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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900096

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Here, we evaluated whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles and their changes after intraventricular chemotherapy for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) could predict the treatment response or be prognostic for patient overall survival (OS) along with clinical factors. @*Methods@#: Paired 1) pretreatment lumbar, 2) pretreatment ventricular, and 3) posttreatment ventricular samples and their CSF profiles were collected retrospectively from 148 LMC patients who received Ommaya reservoir installation and intraventricular chemotherapy. CSF profile changes were assessed by calculating the differences between posttreatment and pretreatment samples from the same ventricular compartment. CSF cell counts were further differentiated into total and other based on clinical laboratory reports. @*Results@#: For the treatment response, a decreased CSF ‘total’ cell count tended to be associated with a ‘controlled’ increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) (p=0.059), but other profile changes were not associated with either the control of increased ICP or the cytology response. Among the pretreatment CSF profiles, lumbar protein level and ventricular cell count were significantly correlated with OS in univariable analysis, but they were not significant in multi-variable analysis. Among CSF profile changes, a decrease in ‘other’ cell count showed worse OS than ‘no change’ or increased groups (p=0.001). The cytological response was significant for OS, but the hazard ratio of partial remission was paradoxically higher than that of ‘no response’. @*Conclusion@#: A decrease in other cell count of CSF after intraventricular chemotherapy was associated with poor OS in LMC patients. We suggest that more specific CSF biomarkers of cancer cell origin are needed.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892392

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Here, we evaluated whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles and their changes after intraventricular chemotherapy for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) could predict the treatment response or be prognostic for patient overall survival (OS) along with clinical factors. @*Methods@#: Paired 1) pretreatment lumbar, 2) pretreatment ventricular, and 3) posttreatment ventricular samples and their CSF profiles were collected retrospectively from 148 LMC patients who received Ommaya reservoir installation and intraventricular chemotherapy. CSF profile changes were assessed by calculating the differences between posttreatment and pretreatment samples from the same ventricular compartment. CSF cell counts were further differentiated into total and other based on clinical laboratory reports. @*Results@#: For the treatment response, a decreased CSF ‘total’ cell count tended to be associated with a ‘controlled’ increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) (p=0.059), but other profile changes were not associated with either the control of increased ICP or the cytology response. Among the pretreatment CSF profiles, lumbar protein level and ventricular cell count were significantly correlated with OS in univariable analysis, but they were not significant in multi-variable analysis. Among CSF profile changes, a decrease in ‘other’ cell count showed worse OS than ‘no change’ or increased groups (p=0.001). The cytological response was significant for OS, but the hazard ratio of partial remission was paradoxically higher than that of ‘no response’. @*Conclusion@#: A decrease in other cell count of CSF after intraventricular chemotherapy was associated with poor OS in LMC patients. We suggest that more specific CSF biomarkers of cancer cell origin are needed.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833501

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Radiation is known to induce autophagy in malignant glioma cells whether it is cytocidal or cytoprotective.Dexamethasone is frequently used to reduce tumor-associated brain edema, especially during radiation therapy. The purpose of the study was to determine whether and how dexamethasone affects autophagy in irradiated malignant glioma cells and to identify possible intervening molecular pathways. @*Methods@#: We prepared p53 mutant U373 and LN229 glioma cell lines, which varied by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutational status and were used to make U373 stable transfected cells expressing GFP-LC3 protein. After performing cell survival assay after irradiation, the IC50 radiation dose was determined. Dexamethasone dose (10 µM) was determined from the literature and added to the glioma cells 24 hours before the irradiation. The effect of adding dexamethasone was evaluated by cell survival assay or clonogenic assay and cell cycle analysis. Measurement of autophagy was visualized by western blot of LC3-I/LC3-II and quantified by the GFP-LC3 punctuated pattern under fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange staining for acidic vesicle organelles by flow cytometry. @*Results@#: Dexamethasone increased cell survival in both U373 and LN229 cells after irradiation. It interfered with autophagy after irradiation differently depending on the PTEN mutational status : the autophagy decreased in U373 (PTEN-mutated) cells but increased in LN229 (PTEN wild-type) cells. Inhibition of protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation after irradiation by LY294002 reversed the dexamethasone-induced decrease of autophagy and cell death in U373 cells but provoked no effect on both autophagy and cell survival in LN229 cells. After ATG5 knockdown, radiation-induced autophagy decreased and the effect of dexamethasone also diminished in both cell lines. The diminished autophagy resulted in a partial reversal of dexamethasone protection from cell death after irradiation in U373 cells; however, no significant change was observed in surviving fraction LN229 cells. @*Conclusion@#: Dexamethasone increased cell survival in p53 mutated malignant glioma cells and increased autophagy in PTENmutant malignant glioma cell but not in PTEN-wildtype cell. The difference of autophagy response could be mediated though the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831031

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the application of radiotherapy to brain metastasis (BM) increases, the incidence of radiation necrosis (RN) as a late toxicity of radiotherapy also increases. However, no specific treatment for RN is indicated except long-term steroids. Here, we summarize the clinical results of bevacizumab (BEV) for RN. @*Methods@#Ten patients with RN who were treated with BEV monotherapy (7 mg/kg) were retrospectively reviewed. RN diagnosis was made using MRI with or without perfusion MRI. Radiological response was based on Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria for BM. The initial response was observed after 2 cycles every 2 weeks, and maintenance observed after 3 cycles every 3-6 weeks of increasing length intervals. @*Results@#The initial response of gadolinium (Gd) enhancement diameter maintained stable disease (SD) in 9 patients, and 1 patient showed partial response (PR). The initial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) response showed PR in 4 patients and SD in 6 patients. The best radiological response was observed in 9 patients. Gd enhancement response was 6 PR and 3 SD between 15-43 weeks. Reduction of FLAIR showed PR in 5 patients and SD in 4 patients. Clinical improvement was observed in all but 1 patient. Five patients were maintained on protocol with durable response up to 23 cycles. However, 2 patients stopped treatment due to primary cancer progression, 1 patient received surgical removal from tumor recurrence, and 1 patient changed to systemic chemotherapy for new BM. Grade 3 intractable hypertension occurred in 1 patient who had already received antihypertensive medication. @*Conclusion@#BEV treatment for RN from BM radiotherapy resulted in favorable radiological (60%) and clinical responses (90%). Side effects were expectable and controllable. We anticipate prospective clinical trials to verify the effect of BEV monotherapy for RN.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760893

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus causes serious central nervous system infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Successful treatment requires adequate antimicrobial concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, in some cases, achieving this with systemic treatment alone is difficult. We treated intractable B. cereus ventriculitis with intraventricular vancomycin, with no major adverse events.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus , Bacillus , Central Nervous System Infections , Cerebral Ventriculitis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Immunocompromised Host , Injections, Intraventricular , Pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of modified ventriculolumbar perfusion (VLP) chemotherapy with methotrexate on leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in terms of symptomatic response and side effects. METHODS: Previous infusion rate of 20 mL/h was reduced to 15 mL/h for the purpose of decreasing constitutional side effects of VLP such as nausea/vomiting, insomnia and confusion. The primary outcome was the response rate of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of side effects compared to previous 20 mL/h trial. This interim analysis to validate the reduced infusion rate is not to affect the original effect of VLP chemotherapy. RESULTS: All forty-seven patients were enrolled including 22 patients with increased ICP. Thirteen patients out of these (59%) got normalized ICP after VLP chemotherapy. Moderate to severe (grade 2–3) confusion was observed in 3 patients (6%) and it was significantly reduced compared to those (23%) in the VLP 20 mL/h (p=0.017). Grade 2–3 nausea/vomiting was also reduced from 64% to 45% but failed to reach statistical significance (p=0.08). Median overall survival (OS) was 5.3 months (95% confidence interval, 3.55–7.05) and patients OS, who received maintenance VLP was significantly prolonged compared to patients who underwent induction VLP only (5.8 vs. 3.4 months, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: VLP of reduced perfusion rate (15 mL/h) showed compatible control rate of increased ICP at this interim analysis. Decreased moderate to severe side effects and prolonged OS in patients received maintenance VLP encourage us to evaluate the effectiveness of this trial further.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Humans , Infusions, Intraventricular , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Methotrexate , Perfusion , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations between non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and corresponding brain metastases (BMs) in Korea society. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, a total of 74 patients underwent surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor from NSCLC. Among them, we performed retrospective analysis for 46 patients who underwent EGFR sequencing of primary NSCLC tissues. RESULTS: Among these 46 cases, 18 (39.1%) cases showed EGFR mutation in primary lung cancer. Detected mutation sites were exon 19 (8 cases), exon 21 (6 cases), exon 18 (1 cases), and multiple mutations (3 cases). In 18 cases of BM, EGFR mutation studies were done. Among them, 8 (25.6%) cases showed mutation on exon 19 (5 cases) or exon 21 (3 cases). To compare EGFR mutation status between primary lung cancer and BM, 18 paired tissues from both NSCLC and matched BM were collected. Four (22.5%) patients were discordant for the status of EGFR between primary and metastatic sites. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were significantly discordant between primary tumors and corresponding metastases in a significant portion of NSCLC. In treatment of BM of EGFR mutant metastatic NSCLC, due to possibility of discordance, pathologic confirming through brain biopsy is recommended.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Epidermal Growth Factor , Exons , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the safety and function of the newly developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reservoir called the V-Port. METHODS: The newly developed V-Port consists of a non-collapsible reservoir outlined with a titanium cage and a connector for the ventricular catheter to be assembled. It is designed to be better palpated and more durable to multiple punctures than the Ommaya reservoir. A total of nine patients diagnosed with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis were selected for V-Port insertion. Each patient was followed up for evaluation for a month after the operation. RESULTS: The average operation time for V-Port insertion was 42 minutes and the average incision size was 6.6 cm. The surgical technique of V-Port insertion was found to be intuitive by all neurosurgeons who participated in the pilot study. There was no obstruction or leakage of the V-Port during intrathecal chemotherapy or CSF drainage. Also, there were no complications including post-operative intracerebral hemorrhage, infection and skin problems related to the V-Port. CONCLUSION: V-Port is a safe and an easy to use implantable CSF reservoir that addresses problems of other implantable CSF reservoirs. Further multicenter clinical trial is needed to prove the safety and the function of the V-Port.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Neurosurgeons , Pilot Projects , Punctures , Skin , Titanium
11.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 103-106, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786710

ABSTRACT

Frozen shoulder is a disease characterized by shoulder pain and limited range of motion. Conservative treatment is preceded by surgical treatment to reduce pain and recover range of motion. Hydraulic distention is a procedure in which a sufficient amount of solution is injected into the shoulder joint to rupture the rigid joint capsule. Recently, the method of continuously maintaining the expanded capsular state after injection without the process of rupturing the rigid joint has also been used. However, in order to obtain the maximal stretching effect, we proposed a ‘pumping technique’ that inflates and shrinks the rigid joint capsule by repeating the process of infusion and regurgitation of the injection fluid into the capsule. Our proposed ‘pumping technique’ was shown to be more effective in increasing range of motion than the conventional hydraulic distension. This ‘pumping technique’ can be suggested as an effective therapeutic option for frozen shoulder.


Subject(s)
Bursitis , Humans , Joint Capsule , Joints , Methods , Range of Motion, Articular , Rupture , Shoulder Joint , Shoulder Pain , Ultrasonography
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the safety and function of the newly developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reservoir called the V-Port.METHODS: The newly developed V-Port consists of a non-collapsible reservoir outlined with a titanium cage and a connector for the ventricular catheter to be assembled. It is designed to be better palpated and more durable to multiple punctures than the Ommaya reservoir. A total of nine patients diagnosed with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis were selected for V-Port insertion. Each patient was followed up for evaluation for a month after the operation.RESULTS: The average operation time for V-Port insertion was 42 minutes and the average incision size was 6.6 cm. The surgical technique of V-Port insertion was found to be intuitive by all neurosurgeons who participated in the pilot study. There was no obstruction or leakage of the V-Port during intrathecal chemotherapy or CSF drainage. Also, there were no complications including post-operative intracerebral hemorrhage, infection and skin problems related to the V-Port.CONCLUSION: V-Port is a safe and an easy to use implantable CSF reservoir that addresses problems of other implantable CSF reservoirs. Further multicenter clinical trial is needed to prove the safety and the function of the V-Port.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Neurosurgeons , Pilot Projects , Punctures , Skin , Titanium
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 182-191, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical outcome of proton therapy (PT) in patients with chordoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with chordoma treated with PT between June 2007 and December 2015 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. The median total dose was 69.6 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE; range, 64.8 to 79.2 CGE). Local progression-free survival (LPFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and diseasespecific survival (DSS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method. RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 42.8 months (range, 4 to 174 months), the 5-year LPFS, DMFS, OS, and DSS rates were 87.9%, 86.7%, 88.3%, and 92.9%, respectively. The tumor location was associated with the patterns of failure: the LPFS rates were lower for cervical tumors (57.1%) than for non-cervical tumors (93.1%) (p = 0.02), and the DMFS rates were lower for sacral tumors (53.5%) than for non-sacral tumors (100%) (p = 0.001). The total dose was associated with both the LPFS rate and DMFS rate. The initial tumor size was associated with the DMFS rate, but was not associated with the LPFS rate. Three patients had grade 3 late toxicity with none ≥grade 4. CONCLUSION: PT is an effective and safe treatment in patients with chordomas. The tumor location was associated with the patterns of failure: local failure was common in cervical tumors, and distant failure was common in sacral tumors. Further refinement of PT, such as the utilization of intensity modulated PT for cervical tumors, is warranted to improve the outcome.


Subject(s)
Chordoma , Cobalt , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Methods , Proton Therapy , Protons , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176897

ABSTRACT

Ependymoma usually arises within the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. These tumors, found in the sellar region, are extremely rare. We report a case of pituitary ependymoma followed up over 10 years. A 59-year-old male patient presented with fatigue, general weakness, erectile dysfunction, and loss of body hair, including pubic hair. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 3.3×3.5×2.3-cm sellar and suprasellar snowman-shaped enhancing mass. The tumor was partially resected via the trans-sphenoidal approach followed by postoperative radiation therapy. The pathologic confirmation was pituitary ependymoma. At the 10-year follow up, MRI revealed no evidence of tumor progression. With lack of knowledge about pituitary ependymoma, our case is the only case in which the disease has been well controlled over a long period of time without tumor progression.


Subject(s)
Brain , Ependymoma , Erectile Dysfunction , Fatigue , Follow-Up Studies , Hair , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms , Spinal Cord
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Elevated cell counts and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) result from disease activity in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC). Previous studies evaluated the use of CSF profiles to monitor a treatment response or predict prognosis. CSF profiles vary, however, according to the sampling site and the patient's systemic condition. We compared lumbar and ventricular CSF profiles collected before intraventricular chemotherapy for LMC and evaluated the association of these profiles with patients' systemic factors and LMC disease activity. METHODS: CSF profiles were retrospectively collected from 228 patients who underwent Ommaya reservoir insertion for intraventricular chemotherapy after a diagnosis of LMC. Lumbar samples taken via lumbar puncture were used for the diagnosis, and ventricular samples were obtained later at the time of Ommaya reservoir insertion. LMC disease activity was defined as the presence of LMC-related symptoms such as increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, cranial neuropathy, and cauda equina syndrome. RESULTS: Cell counts (median : 8 vs. 1 cells/mL) and protein levels (median : 68 vs. 17 mg/dL) significantly higher in lumbar CSF than in ventricular CSF (p<0.001). Among the evaluated systemic factors, concomitant brain metastasis and previous radiation were significantly correlated with higher protein levels in the lumbar CSF (p=0.01 and <0.001, respectively). Among the LMC disease activity, patients presenting with hydrocephalus or cauda equina syndrome showed higher lumbar CSF protein level compared with that in patients without those symptoms (p=0.049 and p<0.001, respectively). The lumbar CSF cell count was significantly lower in patients with cranial neuropathy (p=0.046). The ventricular CSF cell counts and protein levels showed no correlation with LMC symptoms. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which was measured from ventricular CSF after the diagnosis in 109 patients, showed a significant association with the presence of hydrocephalus (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The protein level in lumbar CSF indicated the localized disease activity of hydrocephalus and cauda equina syndrome. In the ventricular CSF, only the CEA level reflected the presence of hydrocephalus. We suggest using more specific biomarkers for the evaluation of ventricular CSF to monitor disease activity and treatment response.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Cell Count , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polyradiculopathy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Puncture
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83161

ABSTRACT

Treatment of Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from solid cancers has not advanced noticeably since the introduction of intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy in the 1970's. The marginal survival benefit and difficulty of intrathecal chemotherapy injection has hindered its wide spread use. Even after the introduction of intraventricular chemotherapy with Ommaya reservoir, frequent development of CSF flow disturbance, manifested as increased intracranial pressure (ICP), made injected drug to be distributed unevenly and thus, the therapy became ineffective. Systemic chemotherapy for LMC has been limited as effective CSF concentration can hardly be achieved except high dose methotrexate (MTX) intravenous administration. However, the introduction of small molecular weight target inhibitors for primary cancer treatment has changed the old concept of 'blood-brain barrier' as the ultimate barrier to systemically administered drugs. Conventional oral administration achieves an effective concentration at the nanomolar level. Furthermore, many studies report that a combined treatment of target inhibitor and intra-CSF chemotherapy significantly prolongs patient survival. Ventriculolumbar perfusion (VLP) chemotherapy has sought to increase drug delivery to the subarachnoid CSF space even in patients with disturbed CSF flow. Recently authors performed phase 1 and 2 clinical trial of VLP chemotherapy with MTX, and 3/4th of patients with increased ICP got controlled ICP and the survival was prolonged. Further trials are required with newly available drugs for CSF chemotherapy. Additionally, new LMC biologic/pharmacodynamic markers for early diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment response are to be identified with the help of advanced molecular biology techniques.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drug Therapy , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Methotrexate , Molecular Biology , Molecular Weight , Perfusion
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon brain tumor accounting for 2%-5% of all primary brain tumors. Few population-based analyses of survival for patients with PCNSL have been conducted, particularly in Asian countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, 1,062 cases of PCNSL newly diagnosed from 1999 to 2009 were analyzed. The crude rate, age-standardized rate (ASR), and annual percent change were calculated. To estimate the observed survival, we restricted the data to between 1999 and 2007 and followed the cases until December 2010. The overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and piecewise Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The ASR for PCNSL between 1999 and 2009 was 0.17 per 100,000, and the annual percent change from 1999 to 2009 was 8.8% (p < 0.001). The ASR of males was higher than that of females, and the older groups (60s or over) showed the largest increase in incidence rates. For all ages, the five-year survival from PCNSL was 29.9% between 1999 and 2007. Survival from PCNSL is known to show strong association with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: These results are similar to those of previous studies. Our findings may be helpful to clinicians and patients in determining long-term prognoses for PCNSL.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lymphoma , Male , Prognosis , Registries
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of postoperative chemotherapy on recurrence and survival in patients after resection of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancers. METHODS: Patients who went through resection of a single metastatic brain tumor from non-small cell lung cancer from July 2001 to December 2012 were reviewed. Those selected were 77 patients who survived more than 3 months after surgery were selected. Among them, 44 patients received various postoperative systemic chemotherapies, 33 patients received postoperative adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Local/distant recurrence rate, local/distant recurrence free survival, disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Among the 77 patients, there were 19 (24.7%) local recurrences. Local recurrence occurred in 7 (21.2%) of 33 patients in the adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) group and in 12 (27.3%) of the 44 patients in the chemotherapy group (p=0.542). Among the 77 patients, there were 34 (44.1%) distant recurrences. Distant recurrence occurred in 7 (21.2%) of the 33 patients in the adjuvant RT group and in 27 (61.4%) of the 44 patients in the chemotherapy group (p<0.0005). Patients' survival in terms of local recurrence free survival, distant recurrence free survival, DFS, and overall survival was not shown to be statistically different between the two groups before and after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference observed between postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant WBRT in terms of patients' survival. Postoperative chemotherapy is more feasible and may be an appropriate option for simultaneous control of both primary and metastatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12909

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy has an important role in postoperative treatment of neoplasms originated from central nervous system, but may induce secondary malignancies like as sarcomas, gliomas, and meningiomas. The prognosis of radiation-induced osteosarcomas is known as poor, because they has aggressive nature invasive locally and intractable to multiple treatment strategies like as surgical resection, chemotherapy, and so on. We report a case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma developed from skull after 7 years of craniospinal radiotherapy for pineoblastoma.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Glioma , Meningioma , Osteosarcoma , Pinealoma , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Sarcoma , Skull
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23816

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is well known as the most common malignant primary brain tumor. It could easily spread into the adjacent or distant brain tissue by infiltration, direct extension and cerebro-spinal fluid dissemination. The extranueural metastatic spread of GBM is relatively rare but it could have more progressive disease course. We report a 39-year-old man who had multiple bone metastases and malignant pleural effusion of the GBM without primary site recurrence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Glioblastoma , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pleural Effusion , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Recurrence , Spinal Neoplasms
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