tracheal invasion were assessed according to whether the angle between the tumor and the trachea was an acute, right, or obtuse angle. Sonographic features for recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) invasion were assessed based on the association between the tumor and tracheoesophageal groove (TEG) as preserved normal tissue, abutting or protruding into the TEG. @*Results@#ETE was observed in 783 patients (47.3%), including 123 patients with gross ETE (7.4% [strap muscle, n = 97; RLN, n = 24; and trachea, n = 14]) and 660 patients with minor ETE (39.9%). Regarding the diagnosis of gross and minor ETE to the strap muscle, sonographic features of replacement of the strap muscle and capsular disruption showed the highest positive predictive value (75.9% and 58.5%, respectively). Thyroid cancer forming an obtuse angle with the trachea had the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of tracheal invasion (85.7%), and thyroid cancer protrusion into the TEG showed the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of RLN (83.3%). @*Conclusion@#Sonography is considered beneficial in the diagnosis of ETE to the strap muscle, trachea, and RLN. Assessment of ETE is important for the accurate staging of thyroid cancer, which in turn determines the extent of surgery or whether active surveillance is appropriate or not.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 339-350, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832399

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ultrasound-guided thermal ablations have become one of the main options for treating benign thyroid nodules. To determine efficacy of thermal ablation of benign thyroid nodules, we performed a meta-analysis of studies with long-term follow-up of more than 3 years. @*Methods@#Databases were searched for studies published up to August 25, 2019, reporting patients with benign thyroid nodules treated with thermal ablation and with follow-up data of more than 3 years. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The analysis yielded serial volume reduction rates (VRRs) of ablated nodules for up to 3 years or more, and adverse effect of ablation during follow-up. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and laser ablation (LA) were compared in a subgroup analysis. @*Results@#The pooled VRRs for ablated nodules showed rapid volume reduction before 12 months, a plateau from 12 to 36 months, and more volume reduction appearing after 36 months, demonstrating long-term maintenance of treatment efficacy. Thermal ablation had an acceptable complication rate of 3.8%. Moreover, patients undergoing nodule ablation showed no unexpected delayed complications during the follow-up period. In the subgroup analysis, RFA was shown to be superior to LA in terms of the pooled VRR and the number of patients who underwent delayed surgery. @*Conclusion@#Thermal ablations are safe and effective methods for treating benign thyroid nodules, as shown by a long follow-up analysis of more than 3 years. In addition, RFA showed superior VRRs compared with LA for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, with less regrowth and less delayed surgery.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 407-415, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832392

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe treatment for thyroid tumors, nerve damage is a frequent complication. A previous retrospective study suggested that an injection of cold 5% dextrose in water (5% DW) can reduce nerve damage during RFA. This study validated the efficacy of injecting cold 5% DW for management of nerve damage during RFA. @*Methods@#Between November 2017 and December 2018, 242 patients underwent 291 RFA sessions for treatment of benign thyroid nodules or recurrent thyroid cancers. Using a standardized technique, cold (0°C to 4°C) 5% DW was immediately injected around the damaged nerve into patients with any symptoms suggesting nerve damage. The incidence of nerve damage, the volume of 5% DW injected, symptom recovery time and the incidence of permanent nerve damage were evaluated. @*Results@#Nineteen patients experienced nerve damage symptoms related to 21 RFA sessions, including 17 patients during 19 sessions and two patients on the day after two sessions. Patients with nerve damage symptoms detected during RFA were treated by injection of a mean 41 mL (range, 3 to 260) cold 5% DW, but the two patients who experienced symptoms the next day did not receive cold 5% DW injections. Immediate recovery was observed after 15 RFA sessions in 14 patients. No patient experienced permanent nerve damage. @*Conclusion@#Injection of cold 5% DW is effective in managing nerve damage during RFA of thyroid lesions.

15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 369-376, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the evaluation of thyroid nodules is non-inferior to radiologists with different levels of experience.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with thyroid nodules with a decisive diagnosis of benign or malignant nodule were consecutively enrolled from November 2017 to September 2018. Three radiologists with different levels of experience (1 month, 4 years, and 7 years) in thyroid ultrasound (US) reviewed the thyroid US with and without using the CAD system. Statistical analyses included non-inferiority testing of the diagnostic accuracy for malignant thyroid nodules between the CAD system and the three radiologists with a non-inferiority margin of 10%, comparison of the diagnostic performance, and the added value of the CAD system to the radiologists.RESULTS: Altogether, 197 patients were included in the study cohort. The diagnostic accuracy of the CAD system (88.48%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.65–92.53) was non-inferior to that of the radiologists with less experience (1 month and 4 year) of thyroid US (83.03%, 95% CI = 76.52–88.02; p < 0.001), whereas it was inferior to that of the experienced radiologist (7 years) (95.76%, 95% CI = 91.37–97.96; p = 0.138). The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the CAD system were significantly higher than those of the less-experienced radiologists were, whereas no significant difference was found with those of the experienced radiologist. A combination of US and the CAD system significantly improved sensitivity and negative predictive value, although the specificity and positive predictive value deteriorated for the less-experienced radiologists.CONCLUSION: The CAD system may offer support for decision-making in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules for operators who have less experience with thyroid US.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
16.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 250-257, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811344

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of oral spironolactone for non-resolving chronic central serous chorioretinopathy after intravitreal bevacizumab injection.METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with non-resolving chronic central serous chorioretinopathy after intravitreal bevacizumab injection from September 2017 to December 2018 were treated with oral spironolactone for 6 months, and changes in central macular thickness, subretinal fluid height, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: The central macular thickness decreased from 309.94 ± 105.20 µm at baseline to 259.76 ± 81.83 µm at 3 months, and 243.11 ± 61.98 µm at 6 months, which were both statistically significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p = 0.016 and p = 0.001, respectively). The subretinal fluid height decreased from 138.05 ± 95.69 µm at baseline to 70.88 ± 83.13 µm at 3 months, and 54.00 ± 56.25 µm at 6 months, which were both statistically significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p = 0.002 and p = 0.000, respectively). The BCVA (LogMAR) changed from 0.30 ± 0.38 at baseline to 0.35 ± 0.43 at 1 month, 0.29 ± 0.43 at 3 months, and 0.26 ± 0.40 at 6 months. The results at 6 months were statistically significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p = 0.033). There were no side effects in patients treated with oral spironolactone.CONCLUSIONS: In chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, treatment with oral spironolactone significantly reduced the central macular thickness, subretinal fluid height, and the BCVA, without side effects.

17.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 169-178, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of benign thyroid nodules along with cytomorphological alteration, and any malignant transformation through biopsy. METHODS: The data were retrospectively collected between April 2008 and June 2013 and core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed on 16 benign thyroid nodules previously treated using RFA. The parameters of the patients were compared, between the time of enrollment and the last follow-up examination, using linear mixed model statistical analysis. RESULTS: No atypical cells or neoplastic transformation were detected in the undertreated peripheral portion of treated benign nodules on the CNB specimen. RFA altered neither the thyroid capsule nor the thyroid tissue adjacent to the treated area. On histopathological examinations, we observed 81.2% acellular hyalinization, which was the most common finding. After a mean follow-up period of over 5 years, the mean volume of thyroid nodule had decreased to 6.4±4.2 mL, with a reduction rate of 81.3%±5.8% (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: RFA is a technically feasible treatment method for benign thyroid nodules, with no carcinogenic effect or tissue damage of the normal thyroid tissue adjacent to the RFA-treated zone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Catheter Ablation , Follow-Up Studies , Hyalin , Methods , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 649-661, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and change in ADC during the intra- or post-treatment period, for the prediction of locoregional failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ovid-MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched up to September 8, 2018, for studies on the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the prediction of locoregional treatment response in patients with HNSCC treated with chemoradiation or radiation therapy. Risk of bias was assessed by using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in the systematic review, and diagnostic accuracy assessment was performed using seven studies. High pre-treatment ADC showed inconsistent results with the tendency for locoregional failure, whereas all studies evaluating changes in ADC showed consistent results of a lower rise in ADC in patients with locoregional failure compared to those with locoregional control. The sensitivities and specificities of pre-treatment ADC and change in ADC for predicting locoregional failure were relatively high (range: 50–100% and 79–96%, 75–100% and 69–95%, respectively). Meta-analytic pooling was not performed due to the apparent heterogeneity in these values. CONCLUSION: High pre-treatment ADC and low rise in early intra-treatment or post-treatment ADC with chemoradiation, could be indicators of locoregional failure in patients with HNSCC. However, as the studies are few, heterogeneous, and at high risk for bias, the sensitivity and specificity of these parameters for predicting the treatment response are yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bias , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diffusion , Epithelial Cells , Head , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Population Characteristics , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 415-421, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the imaging features, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of patients with thyroid nodule rupture after radiofrequency ablation (RFA).METHODS: The records of 12 patients who experienced thyroid nodule rupture after RFA at four Korean thyroid centers between March 2010 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data evaluated included baseline patient characteristics, treatment methods, initial presenting symptoms, imaging features, treatment, and prognosis.RESULTS: The most common symptoms of post-RFA nodule rupture were sudden neck bulging and pain. Based on imaging features, the localization of nodule rupture was classified into three types: anterior, posterolateral, and medial types. The anterior type is the most often, followed by posterolateral and medial type. Eight patients recovered completely after conservative treatment. Four patients who did not improve with conservative management required invasive procedures, including incision and drainage or aspiration.CONCLUSION: Thyroid nodule rupture after RFA can be classified into three types based on its localization: anterior, posterolateral, and medial types. Because majority of thyroid nodule ruptures after RFA can be managed conservatively, familiarity with these imaging features is essential in avoiding unnecessary imaging workup or invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheter Ablation , Drainage , Neck , Prognosis , Recognition, Psychology , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 947-955, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760269

ABSTRACT

Degenerating nodules (DNs), which primarily manifest as benign thyroid nodules, are one of the main causes of discordance in ultrasonography (US) and cytological assessments. Intranodular hemorrhage is one of the mechanisms contributing to discordant nodules, and an impaired blood supply may explain further DN shrinkage and infarction. The surgical specimens can be divided into acute and chronic stages based on the histological changes, which usually mimic the US features of malignant tumors. Serial US follow-up should be recommended instead of other unnecessary procedures. However, repeated fine-needle aspiration, diagnostic surgery, or core-needle biopsy may still be necessary for indeterminable or highly suspicious DNs.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Infarction , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography , Unnecessary Procedures
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