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1.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 60-69, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834949

ABSTRACT

Background@#The worldwide incidence of renal disease diagnosed by a kidney biopsy varies with age, race, sex, and region. Owing to a lack of studies and limited research resources for this disease in Korea, we investigated renal disease patterns by analyzing data from kidney biopsies performed over 13 years in a university-based teaching hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#Among 2,053 kidney biopsies performed from 2001 to 2013 at Kyungpook National University Hospital, 1,924 were retrospectively analyzed for histopathologic, demographic, and clinical data as well as laboratory results. @*Results@#Among the 1,924 studied kidney biopsies, 1,078 were males (56.0%) and the mean age was 37.7 ± 16.5 years. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were the most common clinical manifestation (62.5%). Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common primary glomerular disease (37.4%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD), membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulonephritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Secondary glomerular diseases accounted for 10.3% of the total biopsies, with lupus nephritis being the most common (4.6%) followed by Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome was MCD (42.1%) followed by MN. Among patients seropositive for hepatitis B or C, IgAN (28.3% and 21.4%, respectively) was the most common cause. @*Conclusion@#IgAN and lupus nephritis were the most common primary and secondary glomerular diseases, respectively. Race, region, and practice patterns may affect renal disease patterns in different cohorts.

2.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 119-122, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84526

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with the development of various complications, such as exit site infection or peritonitis, and rarely, intestinal obstruction in prolonged PD patients with recurrent peritonitis. However, post-colonoscopy acute intestinal obstruction has not been reported in PD patients to date. Herein, we report a case of severe ileus after a colonoscopy without previous episodes of peritonitis in a PD patient. A 51-year-old man undergoing PD for 7 years visited our emergency department due to severe abdominal pain and vomiting after colonoscopic polypectomy. A simple abdominal radiography and abdominal computed tomography showed ileus with collapsed distal ileal loop. A peritoneal dialysate study revealed no evidence of peritonitis. The patient was treated with decompression therapy, and ileus was successfully treated without complications. This case suggests that it is not only necessary to prevent peritonitis, but also important to monitor the development of ileus after colonoscopy in PD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Colonoscopy , Decompression , Emergency Service, Hospital , Ileus , Intestinal Obstruction , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritonitis , Radiography, Abdominal , Vomiting
3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 505-513, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There may be an association between vitamin D levels and allograft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, few studies have been conducted to determine the association between vitamin D levels and post-transplant infections. This study investigated the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the risk of infection after kidney transplantation. METHODS: We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels prior to kidney transplantation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/mL. We examined the incidence of various post-transplant infections during follow-up period. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to determine factors associated with increased risk of post-transplant infections during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 164 KTRs were followed up for a mean of 24.8 ± 10.7 months. Among them, 135 patients (82.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. Patients with vitamin D deficiency had a significantly higher incidence of urinary tract infection (p = 0.027) and any bacterial infection (p = 0.010) compared to those without vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with incidence of viral or fungal infections. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that vitamin D deficiency (hazard ratio, 11.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 84.03; p = 0.020) was independent risk factor for post-transplant bacterial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-transplant vitamin D deficiency was a significant risk factor for bacterial infections after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed on possible benefits of vitamin D supplementation for preventing post-transplant bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allografts , Bacterial Infections , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients , Urinary Tract Infections , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 505-513, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There may be an association between vitamin D levels and allograft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, few studies have been conducted to determine the association between vitamin D levels and post-transplant infections. This study investigated the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the risk of infection after kidney transplantation. METHODS: We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels prior to kidney transplantation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/mL. We examined the incidence of various post-transplant infections during follow-up period. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to determine factors associated with increased risk of post-transplant infections during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 164 KTRs were followed up for a mean of 24.8 ± 10.7 months. Among them, 135 patients (82.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. Patients with vitamin D deficiency had a significantly higher incidence of urinary tract infection (p = 0.027) and any bacterial infection (p = 0.010) compared to those without vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with incidence of viral or fungal infections. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that vitamin D deficiency (hazard ratio, 11.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 84.03; p = 0.020) was independent risk factor for post-transplant bacterial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-transplant vitamin D deficiency was a significant risk factor for bacterial infections after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed on possible benefits of vitamin D supplementation for preventing post-transplant bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allografts , Bacterial Infections , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients , Urinary Tract Infections , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
5.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 119-122, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787036

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with the development of various complications, such as exit site infection or peritonitis, and rarely, intestinal obstruction in prolonged PD patients with recurrent peritonitis. However, post-colonoscopy acute intestinal obstruction has not been reported in PD patients to date. Herein, we report a case of severe ileus after a colonoscopy without previous episodes of peritonitis in a PD patient. A 51-year-old man undergoing PD for 7 years visited our emergency department due to severe abdominal pain and vomiting after colonoscopic polypectomy. A simple abdominal radiography and abdominal computed tomography showed ileus with collapsed distal ileal loop. A peritoneal dialysate study revealed no evidence of peritonitis. The patient was treated with decompression therapy, and ileus was successfully treated without complications. This case suggests that it is not only necessary to prevent peritonitis, but also important to monitor the development of ileus after colonoscopy in PD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Colonoscopy , Decompression , Emergency Service, Hospital , Ileus , Intestinal Obstruction , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritonitis , Radiography, Abdominal , Vomiting
6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 930-937, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Little is known regarding the incidence rate of and factors associated with developing chronic kidney disease after continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. We investigated renal outcomes and the factors associated with incomplete renal recovery in AKI patients who received CRRT. METHODS: Between January 2011 and November 2013, 408 patients received CRRT in our intensive care unit. Of them, patients who had normal renal function before AKI and were discharged without maintenance renal replacement therapy (RRT) were included in this study. We examined the incidence of incomplete renal recovery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² and factors that increased the risk of incomplete renal recovery after AKI. RESULTS: In total, 56 AKI patients were discharged without further RRT and were followed for a mean of 8 months. Incomplete recovery of renal function was observed in 20 of the patients (35.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed old age and long duration of anuria as independent risk factors for incomplete renal recovery (odds ratio [OR], 1.231; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041 to 1.457; p = 0.015 and OR, 1.064; 95% CI, 1.001 to 1.131; p = 0.047, respectively). In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, a cut-off anuria duration of 24 hours could predict incomplete renal recovery after AKI with a sensitivity of 85.0% and a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The renal outcome of severe AKI requiring CRRT was poor even in patients without further RRT. Long-term monitoring of renal function is needed, especially in severe AKI patients who are old and have a long duration of anuria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury , Anuria , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Multivariate Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renal Replacement Therapy , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 106-115, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study analyzed the risk factors for technique survival in dialysis patients and compared technique survival rates between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a prospective cohort of Korean patients. METHODS: A total of 1,042 patients undergoing dialysis from September 2008 to June 2011 were analyzed. The dialysis modality was defined as that used 90 days after commencing dialysis. Technique survival was compared between the two dialysis modalities, and the predictive risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: The dialysis modality was an independent risk factor predictive of technique survival. PD had a higher risk for technique failure than HD (hazard ratio [HR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 62.0; p = 0.008) during a median follow-up of 11.0 months. In the PD group, a high body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for technique failure (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.036). Peritonitis was the most common cause of PD technique failure. The difference in technique survival between PD and HD was more prominent in diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and in non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective cohort of Korean patients with end-stage renal disease, PD was associated with a higher risk of technique failure than HD. Diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status, as well as patients with a higher BMI, had an inferior technique survival rate with PD compared to HD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Nutritional Status , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 169-175, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prealbumin, a sensitive marker for protein–energy status, is also known as an independent risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the impact of prealbumin on survival in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: In total, 136 incident PD patients (mean age, 53.0 ± 15.8 years) between 2002 and 2007 were enrolled in the study. Laboratory data, dialysis adequacy, and nutritional parameters were assessed 3 months after PD initiation. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to prealbumin level: high prealbumin (≥ 40 mg/dL) and low prealbumin (< 40 mg/dL). RESULTS: The patients in the low-prealbumin group were older and had more comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases compared with the patients in the high-prealbumin group. Mean subjective global assessment scores were lower, and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were higher in the low-prealbumin group. Serum creatinine, albumin, and transferrin levels; percent lean body mass; and normalized protein catabolic rate were positively associated, whereas subjective global assessment scores and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with prealbumin concentration. During the median follow-up of 49 months, patients in the lower prealbumin group had a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed that prealbumin < 40 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–4.64) was an independent risk factor for mortality. In receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve of prealbumin for mortality was the largest among the parameters. CONCLUSION: Prealbumin levels were an independent and sensitive predictor for mortality in incident PD patients, showing a good correlation with nutritional and inflammatory markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , C-Reactive Protein , Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Creatinine , Dialysis , Follow-Up Studies , Inflammation , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Peritoneal Dialysis , Prealbumin , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Transferrin
9.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society ; : 576-582, 1998.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been accepted as the procedure of choice for chronic cholecystitis. However in cases of acute cholecystitis, the safety and the efficacy of LC has not been fully determined. Thus we performed this study to assess the clinical outcomes of a LC for acute cholecystitis to evaluate it's efficacy and safety. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed 1,164 LCs performed in Yeungnam University Hospital from May 1991 to March 1996. Among the 1,164 LCs, 118 were performed for acute cholecystitis and 1,046 were performed for chronic cholecystitis. The authors compared the mean operation time, the conversion rate to an open cholecystectomy (OC), the reasons for conversion, the complication rate, the postoperative hospital stay, and the postoperative use of analgesics between the patients with acute cholecystitis and the patients with chronic cholecystitis. RESULTS: In the 1046 patients with chronic cholecystitis, the mean operation time was 55.9 minutes, the conversion rate to an OC was 2.7%, the complication rate was 4.0%, the mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.3 days, and analgesics were used in 48% of the patients. However in the 118 patients with acute cholecystitis, the mean operation time was 65 minutes, the conversion rate to an OC was 11.8%, the complication rate was 16.9%, the mean hospital stay was 4.4 days, and analgesics were used in the 60% of the patients. Also the authors found that the longer duration of preoperative symptoms and an advanced state of inflammation (e.g., GB empyema or gangrenous changes) were the two most common causes of conversion to an OC in the case of acute cholecystitis. Although all the analyzed parameters (especially, the conversion rate and the complication rate) were higher in the patients with acute cholecystitis than they were in the patients with chronic cholecystitis, a LC for acute cholecystitis seems to be acceptable because there were no mortalities and there were no life threatening complications. CONCLUSIONS: From, the aspects of safety and efficacy, a LC can be performed in most patients with acute cholecystitis. However, it should be remembered that the prolonged duration of symptoms prior to a LC increases the conversion rate to O.C. and if we confront the advanced cholecystitis (GB empyem or gangrenous change) with difficult Calot's triangle during a L.C., early conversion to an OC should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Cholecystitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Empyema , Inflammation , Length of Stay , Mortality , Retrospective Studies
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