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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 94-102, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966476

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This multi-center, retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the long-term survival in patients who underwent surgical resection for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and to identify the benefit of adjuvant therapy following surgery. @*Materials and Methods@#The data of 213 patients who underwent surgical resection for SCLC at four institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received neoadjuvant therapy or an incomplete resection were excluded. @*Results@#The mean patient age was 65.29±8.93 years, and 184 patients (86.4%) were male. Lobectomies and pneumonectomies were performed in 173 patients (81.2%), and 198 (93%) underwent systematic mediastinal lymph node dissections. Overall, 170 patients (79.8%) underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, 42 (19.7%) underwent radiotherapy to the mediastinum, and 23 (10.8%) underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. The median follow-up period was 31.08 months (interquartile range, 13.79 to 64.52 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival were 53.4% and 46.9%, respectively. The 5-year OS significantly improved after adjuvant chemotherapy in all patients (57.4% vs. 40.3%, p=0.007), and the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was significant in patients with negative node pathology (70.8% vs. 39.7%, p=0.004). Adjuvant radiotherapy did not affect the 5-year OS (54.6% vs. 48.5%, p=0.458). Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.032; p=0.017), node metastasis (HR, 2.190; p < 0.001), and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.558; p=0.019) were associated with OS. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection in patients with SCLC improved the OS, though adjuvant radiotherapy to the mediastinum did not improve the survival or decrease the locoregional recurrence rate.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 464-475, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875289

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the tumor doubling time of invasive lung adenocarcinoma according to the International Association of the Study for Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) histologic classification. @*Materials and Methods@#Among the 2905 patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma, we retrospectively included 172 patients (mean age, 65.6 ± 9.0 years) who had paired thin-section non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT) scans at least 84 days apart with the same CT parameters, along with 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (mean age, 70.9 ± 7.4 years) for comparison. Three-dimensional semiautomatic segmentation of nodules was performed to calculate the volume doubling time (VDT), mass doubling time (MDT), and specific growth rate (SGR) of volume and mass. Multivariate linear regression, one-way analysis of variance, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed. @*Results@#The median VDT and MDT of lung cancers were as follows: acinar, 603.2 and 639.5 days; lepidic, 1140.6 and 970.1 days; solid/micropapillary, 232.7 and 221.8 days; papillary, 599.0 and 624.3 days; invasive mucinous, 440.7 and 438.2 days; and squamous cell carcinoma, 149.1 and 146.1 days, respectively. The adjusted SGR of volume and mass of the solid-/ micropapillary-predominant subtypes were significantly shorter than those of the acinar-, lepidic-, and papillary-predominant subtypes. The histologic subtype was independently associated with tumor doubling time. A VDT of 465.2 days and an MDT of 437.5 days yielded areas under the curve of 0.791 and 0.795, respectively, for distinguishing solid-/micropapillary-predominant subtypes from other subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. @*Conclusion@#The tumor doubling time of invasive lung adenocarcinoma differed according to the IASCL/ATS/ERS histologic classification.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 263-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875253

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) is one of the essential diagnostic procedures for pulmonary lesions. Its role is increasing in the era of CT screening for lung cancer and precision medicine. The Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology developed the first evidence-based clinical guideline for PTNB in Korea by adapting pre-existing guidelines. The guideline provides 39 recommendations for the following four main domains of 12 key questions: the indications for PTNB, pre-procedural evaluation, procedural technique of PTNB and its accuracy, and management of post-biopsy complications. We hope that these recommendations can improve the diagnostic accuracy and safety of PTNB in clinical practice and promote standardization of the procedure nationwide.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e261-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831593

ABSTRACT

Background@#Indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) suspected for early stage lung cancer mandate accurate diagnosis. Both percutaneous needle biopsy (PCNB) and surgical biopsy (SB) are valuable options. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness between PCNB and SB for IPN suspected for early stage lung cancer. @*Methods@#During January–November 2018, patients who underwent operation for IPN suspected for early stage lung cancer (SB group, n = 245) or operation after PCNB (PCNB group, n = 113) were included. Patient-level cost data were extracted from medical bills from the institution. Propensity score matching was performed between the two groups from a retrospectively-collected database. @*Results@#Fifteen patients (11.5%) had complications after PCNB; thirteen (11.5%) were not confirmed to have lung cancer through PCNB but underwent operation for IPN. In SB group, 172 (70.2%) and 7 (2.9%) patients underwent wedge resection and segmentectomy for SB, respectively; 66 patients (26.9%) underwent direct lobectomy without SB. After propensity score matching, 58 paired samples were produced. Most patients in PCNB group were admitted twice (n = 55, 94.8%). The average hospital stay was longer in PCNB group (12.9 ± 5.3 vs. 7.3 ± 3.0, P < 0.001). Though the cost of the operation was comparable (USD 12,509 ± 2,909 vs. 12,669 ± 3,334; P = 0.782), the total cost was higher for PCNB group (USD 14,403 ± 3,085 vs. 12,669 ± 3,334; P = 0.006). The average subcategory cost, which increases proportional to hospital stay, was higher in PCNB group, whereas the cost of operation and surgical materials were comparable between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Lung cancer operation following SB for IPN was associated with lesser cost, shorter hospital stays, and lesser admission time than lung cancer operation after PCNB. The increased cost and longer hospital stay appear largely related to the admission for PCNB.

5.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 114-120, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835289

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence is lacking on whether the resection of lung parenchymal cancer improves the survival of patients with unexpected pleural metastasis encountered during surgery. We conducted a single-center retrospective study to determine the role of lung resection in the long-term survival of these patients. @*Methods@#Among 4683 patients who underwent lung surgery between 1995 and 2014, 132 (2.8%) had pleural metastasis. After excluding 2 patients who had incomplete medical records, 130 patients’ data were collected. Only a diagnostic pleural and/or lung biopsy was performed in 90 patients, while the lung parenchymal mass was resected in 40 patients. @*Results@#The mean follow-up duration was 29.8 months. The 5-year survival rate of the resection group (34.7%±9.4%) was superior to that of the biopsy group (15.9%±4.3%, p=0.016). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that primary tumor resection (p=0.041), systemic treatment (p<0.001), lower clinical N stage (p=0.018), and adenocarcinoma histology (p=0.009) were significant predictors of a favorable outcome. Interestingly, primary tumor resection only played a significant prognostic role in patients who received systemic treatment. @*Conclusion@#When pleural metastasis is unexpectedly encountered during surgical exploration, resection in conjunction with systemic treatment may improve long-term survival, especially in adenocarcinoma patients without lymph node metastasis.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 606-613, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833346

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Data on the distribution and impact of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) and donor specific antibodies (DSA) before lung transplantation in Asia, especially multi-center-based data, are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of and effects of PRA and DSA levels before lung transplantations on outcomes in Korean patients using nationwide multicenter registry data. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 103 patients who received a lung transplant at five tertiary hospitals in South Korea between March 2015 and December 2017. Mortality, primary graft dysfunction (PGD), and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Sixteen patients had class I and/or class II PRAs exceeding 50%. Ten patients (9.7%) had DSAs with a mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) higher than 1000, six of whom had antibodies with a high MFI (≥2000). DSAs with high MFIs were more frequently observed in patients with high-grade PGD (≥2) than in those with no or low-grade (≤1) PGD. In the 47 patients who survived for longer than 9 months and were evaluated for BOS after the transplant, BOS was not related to DSA or PRA levels. One-year mortality was more strongly related to PRA class I exceeding 50% than that under 50% (0% vs. 16.7%, p=0.007). @*Conclusion@#Preoperative DSAs and PRAs are related to worse outcomes after lung transplantation. DSAs and PRAs should be considered when selecting lung transplant recipients, and recipients who have preoperative DSAs with high MFI values and high PRA levels should be monitored closely after lung transplantation.

7.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 353-359, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To explore the effect of radiation on metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (nCRT), we examined the metastatic features of LNs according to their inclusion in the radiation field.@*METHODS@#The patient group included 88 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 61.1±8.1 years, who underwent esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy after nCRT. Dissected LNs were compared in terms of clinical suspicion of metastasis, nodal station, and inclusion in the radiation field.@*RESULTS@#LN positivity did not differ between LNs that were inside (in-field [IF]) and outside (out-field [OF]) of the radiation field (IF: 40 of 465 [9%], OF: 40 of 420 [10%]; p=0.313). In clinical N+ nodal stations, IF stations had a lower incidence of metastasis than OF stations (IF/cN+: 16 of 142 [11%], OF/cN+: 9/30 [30%]; p=0.010). However, in clinical N- nodal stations, pathological positivity was not affected by whether the nodal stations were included in the radiation field (IF/cN-: 24 of 323 [7%], OF/cN-: 31 of 390 [8%]; p=0.447).@*CONCLUSION@#Radiation therapy for nCRT could downstage clinically suspected nodal metastasis. However, such therapy was ineffective when used to treat nodes that were not suspicious for metastasis. Because significant numbers of residual metastases were identified irrespective of coverage by the radiation field, lymphadenectomy should be performed to ensure complete removal of residual nodal metastases after nCRT.

8.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 148-154, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study investigated the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of primary chest wall soft tissue sarcoma (CW-STS).@*METHODS@#Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for CW-STS between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The disease-free and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up duration was 65.6 months. The most common histologic type of tumor was malignant fibrous histiocytoma (29%). The resection extended to the soft tissue in 14 patients, while it reached full thickness in 17 patients. Complete resection was achieved in 27 patients (87.1%). There were 5 cases of local recurrence, 3 cases of distant metastasis, and 5 cases of combined recurrence. The 5-year disease-free rate was 49%. Univariate analysis indicated that incomplete resection (p<0.001) and stage (p=0.062) were possible risk factors for recurrence. Multivariate analysis determined that incomplete resection (p=0.013) and stage (p=0.05) were significantly associated with recurrence. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 86.8% and 64.3%, respectively. No prognostic factor for survival was identified.@*CONCLUSION@#Long-term primary CW-STS surgery outcomes were found to be favorable. Incomplete microscopic resection and stage were risk factors for recurrence.

9.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 51-54, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939201

ABSTRACT

Castleman disease is a relatively rare disease, characterized by well-circumscribed benign lymph-node hyperplasia. The disease may develop anywhere in the lymphatic system, but is most commonly reported as unicentric Castleman disease in the mediastinum along the tracheobronchial tree. It is usually asymptomatic and detected on plain chest radiography as an incidental finding. We report an incidentally detected case of Castleman disease in the paravertebral space that was preoperatively diagnosed as a neurogenic tumor and treated by complete surgical resection.

10.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 58-60, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939199

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of lung transplantation in a patient with profound preoperative hypercapnia, focusing on the cardiopulmonary bypass strategy used for brain perfusion during the operation. We applied the pH-stat method for acid-base regulation, and thereby achieved the desired outcome without any neurologic deficit.

11.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 195-204, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939190

ABSTRACT

Lobectomy is considered the standard strategy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, sublobar resection for NSCLC has recently received increased attention. The objective of this study was to compare 5-year survival, recurrence-free survival, postoperative mortality, and postoperative morbidities in patients who received segmentectomy versus those who received lobectomy through a meta-analysis. Sixteen studies were included and the combined hazard ratios or odds ratios were calculated. The results revealed that the 5-year survival rate after segmentectomy was comparable to that of lobectomy for stage IA NSCLC. However, segmentectomy for stage I NSCLC had lower rates of postoperative mortality and morbidities than lobectomy.

12.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 243-246, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939183

ABSTRACT

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a malignant soft tissue neoplasm producing osteoid, without any continuity with the bone or periosteum. Primary ESOS presenting in the mediastinum is an extremely rare, yet aggressive malignant tumor associated with a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary ESOS arising from the thymus in a 63-year-old male patient.

13.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 51-54, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742331

ABSTRACT

Castleman disease is a relatively rare disease, characterized by well-circumscribed benign lymph-node hyperplasia. The disease may develop anywhere in the lymphatic system, but is most commonly reported as unicentric Castleman disease in the mediastinum along the tracheobronchial tree. It is usually asymptomatic and detected on plain chest radiography as an incidental finding. We report an incidentally detected case of Castleman disease in the paravertebral space that was preoperatively diagnosed as a neurogenic tumor and treated by complete surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Castleman Disease , Hyperplasia , Incidental Findings , Lymphatic System , Mediastinal Neoplasms , Mediastinum , Radiography , Rare Diseases , Thorax , Trees
14.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 58-60, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742329

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of lung transplantation in a patient with profound preoperative hypercapnia, focusing on the cardiopulmonary bypass strategy used for brain perfusion during the operation. We applied the pH-stat method for acid-base regulation, and thereby achieved the desired outcome without any neurologic deficit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Hypercapnia , Lung Transplantation , Lung , Methods , Neurologic Manifestations , Perfusion
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 992-997, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762032

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the characteristics of lung allocation and outcomes of lung transplant (LTx) according to the Korean urgency status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LTx registration in the Korean Organ Transplantation Registry (KOTRY) began in 2015. From 2015 to June 2017, 86 patients who received LTx were enrolled in KOTRY. After excluding one patient who received a heart-lung transplant, 85 were included. Subjects were analyzed according to the Korean urgency status. RESULTS: Except for Status 0, urgency status was classified based on partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood gas analysis and functional status in 52 patients (93%). The wait time for lung allograft was well-stratified by urgency (Status 0, 46.5±59.2 days; Status 1, 104.4±98.2 days; Status 2 or 3, 132.2±118.4 days, p=0.009). Status 0 was associated with increased operative times and higher intraoperative blood transfusion. Status 0 was associated with prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use, postoperative bleeding, and longer mechanical ventilation after operation. Survival of Status 0 patients seemed worse than that of non-Status 0 patients, although differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: The Korean urgency classification for LTx is determined by using very limited parameters and may not be a true reflection of urgency. Status 0 patients seem to have poor outcomes compared to the other urgency status patients, despite having the highest priority for donor lungs. Further multi-center and nationwide studies are needed to revise the lung allocation system to reflect true urgency and provide the best benefit of lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allografts , Blood Gas Analysis , Blood Transfusion , Classification , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hemorrhage , Lung Transplantation , Lung , Operative Time , Organ Transplantation , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Respiration, Artificial , Tissue Donors , Transplants
16.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 353-359, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the effect of radiation on metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (nCRT), we examined the metastatic features of LNs according to their inclusion in the radiation field. METHODS: The patient group included 88 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 61.1±8.1 years, who underwent esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy after nCRT. Dissected LNs were compared in terms of clinical suspicion of metastasis, nodal station, and inclusion in the radiation field. RESULTS: LN positivity did not differ between LNs that were inside (in-field [IF]) and outside (out-field [OF]) of the radiation field (IF: 40 of 465 [9%], OF: 40 of 420 [10%]; p=0.313). In clinical N+ nodal stations, IF stations had a lower incidence of metastasis than OF stations (IF/cN+: 16 of 142 [11%], OF/cN+: 9/30 [30%]; p=0.010). However, in clinical N- nodal stations, pathological positivity was not affected by whether the nodal stations were included in the radiation field (IF/cN-: 24 of 323 [7%], OF/cN-: 31 of 390 [8%]; p=0.447). CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy for nCRT could downstage clinically suspected nodal metastasis. However, such therapy was ineffective when used to treat nodes that were not suspicious for metastasis. Because significant numbers of residual metastases were identified irrespective of coverage by the radiation field, lymphadenectomy should be performed to ensure complete removal of residual nodal metastases after nCRT.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Incidence , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy
17.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 195-204, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761867

ABSTRACT

Lobectomy is considered the standard strategy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, sublobar resection for NSCLC has recently received increased attention. The objective of this study was to compare 5-year survival, recurrence-free survival, postoperative mortality, and postoperative morbidities in patients who received segmentectomy versus those who received lobectomy through a meta-analysis. Sixteen studies were included and the combined hazard ratios or odds ratios were calculated. The results revealed that the 5-year survival rate after segmentectomy was comparable to that of lobectomy for stage IA NSCLC. However, segmentectomy for stage I NSCLC had lower rates of postoperative mortality and morbidities than lobectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Mastectomy, Segmental , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Survival Rate
18.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 243-246, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761860

ABSTRACT

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a malignant soft tissue neoplasm producing osteoid, without any continuity with the bone or periosteum. Primary ESOS presenting in the mediastinum is an extremely rare, yet aggressive malignant tumor associated with a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary ESOS arising from the thymus in a 63-year-old male patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mediastinum , Osteosarcoma , Periosteum , Prognosis , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Thymus Gland
19.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 148-154, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of primary chest wall soft tissue sarcoma (CW-STS). METHODS: Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for CW-STS between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The disease-free and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 65.6 months. The most common histologic type of tumor was malignant fibrous histiocytoma (29%). The resection extended to the soft tissue in 14 patients, while it reached full thickness in 17 patients. Complete resection was achieved in 27 patients (87.1%). There were 5 cases of local recurrence, 3 cases of distant metastasis, and 5 cases of combined recurrence. The 5-year disease-free rate was 49%. Univariate analysis indicated that incomplete resection (p<0.001) and stage (p=0.062) were possible risk factors for recurrence. Multivariate analysis determined that incomplete resection (p=0.013) and stage (p=0.05) were significantly associated with recurrence. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 86.8% and 64.3%, respectively. No prognostic factor for survival was identified. CONCLUSION: Long-term primary CW-STS surgery outcomes were found to be favorable. Incomplete microscopic resection and stage were risk factors for recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Proportional Hazards Models , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcoma , Survival Rate , Thoracic Wall , Thorax
20.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 273-276, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716545

ABSTRACT

We report the rare case of a 58-year-old woman who was diagnosed with fungal empyema thoracis combined with osteoradionecrosis. After 32 months of home care followed by open window thoracostomy, thoracoplasty with serratus anterior muscle transposition and a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was performed successfully. Although thoracoplasty is now rarely indicated, it is still the treatment of choice for the complete obliteration of thoracic spaces.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Empyema , Home Care Services , Myocutaneous Flap , Osteoradionecrosis , Superficial Back Muscles , Thoracoplasty , Thoracostomy
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