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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e37-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967454

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rate and composition of bacterial co-infection in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were evaluated when microbiological testing was conducted on the majority of patients. We also evaluated whether the use of empirical antibacterials was associated with mortality. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, all of the adult patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single tertiary hospital in South Korea between February 2020 and December 2021 were included. Bacterial co-infection was assessed by sputum cultures, blood cultures, and molecular testing, including polymerase chain reaction sputum testing and urinary antigen tests. Mortality was compared between patients who received empirical antibacterials and those who did not. @*Results@#Of the 367 adult patients admitted during the study period, 300 (81.7%) had sputum culture results and were included in the analysis. Of these 300 patients, 127 (42.3%) had a history of antibiotic exposure. The co-infection rate within 48 hours was 8.3% (25/300):6.4% (11/173) of patients without prior antibiotic exposure and 11% (14/127) of patients with prior antibacterial exposure. The co-infected bacteria were different according to antibacterial exposure before admission, and multi-drug resistant pathogens were detected exclusively in the antibacterial exposed group. Among the patients without positive results for the microbiological tests, empirical antibacterials were used in 33.3% of cases (100/300). Empirical antibacterial therapy was not significantly related to the 30-day mortality or inhospital mortality rates in the study cohort before or after the propensity score-matching. @*Conclusion@#In this study including only patients underwent microbiological testing, bacterial co-infection was not frequent, and the co-infected organisms varied depending on previous antibacterial exposures. Given the rarity of co-infection and the lack of potential benefits, empiric antibacterial use in COVID-19 should be an important target of antibiotic stewardship.

2.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 102-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925824

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate whether fluvoxamine reduces clinical deterioration in adult patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to identify risk factors for clinical deterioration in patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC). @*Materials and Methods@#A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a CTC, in Seoul, Korea from January 15, 2021, to February 19, 2021. Symptomatic adult patients with positive results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real timepolymerase chain reaction within 3 days of randomization were assigned at random to receive 100 mg of fluvoxamine or placebo twice daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration defined by any of the following criteria: oxygen requirement to keep oxygen saturation over 94.0%, aggravation of pneumonia with dyspnea, or World Health Organization clinical progression scale 4 or greater. @*Results@#Of 52 randomized participants [median (interquartile range) age, 53.5 (43.3 - 60.0) years; 31 (60.0%) men], 44 (85.0%) completed the trial. Clinical deterioration occurred in 2 of 26 patients in each group (P >0.99). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Clinical deterioration occurred in 15 (6.0%) of 271 patients admitted to the CTC, and all of them were transferred to a hospital. In multivariate analysis, age between 55 and 64, fever and pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors for clinical deterioration. @*Conclusion@#In this study of adult patients with symptomatic COVID-19 who were admitted to the CTC, there was no significant differences in clinical deterioration between patients treated with fluvoxamine and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04711863).

3.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 227-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903887

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of more than 10 eosinophils per μl in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or eosinophils accounting for more than 10% of CSF leukocytes in patients with acute meningitis. Parasites are the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, but there is limited research on patients in Korea. Patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis between January 2004 and June 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology and clinical characteristics of each patient were identified. Of the 22 patients included in the study, 11 (50%) had parasitic causes, of whom 8 (36%) were diagnosed as neurocysticercosis and 3 (14%) as Toxocara meningitis. Four (18%) patients were diagnosed with fungal meningitis, and underlying immunodeficiency was found in 2 of these patients. The etiology of another 4 (18%) patients was suspected to be tuberculosis, which is endemic in Korea. Viral and bacterial meningitis were relatively rare causes of eosinophilic meningitis, accounting for 2 (9%) and 1 (5%) patients, respectively. One patient with neurocysticercosis and 1 patient with fungal meningitis died, and 5 (23%) had neurologic sequelae. Parasite infections, especially neurocysticercosis and toxocariasis, were the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Korean patients. Fungal meningitis, while relatively rare, is often aggressive and must be considered when searching for the cause of eosinophilic meningitis.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e181-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899953

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence.Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation.He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e104-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899858

ABSTRACT

Background@#The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. @*Methods@#A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (–2.626%/year) and ST239 (–0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/ yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidinpositive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (–2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (–1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. @*Conclusion@#Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 528-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898646

ABSTRACT

Background@#Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia is associated with significant mortality; however, no optimal antibiotic strategy is available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the antibiotic regimens and identify risk factors for mortality in patients with KPC-producingK. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteremia. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremia (KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli) between January 2011 and March 2021 at a 2,700-bed tertiary center. @*Results@#Ninety-two patients were identified; 7 with E. coli bacteremia, and 85 with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality was 38.0% (35/92). Non-survivors were more likely to have had nosocomial infection (88.6% vs. 63.2%, P = 0.01), high APACHE II scores (mean [interquartile range], 22.0 [14.0 - 28.0] vs. 14.0 [11.0 - 20.5],P <0.001), and septic shock (51.4% vs. 26.3%, P <0.001) and less likely to have been admitted to the surgical ward (5.7% vs. 22.8%, P= 0.04), undergone removal of eradicable foci (61.5% vs. 90.6%, P = 0.03), and received appropriate combination treatment (57.1% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.03) than survivors. No significant difference in mortality was observed according to combination regimens including colistin, aminoglycoside, and tigecycline. In multivariable analysis, high APACHE II scores (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 - 1.23, P <0.001), and appropriate definitive treatment (aOR, 0.25; CI, 0.08 - 0.74,P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#High APACHE II scores and not receiving appropriate definitive treatment were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality did not significantly differ according to combination regimens with conventional drugs such as aminoglycoside and colistin.

7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 227-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896183

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of more than 10 eosinophils per μl in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or eosinophils accounting for more than 10% of CSF leukocytes in patients with acute meningitis. Parasites are the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, but there is limited research on patients in Korea. Patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis between January 2004 and June 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology and clinical characteristics of each patient were identified. Of the 22 patients included in the study, 11 (50%) had parasitic causes, of whom 8 (36%) were diagnosed as neurocysticercosis and 3 (14%) as Toxocara meningitis. Four (18%) patients were diagnosed with fungal meningitis, and underlying immunodeficiency was found in 2 of these patients. The etiology of another 4 (18%) patients was suspected to be tuberculosis, which is endemic in Korea. Viral and bacterial meningitis were relatively rare causes of eosinophilic meningitis, accounting for 2 (9%) and 1 (5%) patients, respectively. One patient with neurocysticercosis and 1 patient with fungal meningitis died, and 5 (23%) had neurologic sequelae. Parasite infections, especially neurocysticercosis and toxocariasis, were the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Korean patients. Fungal meningitis, while relatively rare, is often aggressive and must be considered when searching for the cause of eosinophilic meningitis.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e181-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892249

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence.Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation.He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e104-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892154

ABSTRACT

Background@#The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. @*Methods@#A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (–2.626%/year) and ST239 (–0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/ yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidinpositive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (–2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (–1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. @*Conclusion@#Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.

10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 528-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890942

ABSTRACT

Background@#Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia is associated with significant mortality; however, no optimal antibiotic strategy is available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the antibiotic regimens and identify risk factors for mortality in patients with KPC-producingK. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteremia. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremia (KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli) between January 2011 and March 2021 at a 2,700-bed tertiary center. @*Results@#Ninety-two patients were identified; 7 with E. coli bacteremia, and 85 with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality was 38.0% (35/92). Non-survivors were more likely to have had nosocomial infection (88.6% vs. 63.2%, P = 0.01), high APACHE II scores (mean [interquartile range], 22.0 [14.0 - 28.0] vs. 14.0 [11.0 - 20.5],P <0.001), and septic shock (51.4% vs. 26.3%, P <0.001) and less likely to have been admitted to the surgical ward (5.7% vs. 22.8%, P= 0.04), undergone removal of eradicable foci (61.5% vs. 90.6%, P = 0.03), and received appropriate combination treatment (57.1% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.03) than survivors. No significant difference in mortality was observed according to combination regimens including colistin, aminoglycoside, and tigecycline. In multivariable analysis, high APACHE II scores (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 - 1.23, P <0.001), and appropriate definitive treatment (aOR, 0.25; CI, 0.08 - 0.74,P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#High APACHE II scores and not receiving appropriate definitive treatment were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality did not significantly differ according to combination regimens with conventional drugs such as aminoglycoside and colistin.

11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 600-610, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898593

ABSTRACT

Background@#The timeline of infections after lung transplantation has been changed with the introduction of new immunosuppressants and prophylaxis strategies. The study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases after lung transplantation in the current era. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients who underwent lung or heart–lung transplantation at our institution between October 29, 2008 and April 3, 2019 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records till April 2, 2020. @*Results@#In total, 100 consecutive lung transplant recipients were enrolled. The median follow-up period was 28 months after lung transplantation. A total of 127 post–lung transplantation bacterial infections occurred. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (25/84, 29.8%) was the most common within 6 months and pneumonia (23/43, 53.5%) was the most common after 6 months. Most episodes (35/40, 87.5%) of respiratory viral infections occurred after 6 months, mainly as upper respiratory infections. The remaining episodes (5/40, 12.5%) mostly manifested as lower respiratory tract infections. Seventy cytomegalovirus infections observed in 43 patients were divided into 23 episodes occurring before and 47 episodes occurring after discontinuing prophylaxis. Of 10 episodes of cytomegalovirus disease, four occurred during prophylaxis and six occurred after prophylaxis.Of 23 episodes of post–lung transplantation fungal infection, 7 were aspergillosis and all occurred after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. @*Conclusion@#Lung transplant recipients experienced a high burden of infection even after 6 months, especially after the end of the prophylaxis period. Therefore, these patients should be continued to be monitored long-term for infectious disease.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 438-448, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831843

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the usefulness in kidney transplant (KT) candidates of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for predicting the development of post-transplant CMV infections. @*Methods@#All adult recipients admitted for living-donor KT between March 2014 and March 2015 were prospectively enrolled except donor CMV-seropositive and recipient seronegative (D+/R–) recipients. All the enrolled patients underwent CMV-specific ELISPOT assays before transplant, and a researcher blinded to the results of these assays examined the patients for CMV infection at least 6 months post-transplant. @*Results@#Of 133 KT recipients, 44 (33%) developed CMV infections. When we used the cut-off determined by receiver operator characteristic curve, 16 of the 34 patients (47%) with negative pp65-specific ELISPOT results (< 11 spots/200,000 cells) developed CMV infections, whereas 28 of the 99 patients (39%) with positive pp65-specific ELISPOT results at baseline (≥ 11 spots/200,000 cells) developed CMV infections after KT (p = 0.02). Based on the multivariable Cox regression model, negative pp65-specific ELISPOT assay results was an independent risk factor for CMV infection (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.46; p = 0.047) as well as age (AHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.08; p = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#Pre-transplant CMV-specific ELISPOT assay appears to predict the development of CMV infections after KT in recipients at moderate risk such as CMV-seropositive recipients (Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT 02025335).

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 600-610, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890889

ABSTRACT

Background@#The timeline of infections after lung transplantation has been changed with the introduction of new immunosuppressants and prophylaxis strategies. The study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases after lung transplantation in the current era. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients who underwent lung or heart–lung transplantation at our institution between October 29, 2008 and April 3, 2019 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records till April 2, 2020. @*Results@#In total, 100 consecutive lung transplant recipients were enrolled. The median follow-up period was 28 months after lung transplantation. A total of 127 post–lung transplantation bacterial infections occurred. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (25/84, 29.8%) was the most common within 6 months and pneumonia (23/43, 53.5%) was the most common after 6 months. Most episodes (35/40, 87.5%) of respiratory viral infections occurred after 6 months, mainly as upper respiratory infections. The remaining episodes (5/40, 12.5%) mostly manifested as lower respiratory tract infections. Seventy cytomegalovirus infections observed in 43 patients were divided into 23 episodes occurring before and 47 episodes occurring after discontinuing prophylaxis. Of 10 episodes of cytomegalovirus disease, four occurred during prophylaxis and six occurred after prophylaxis.Of 23 episodes of post–lung transplantation fungal infection, 7 were aspergillosis and all occurred after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. @*Conclusion@#Lung transplant recipients experienced a high burden of infection even after 6 months, especially after the end of the prophylaxis period. Therefore, these patients should be continued to be monitored long-term for infectious disease.

14.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 348-356, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, the number of lung transplants in South Korea has increased. However, the long-term outcome data is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes of adult lung transplantation recipients. METHODS: Among the patients that underwent lung transplantation at a tertiary referral center in South Korea between 2008 and 2017, adults patient who underwent deceased-donor lung transplantation with available follow-up data were enrolled. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Through eligibility screening, we identified 60 adult patients that underwent lung (n=51) or heart-lung transplantation (n=9) during the observation period. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (46.7%, 28/60) was the most frequent cause of lung transplantation. For all the 60 patients, the median follow-up duration for post-transplantation was 2.6 years (range, 0.01–7.6). During the post-transplantation follow-up period, 19 patients (31.7%) died at a median duration of 194 days. The survival rates were 75.5%, 67.6%, and 61.8% at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively. Out of the 60 patients, 8 (13.3%) were diagnosed with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), after a mean duration of 3.3±2.8 years post-transplantation. The CLAD development rate was 0%, 17.7%, and 25.8% at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively. The most common newly developed post-transplantation comorbidity was the chronic kidney disease (CKD; 54.0%), followed by diabetes mellitus (25.9%). CONCLUSION: Among the adult lung transplantation recipients at a South Korea tertiary referral center, the long-term survival rates were favorable. The proportion of patients who developed CLAD was not substantial. CKD was the most common post-transplantation comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Allografts , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Heart-Lung Transplantation , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Korea , Lung Transplantation , Lung , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 265-271, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761743

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of human taeniasis has decreased in Korea. The stool egg positive proportion decreased from 1.9% in 1971 to 0% in 2004 in nationwide surveys. The neurocysticercosis (NCC) is also presumed to decrease. However, detailed information regarding the recent status of NCC in Korea is lacking. We retrospectively reviewed NCC cases from 1990 to 2016 at Asan Medical Center, a 2700-bed tertiary referral hospital in Korea. We identified patients based on clinical symptoms, brain imaging, pathology and serological assay. The cases were classified as parenchymal, extraparenchymal, and mixed NCC. Eighty-one patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 54.5 years, and 79.0% were male. The number of NCC cases was highest from 1995 to 1999, and continuously decreased thereafter. Forty (49.4%) patients had parenchymal NCC, while 25 (30.9%) patients had extraparenchymal NCC, and 16 (19.8%) patients had mixed NCC. The seizure and headache were most common symptom of parenchymal NCC and extraparenchymal NCC respectively. Hydrocephalus was more common in extraparenchymal NCC, and patients with extraparenchymal NCC were more likely to require a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Cases of NCC are decreasing accordingly with human taeniasis and lesion location was the most important determinant of clinical presentation and outcome of NCC in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Headache , Hydrocephalus , Korea , Neurocysticercosis , Neuroimaging , Ovum , Pathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Taenia solium , Taeniasis , Tertiary Care Centers , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
16.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 348-356, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Recently, the number of lung transplants in South Korea has increased. However, the long-term outcome data is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes of adult lung transplantation recipients.@*METHODS@#Among the patients that underwent lung transplantation at a tertiary referral center in South Korea between 2008 and 2017, adults patient who underwent deceased-donor lung transplantation with available follow-up data were enrolled. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed.@*RESULTS@#Through eligibility screening, we identified 60 adult patients that underwent lung (n=51) or heart-lung transplantation (n=9) during the observation period. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (46.7%, 28/60) was the most frequent cause of lung transplantation. For all the 60 patients, the median follow-up duration for post-transplantation was 2.6 years (range, 0.01–7.6). During the post-transplantation follow-up period, 19 patients (31.7%) died at a median duration of 194 days. The survival rates were 75.5%, 67.6%, and 61.8% at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively. Out of the 60 patients, 8 (13.3%) were diagnosed with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), after a mean duration of 3.3±2.8 years post-transplantation. The CLAD development rate was 0%, 17.7%, and 25.8% at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively. The most common newly developed post-transplantation comorbidity was the chronic kidney disease (CKD; 54.0%), followed by diabetes mellitus (25.9%).@*CONCLUSION@#Among the adult lung transplantation recipients at a South Korea tertiary referral center, the long-term survival rates were favorable. The proportion of patients who developed CLAD was not substantial. CKD was the most common post-transplantation comorbidity.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 184-194, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is a major bloodstream infection with a high mortality rate. Identification of factors associated with early mortality in MRSAB patients would be useful for predicting prognosis and developing new therapeutic options. METHODS: A prospective cohort of MRSAB patients was examined between August 2008 and June 2011. Early and late mortality was defined as death within 2 and 28 days of blood culture, respectively. The clinical and microbiological characteristics in the early and late mortality and survival groups were compared. Risk factors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock were also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 385 adult MRSAB patients whose S. aureus isolates were available were enrolled; of these patients, 25 patients (6.5%) and 50 (13%) died early and late, respectively. Compared with both the late-mortality group and the survival group, severe sepsis or septic shock was a statistically significant independent risk factor associated with early mortality. Rapidly or ultimately fatal McCabe and Jackson classification (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 3.02) and pneumonia (aOR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 4.02) were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock. A vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 1.5 μg/mL was associated with a reduced incidence of severe sepsis or septic shock (aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Severity of illness seems to be the most important risk factor associated with early mortality in MRSAB. Although vancomycin MIC was not independently associated with early mortality, reduced vancomycin susceptibility appears to be linked to reduced disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Bacteremia , Classification , Cohort Studies , Incidence , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Vancomycin
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 522-530, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Abnormal body composition is an important modifiable risk factor in lung transplantation. Therefore, precise quantification of different body components, including muscle and fat, may play an important role in optimizing outcomes in lung transplant patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic significance of muscle and subcutaneous fat mass measured on chest CT with regard to lung transplantation survival and other post-transplant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 45 consecutive adult lung transplant recipients (mean age of 47.9 ± 12.1 years; 31 males and 14 females) between 2011 and 2017. Preoperative cross-sectional areas of muscle and subcutaneous fat were semi-automatically measured on axial CT images at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12). Additional normalized indexed parameters, adjusted for either height or weight, were obtained. Associations of quantitative parameters with survival and various other post-transplant outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients included in the present study, 10 mortalities were observed during the follow-up period. Patients with relative sarcopenia (RS) classified based on height-adjusted muscle area with a cut-off value of 28.07 cm²/m² demonstrated worse postoperative survival (log-rank test, p = 0.007; hazard ratio [HR], 6.39:1) despite being adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (HR, 8.58:1; p = 0.022). Weight-adjusted parameters of muscle area were negatively correlated with duration of ventilator support (R = −0.54, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (R = −0.33, p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: Patients with RS demonstrate worse survival after lung transplantation that those without RS. Additionally, quantitative parameters of muscles measured at the T12 level on chest CT were associated with the duration of post-lung transplant ventilator support and duration of stay in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Intensive Care Units , Lung , Lung Transplantation , Mortality , Muscles , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia , Spine , Subcutaneous Fat , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplant Recipients , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
Immune Network ; : e2-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714036

ABSTRACT

The detailed kinetics of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell response in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have not yet been fully assessed. We evaluated these kinetics of CMV-specific T cell response and factors associated with high CMV-specific T cell responses 1 year after HCT. In HCT recipients, CMV pp65 and IE1-specific ELISPOT assay were performed before HCT (D0), and at 30 (D30), 90 (D90), 180 (D180), and 360 (D360) days after HCT. Of the 51 HCT recipients with donor-positive (D+)/recipient-positive (R+) serology, 26 (51%) developed CMV infections after HCT. The patterns of post-transplantation reconstitution for CMV-specific T cell response were classified into 4 types: 1) an initial decrease at D30 followed by gradual T cell reconstitution without CMV infection (35%), 2) an initial decrease at D30 followed by gradual T cell reconstitution preceded by CMV infection (35%), 3) failure of gradual or constant T cell reconstitution (26%), and 4) no significant T cell reconstitution (4%). There was no significant difference between ELISPOT counts of D360 and those of D0. High CMV-specific T cell responses at D360 were not associated with high CMV-specific T cell response at D0, CMV infection, ganciclovir therapy, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and immunosuppressant use. In conclusion, there are 4 distinct patterns of reconstitution of the CMV-specific T cell response after HCT. In addition, reconstituted donor-origin CMV-specific T cell responses appeared to be constant until day 360 after HCT, regardless of the level of the pre-transplant CMV-specific T cell response, CMV infection, and immunosuppressant use.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Ganciclovir , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Kinetics , Theophylline
20.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 8-19, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713372

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving hemodialysis are vulnerable to infectious diseases due to their impaired immunity and high risk of exposure to pathogens. To protect patients, staff, and visitors from potential infections, each hemodialysis unit should establish and follow standard infection control and prevention measures. Therefore, clinical practice guidelines were developed by a working group of nephrologists and infection control specialists to provide evidence-based guidance for dialysis physicians and nurses, with the aim of preventing infection transmission and controlling infection sources in hemodialysis facilities. The areas of infection control covered by these guidelines include standard precautions, isolation strategies, vascular access, water treatment, cleaning/disinfecting/sterilizing, and vaccination. This special report summarizes the key recommendations from the Korean clinical practice guidelines for preventing the transmission of infections in hemodialysis facilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases , Dialysis , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infection Control , Renal Dialysis , Specialization , Vaccination , Water Purification
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