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1.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 376-388, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832464

ABSTRACT

ymptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons are accompanied by movement disorders, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. Non-human primate (NHP) models with PD play an essential role in the analysis of PD pathophysiology and behavior symptoms. As impairments of hand dexterity function can affect activities of daily living in patients with PD, research on hand dexterity function in NHP models with chronic PD is essential. Traditional rating scales previously used in the evaluation of animal spontaneous behavior were insufficient due to factors related to subjectivity and passivity. Thus, experimentally designed applications for an appropriate apparatus are necessary. In this study, we aimed to longitudinally assess hand dexterity function using hand dexterity task (HDT) in NHP-PD models. To validate this assessment, we analyzed the alteration in Parkinsonian tremor signs and the functionality of presynaptic dopaminergic neuron using positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine transporters in these models. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between HDT and DAT level was identified, but no local bias was found. The correlation with intention tremor signs was lower than the resting tremor. In conclusion, the evaluation of HDT may reflect behavioral symptoms of NHP-PD models. Furthermore, HDT was effectively used to experimentally distinguish intention tremors from other tremors.

2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 300-313, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832446

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke results from arterial occlusion and can cause irreversible brain injury. A non-human primate (NHP) model of ischemic stroke was previously developed to investigate its pathophysiology and for efficacy testing of therapeutic candidates; however, fine motor impairment remains to be well-characterized. We evaluated hand motor function in a cynomolgus monkey model of ischemic stroke. Endovascular transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with an angiographic microcatheter induced cerebral infarction. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging mapped and measured the ischemia-induced infarct lesion. In vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the stroke lesion to assess the neuroplastic changes and fiber tractography demonstrated three-dimensional patterns in the corticospinal tract 12 weeks after MCAO. The hand dexterity task (HDT) was used to evaluate fine motor movement of upper extremity digits. The HDT was modified for a home cage-based training system, instead of conventional chair restraint training. The lesion was localized in the middle cerebral artery territory, including the sensorimotor cortex. Maximum infarct volume was exhibited over the first week after MCAO, which progressively inhibited ischemic core expansion, manifested by enhanced functional recovery of the affected hand over 12 weeks after MCAO. The total performance time decreased with increasing success rate for both hands on the HDT. Compensatory strategies and retrieval failure improved in the chronic phase after stroke. Our findings demonstrate the recovery of fine motor skill after stroke, and outline the behavioral characteristics and features of functional disorder of NHP stroke model, providing a basis for assessing hand motor function after stroke.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832044

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate differentially expressed genes and their functions in the hippocampus and striatum after heroin administration in cynomolgus macaques of different ages. @*Methods@#Cynomolgus monkeys were divided by age as follows: 1 year (A1, n = 2); 3 to 4 years (A2, n = 2); 6 to 8 years (A3, n = 2); and older than 11 years (A4, n = 2). After heroin was injected intramuscularly into the monkeys (0.6 mg/kg), we performed large-scale transcriptome profiling in the hippocampus (H) and striatum (S) using RNA sequencing technology. Some genes were validated with real-time quantitative PCR. @*Results@#In the hippocampus, the gene expression of A1H was similar to that of A4H, while the gene expression of A2H was similar to that of A3H. Genes associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway (STMN1, FGF14, and MAPT) and -aminobutyric acid-ergic synapses (GABBR2 and GAD1) were differentially expressed among control and heroin-treated animals. Differential gene expression between A1S and A4S was the least significant, while differential gene expression between A3S and A2S was the most significant. Genes associated with the neurotrophin signaling pathway (NTRK1 and NGFR), autophagy (ATG5), and dopaminergic synapses (AKT1) in the striatum were differentially expressed among control and heroin-treated animals. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that even a single heroin exposure can cause differential gene expression in the hippocampus and striatum of nonhuman primates at different ages.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 134-139, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836889

ABSTRACT

To date, researchers have developed various animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to investigate its mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic treatments. A widely recognized model that mimics the pathology of human sporadic AD involves intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with streptozotocin (STZ). However, ICV injections are an invasive approach, which creates limitations in generalizing the results. In this study, we produced a rodent model of AD using STZ (3 mg/kg) injection via the cisterna magna (CM) once every week for 4 weeks, and analyzed at 4 weeks and 16 weeks after final injection. In the CM-STZ rodent model of AD, we observed increase in extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and decrease and abnormal morphology of post-synaptic protein, PSD95 in 16 weeks STZ-injected group. The model developed using our less-invasive method induced features of AD-like pathology, including significantly increased extracellular amyloid-beta deposition, and decreased synaptic protein in the hippocampus. These findings supporting the success of this alternative approach, and thus, we suggest this is a promising, less invasive model for use in future AD research.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918400

ABSTRACT

Nonhuman primate models are valuable in biomedical research. However, reference data for clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are limited. In the present study, we established hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for healthy cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. A total of 142 cynomolgus monkeys (28 males and 114 females) and 42 rhesus monkeys (22 males and 20 females) were selected and analyzed in order to examine reference intervals of 20 hematological and 16 biochemical parameters. The effects of sex were also investigated. Reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters were separately established by species (cynomolgus and rhesus) and sex (male and female). No sex-related differences were determined in erythrocyte-related parameters for cynomolgus and rhesus monkey housed in indoor laboratory conditions. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase were significantly lower in females than males in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys aged 48–96 months. The reference values for hematological and biochemical parameters established herein might provide valuable information for researchers using cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in experimental conditions for biomedical studies.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specific lineages is required for applications in regenerative medicine. A growing amount of evidences had implicated hormones and hormone-like molecules as critical regulators of proliferation and lineage specification during in vivo development. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the hormones and hormone-like molecules involved in cell fate decisions is critical for efficient and controlled differentiation of hPSCs into specific lineages. Thus, we functionally and quantitatively compared the effects of diverse hormones (estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P4), and dexamethasone (DM)) and a hormone-like molecule (retinoic acid (RA)) on the regulation of hematopoietic and neural lineage specification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 10 nM E2, 3 μM P4, 10 nM DM, and 10 nM RA based on their functional in vivo developmental potential. The sex hormone E2 enhanced functional activity of hematopoietic progenitors compared to P4 and DM, whereas RA impaired hematopoietic differentiation. In addition, E2 increased CD34⁺CD45⁺ cells with progenitor functions, even in the CD43⁻ population, a well-known hemogenic marker. RA exhibited lineage-biased potential, preferentially committing hPSCs toward the neural lineage while restricting the hematopoietic fate decision. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal unique cell fate potentials of E2 and RA treatment and provide valuable differentiation information that is essential for hPSC applications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Progesterone , Regenerative Medicine , Tretinoin
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155585

ABSTRACT

The intradermal test (IDT) has been developed for confirming diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Prior to performing IDT, rapid immunoassay (Allercept E-screen 2nd generation; ES2G) can detect allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in canine serum. The objective of this study was to evaluate agreement between IDT and immunoassay in diagnosis of CAD in domestic atopic dogs. Forty dogs were diagnosed with CAD in accordance with Favrot's criteria. Intradermal testing was performed using 39 selected allergens. ES2G detected IgE antibodies specific for three allergen groups, including indoor allergens, grasses and weeds, and trees. Among 19 dogs diagnosed by IDT, the highest positivity was observed in house dust mites, followed by molds, epidermis and inhalants, house dust, and weeds. A total of 28 atopic dogs were evaluated by rapid ES2G immunoassay. Indoor allergens showed the strongest positive reaction, followed by grasses/weeds and trees. IDT and ES2G were performed concurrently in 17 dogs. The results of ES2G showed slight agreement with those of IDT. Level of agreement was highest for indoor allergens, which showed a predictive positive value of 100% in ES2G. These results indicate that a rapid immunoassay may be valuable for predicting the results of IDT in atopic dogs sensitized to indoor allergens.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Antibodies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis , Dogs , Dust , Epidermis , Fungi , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Intradermal Tests , Mass Screening , Poaceae , Pyroglyphidae , Trees
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187155

ABSTRACT

The loss of neuronal cells in the central nervous system may occur in many neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is a common senile disease in people over 65 years, and it causes impairment characterized by the decline of mental function, including memory loss and cognitive impairment, and affects the quality of life of patients. However, the current therapeutic strategies against AD are only to relieve symptoms, but not to cure it. Because there are only a few therapeutic strategies against Alzheimer's disease, we need to understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Cell therapy may be a powerful tool for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This review will discuss the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease and various available therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Central Nervous System , Humans , Memory Disorders , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Quality of Life , Stem Cells , Transplantation
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11849

ABSTRACT

The causes of a transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) are divided into syncope, epileptic seizures, cerebrovascular diseases and functional disorders such as hyperventilation (HV) syndrome, psychogenic pseudosyncope. The differential diagnosis of TLOC is may be difficult due to lack of history, misleading features, or confusion over the definition of syncope. We have experienced a rare case of HV syncope that TLOC developed after HV from mental stress, and differentiated by head-up tilt table test with transcranial doppler.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Epilepsy , Humans , Hyperventilation , Syncope , Tilt-Table Test , Unconsciousness
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98981

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a major predictor of heart failure, although the mechanisms by which the disease causes cardiomyopathy are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prolonged exposure of cardiomyocytes to high glucose concentrations induces autophagy and contributes to cardiomyopathy. Interestingly, there were no differences in the autophagic activation produced by different glucose concentrations. However, cell viability was decreased by high glucose. In the diabetic rats, we found a higher level of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) expression and a reduction in the size of the left ventricle (LV) (P<0.05) caused by growth retardation, suggesting activated autophagy. Our in vitro findings indicate that hyperglycemic oxidative stress induces autophagy, and our in vivo studies reveal that autophagy is involved in the progression of pathophysiological remodeling of the heart. Taken together, the studies suggest that autophagy may play a role in the pathogenesis of juvenile diabetic cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cardiomyopathies , Cell Survival , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Glucose , Heart , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Hyperglycemia , Light , Myocytes, Cardiac , Oxidative Stress , Rats
14.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 171-179, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164976

ABSTRACT

Diabetes decreases skeletal muscle mass and induces atrophy. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency modify muscle mass are not well defined. In this study, we evaluated the effects of swimming exercise on muscle mass and intracellular protein degradation in diabetic rats, and proposed that autophagy inhibition induced by swimming exercise serves as a hypercatabolic mechanism in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats, supporting a notion that swimming exercise could efficiently reverse the reduced skeletal muscle mass caused by diabetes. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes and then submitted to 1 hr per day of forced swimming exercise, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. We conducted an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test on the animals and measured body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and protein degradation and examined the level of autophagy in the isolated extensor digitorum longus, plantaris, and soleus muscles. Body weight and muscle tissue mass were higher in the exercising diabetic rats than in control diabetic rats that remained sedentary. Compared to control rats, exercising diabetic rats had lower blood glucose levels, increased intracellular contractile protein expression, and decreased autophagic protein expression. We conclude that swimming exercise improves muscle mass in diabetes-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, suggesting the activation of autophagy in diabetes contributes to muscle atrophy through hypercatabolic metabolism and that aerobic exercise, by suppressing autophagy, may modify or reverse skeletal muscle wasting in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Atrophy , Autophagy , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Exercise , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Muscular Atrophy , Proteolysis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Swimming
15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 217-221, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164970

ABSTRACT

Acute gastrointestinal dilation is a medical condition in which the stomach and intestine become overstretched by excessive gas content. In laboratory monkeys, cases of bloating involving gastrointestinal dilation are rarely seen, and the cause thereof is not clearly defined. Two rhesus monkeys in the Korea National Primate Research Center were found to suffer from acute gastrointestinal dilation. One of the monkeys showed severe gastric bloating after recovering from general anesthesia with isoflurane, where after it died suddenly. During necropsy, severe congestion of the lung was observed. The other monkey showed gastrointestinal dilation and died after treatment. During necropsy, severe dilation of the large intestine was observed. Severe congestion was detected in small and large intestines. Histopathologically, erythrocytes were found to fill the alveoli and alveolar capillaries of the lung. In stomach, epithelial cells were found to be sloughed from the mucosal layer, and erythrocytes were found to fill the blood vessels of the submucosal and mucosal layers. In small and large intestines, epithelial cells were also found to be sloughed from the mucosal layer, and inflammatory cells were found to have infiltrated in the submucosa (only large intestine) and mucosa. Microbiologically, Enterococcus faecalis and the pathogenic Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which do not form gas in the gastrointestinal tract, were detected in the gastrointestinal contents of both monkeys. These results suggest that the cause of the acute gastrointestinal dilation in these monkeys was not infection by gas-forming bacteria, but rather multiple factors such as diet, anesthesia, and excessive water consumption.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Bacteria , Blood Vessels , Capillaries , Diet , Drinking , Enterococcus faecalis , Epithelial Cells , Erythrocytes , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Gastrointestinal Contents , Gastrointestinal Tract , Haplorhini , Intestine, Large , Intestines , Isoflurane , Korea , Lung , Macaca mulatta , Mucous Membrane , Primates , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Stomach
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145353

ABSTRACT

Muscle atrophy is the result of two opposing conditions that can be found in pathological or diseased muscles: an imbalance in protein synthesis and degradation mechanisms. Thus, we investigated whether exogenous melatonin could regulate muscle components in stroke-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Comparing muscle phenotypes, we found that long-term melatonin administration could influence muscle mass. Muscle atrophy-related genes, including muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were significantly down-regulated in melatonin-administered rats in the gastrocnemius. However, only MAFbx at the mRNA level was attenuated in the soleus of melatonin-administered rats. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was significantly over-expressed in melatonin-administered rats in both the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Comparing myosin heavy chain (MHC) components, in the gastrocnemius, expression of both slow- and fast-type isoforms were significantly enhanced in melatonin-administered rats. These results suggest that long-term exogenous melatonin-administration may have a prophylactic effect on muscle atrophy through the MuRF1/MAFbx signaling pathway, as well as a potential therapeutic effect on muscle atrophy through the IGF-1-mediated hypertrophic signaling pathway in a stroke animal model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fingers , Melatonin , Models, Animal , Muscles , Muscular Atrophy , Myosin Heavy Chains , Phenotype , Protein Isoforms , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Stroke
17.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 429-432, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65548

ABSTRACT

Rectal prolapse is a protrusion of one or more layers of the rectum through the anus. A 5-year-old laboratory cynomolgus monkey who had suffered from recurrent diarrhea died after surgical resection of a prolapsed rectum. On examination, the prolapsed rectum was a cylinder-shaped tissue whose surface was moist and dark red with a small amount of hemorrhage. Histologically, the rectum was characterized by a segmental to diffuse cellular infiltration in the submucosa and muscle layers. Inflammation in the rectum resulted in irritation of the myenteric plexus, which could cause hypermotility of the intestines, leading to chronic diarrhea. Rectal prolapse would result in economical loss or death of laboratory animals. However, rectal prolapse in the laboratory monkey could be easily overlooked because diarrhea or other symptoms resulting from rectal prolapse could be sometimes misunderstood as a primary problem. Therefore, researchers should suspect rectal prolapse if intestinal symptoms in the laboratory monkey are untreatable.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Animals, Laboratory , Diarrhea , Haplorhini , Hemorrhage , Inflammation , Intestines , Macaca fascicularis , Muscles , Myenteric Plexus , Child, Preschool , Rectal Prolapse , Rectum
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192596

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the caspase-3 expression in the acinar and ductal cells of rat submandibular glands after the irradiation of various doses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were used for this study. The experimental group was irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 2, 5, 10, and 15 Gy on the head and neck region. The rats were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after irradiation. The specimens including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The local destruction of the acinar and ductal cells and the karyopyknotic nuclei of the acinar cells were observed in the 2 Gy and 5 Gy irradiation groups later than in the 10 Gy and 15 Gy irradiation groups. And the expression of caspase-3 was prominent only in the ductal cells in the 2 Gy and 5 Gy irradiation groups. CONCLUSION: This experiment suggests that radiation-induced apoptosis in the ductal cells of rat submandibular glands was induced by a low dose radiation associated with the activation of caspase-3 and radiation-induced necrosis was induced by a high dose radiation.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Head , Humans , Male , Neck , Necrosis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Submandibular Gland
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192593

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate clusterin expression in the acini and ductal cells of rat submandibular glands after Co-60 gamma irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 2, 5, 10, and 15 Gy on the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimens including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using a immunohistochemical method. RESULTS: In the 2 Gy group, clusterin expression was similar to that of the control group at 1 day after irradiation and it was observed in the striated ductal cells at 3 days after irradiation. In the 5 Gy group, clusterin expression was observed in the striated ductal cells at 1 day after irradiation and gradually increased in the 10 and 15 Gy groups. In the 15 Gy group, clusterin expression was prominent in the striated ductal cells at 1 day after irradiation, but it gradually decreased with the experimental period. The destruction of the striated ductal cells was observed in the 2 Gy group at 21 days after irradiation and in the 5, 10, and 15 Gy groups at 7 days after irradiation. The destruction of the acinar cells was observed in the 2 Gy group at 28 days after irradiation and in the 5, 10, and 15 Gy groups at 14 days after irradiation. CONCLUSION: Clusterin expression was induced by low doses of irradiation and it appeared to be involved in the regulation of cellular response to irradiation.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Apoptosis , Clusterin , Head , Humans , Male , Neck , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To observe the histopathological changes in the periodontal tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups: control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes- irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. RESULTS: In the diabetes group, osteoclastic activity was observed in the alveolar bone and the root throughout the period of experiment. Also, osteoblastic and fibroblastic activities were markedly decreased. In the irradiation group, the osteoclasts were observed in the alveolar bone and the dilated capillaries were increased in the early experimental phases. However, vigorous osteoblastic activity was noted in the late experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, osteoclastic activity in the alveolar bone and the root was observed in the early experimental phases. However, there were no resorption and osteoblastic activity in the alveolar bone and the root in the late experimental phases, and obvious atrophic change of fibrous tissues was noted. CONCLUSION: This experiment suggests that osteoblastic activity was caused by irradiation in the late experimental phases, but atrophic change of the periodontal ligament tissues was induced after irradiation in diabetic state.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capillaries , Citric Acid , Diabetes Mellitus , Fibroblasts , Head , Humans , Male , Molar , Neck , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Periodontal Ligament , Periodontium , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin
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