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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most representative neurodegenerative disease mainly caused by the excessive production of amyloid beta (Aβ).Several studies on the antioxidant activity and protective effects of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) against cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage have been reported. Based on this background, the present study investigated the protective effects of PT against cognitive impairment in AD.MATERIALS/METHODS: We orally administered PT (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for 14 days in an Aβ 25–35-induced mouse model and conducted behavioral experiments to test cognitive ability. In addition, we evaluated the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum and measured the production of lipid peroxide, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissues. @*RESULTS@#PT treatment improved the space perceptive ability in the T-maze test, object cognitive ability in the novel object recognition test, and spatial learning/long-term memory in the Morris water-maze test. Moreover, the levels of AST and ALT were not significantly different among the groups, indicating that PT did not show liver toxicity. Furthermore, administration of PT significantly inhibited the production of lipid peroxide, NO, and ROS in the brain, liver, and kidney, suggesting that PT protected against oxidative stress. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study demonstrated that administration of PT improved Aβ25–35 -induced cognitive impairment by regulating oxidative stress. Therefore, we propose that PT could be used as a natural agent for AD improvement.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (AY) has remarkable bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer activities. On the other hand, the effects of AY against obesity-induced insulin resistance have not been reported. Therefore, this study examined the potential of AY against obesity-associated insulin resistance in highfat diet (HFD)-fed mice.MATERIALS/METHODS: An obesity model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a 60% HFD for 16 weeks. The C57BL6/When ethyl acetate fraction from AY (EFAY) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day was administered orally to mice fed a HFD for the last 4 weeks. Normal and control groups were administered water orally. The body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. Dietary intake was measured every other day. After dissection, blood and tissues were collected from the mice. @*RESULTS@#The administration of EFAY reduced body and organ weights significantly compared to HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY-administered groups also improved the serum lipid profile by decreasing the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein compared to the control group. In addition, EFAY ameliorated the insulin resistance-related metabolic dysfunctions, including the fasting blood glucose and serum insulin level, compared to the HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY inhibited lipid synthesis and insulin resistance by down-regulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of the AMPactivated protein kinase pathway. EFAY also reduced lipid peroxidation in the liver, indicating that EFAY protected hepatic injury induced by obesity. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that EFAY improved obesity-associated insulin resistance by regulating the lipid and glucose metabolism, suggesting that AY could be used as a functional food to prevent obesity and insulin resistance.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902857

ABSTRACT

RESULTS@#In behavioral tests, deterioration was revealed in the short- and long-term learning and memory functions in the Aβ25-35 -injected control group compared to the normal group, indicating that Aβ25-35 injection impairs cognitive functions. However, administration of Zj and Zj-Y improved cognitive function in mice, as compared to the Aβ25-35 -injected control mice. In addition, the Aβ25-35 induced elevations of MDA and NO in the brain, kidney, and liver were suppressed after exposure to Zj and Zj-Y. Especially, Zj-Y showed stronger scavenging effect against MDA and NO, as compared to Zj. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Results of the present study indicate that Zj-Y exerts a protective effect on cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction, which is exerted by attenuating the oxidative stress induced by Aβ25-35 .

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895153

ABSTRACT

RESULTS@#In behavioral tests, deterioration was revealed in the short- and long-term learning and memory functions in the Aβ25-35 -injected control group compared to the normal group, indicating that Aβ25-35 injection impairs cognitive functions. However, administration of Zj and Zj-Y improved cognitive function in mice, as compared to the Aβ25-35 -injected control mice. In addition, the Aβ25-35 induced elevations of MDA and NO in the brain, kidney, and liver were suppressed after exposure to Zj and Zj-Y. Especially, Zj-Y showed stronger scavenging effect against MDA and NO, as compared to Zj. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Results of the present study indicate that Zj-Y exerts a protective effect on cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction, which is exerted by attenuating the oxidative stress induced by Aβ25-35 .

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal cell damage, which is associated with neurodegenerative disease. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of perilla oil (PO) and its active component, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells exposed to 250 µM H₂O₂ for 24 h were treated with different concentrations of PO (25, 125, 250 and 500 µg/mL) and its major fatty acid, ALA (1, 2.5, 5 and 25 µ/mL). We examined the effects of PO and ALA on H₂O₂-induced cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and nuclear condensation. Moreover, we determined whether PO and ALA regulated the apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as cleaved-poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved caspase-9 and -3, BCL-2 and BAX. RESULTS: Treatment of H₂O₂ resulted in decreased cell viability, increased LDH release, and increase in the nuclei condensation as indicated by Hoechst 33342 staining. However, PO and ALA treatment significantly attenuated the neuronal cell death, indicating that PO and ALA potently blocked the H₂O₂-induced neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, cleaved-PARP, cleaved caspase-9 and -3 activations were significantly decreased in the presence of PO and ALA, and the H₂O₂-mediated up-regulated BAX/BCL-2 ratio was blocked after treatment with PO and ALA. CONCLUSIONS: PO and its main fatty acid, ALA, exerted the protective activity from neuronal oxidative stress induced by H₂O₂. They regulated apoptotic pathway in neuronal cell death by alleviation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, and down-regulation of cleaved-PARP and cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Although further studies are required to verify the protective mechanisms of PO and ALA from neuronal damage, PO and ALA are the promising agent against oxidative stress-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , alpha-Linolenic Acid , Apoptosis , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Neuroblastoma , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxidative Stress , Perilla
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691378

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To investigate the hair growth-promoting effect of Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (MSP) flower extracton on in vitro and in vivo models.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MSP flower extract was extracted in 99.9% methanol and applied to examine the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro at the dose of 3.92-62.50 μg/mL and hair growth of C57BL/6 mice in vivo at the dose of 1000 μg/mL. The expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), β-catenin, substance P was measured by relative quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MSP (7.81 μg/mL) down-regulated TGF-β1 and up-regulated HGF and β-catenin in hDPCs (P<0.01). MSP (1000 μg/mL)-treated mice showed the earlier transition of hair follicles from the telogen to the anagen phase. The number of mast cells was lower in the MSP-treated mice than in other groups (P<0.05 vs. NCS group). Substance P and TGF-β1 were expressed in hair follicles and skin of the MSP group lower than that in negative control. Stem cell factor in hair follicles was up-regulated in the MSP-treated mice (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The MSP flower extract may have hair growth-promotion activities.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Female , Flowers , Chemistry , Hair Follicle , Cell Biology , Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Metabolism , Humans , Mast Cells , Cell Biology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Poaceae , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Skin , Metabolism , Stem Cell Factor , Metabolism , Stress, Psychological , Pathology , Substance P , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exposing a pregnant female to stress during the critical period of embryonic fetal brain development increases the risk of psychiatric disorders in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant tianeptine on prenatally stressed (PNS) rats. METHODS: In this study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the last week of gestation. To investigate the effects of antidepressant tianeptine on PNS rats, behavioral and protein expression analyses were performed. Forced swim test, open field test, and social interaction test were performed to determine changes in PNS rats compared to non-stressed offspring. Haloperidol was used as a positive control as an antipsychotic drug based on previous studies. RESULTS: Behavioral changes were restored after treatment with tianeptine or haloperidol. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex revealed downregulation of several neurodevelopmental proteins in PNS rats. After treatment with tianeptine or haloperidol, their expression levels were increased. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of several proteins in PNS rats might have caused subsequent behavioral changes in PNS rats. After tianeptine or haloperidol treatment, behavioral changes in PNS rats were restored. Therefore, tianeptine might decrease incidence of prenatal stress related-psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Brain , Critical Period, Psychological , Depression , Down-Regulation , Female , Haloperidol , Humans , Incidence , Interpersonal Relations , Models, Animal , Prefrontal Cortex , Pregnancy , Rats , Schizophrenia
8.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 229-234, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741637

ABSTRACT

Ginseng products available in different forms and preparations are reported to have varied bioactivities and chemical compositions. In our previous study, four new dammarane-type ginsenosides were isolated from Panax ginseng, which are ginsenoside Rg18 (1), 6-acetyl ginsenoside Rg3 (2), ginsenoside Rs11 (3), and ginsenoside Re7 (4). Accordingly, the goal of this study was to determine the distribution and content of these newly characterized ginsenosides in different ginseng products. The content of compounds 1 – 4 in different ginseng products was determined via HPLC-UV. The samples included ginseng roots from different ginseng species, roots harvested from different localities in Korea, and samples harvested at different cultivation ages and processed under different manufacturing methods. The four ginsenosides were present at varying concentrations in the different ginseng samples examined. The variations in their content could be attributed to species variation, and differences in cultivation conditions and manufacturing methods. The total concentration of compounds 1 – 4 were highest in ginseng obtained from Geumsan (185 µg/g), white-6 yr ginseng (150 µg/g), and P. quinquefolius (186 µg/g). The results of this study provide a basis for the optimization of cultivation conditions and manufacturing methods to maximize the yield of the four new ginsenosides in ginseng.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Korea , Panax
9.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 148-154, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741625

ABSTRACT

Chronic oxidative stress due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells ultimately leads to neurodegenerative diseases. The use of natural therapies for the prevention of ROS-induced cell damage and for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders has shown promising results. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of A. Okamotoanum against the hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress in C6 glial cells. Results show that cell viability was decreased in cells incubated with H₂O₂, whereas the addition of EtOAc fraction treatments in such cells significantly increased viability. The EtOAc fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity against ROS production and it also decreased the expressions of inflammatory proteins including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-1β. Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction inhibited apoptosis by regulating the protein expressions cleaved caspase


Subject(s)
Acer , Apoptosis , Cell Survival , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Inflammation , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Reactive Oxygen Species
10.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 199-205, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741617

ABSTRACT

To determine the optimum extraction conditions that give the highest yield of isoquercitrin and caffeic acid from Aster scaber, the effects of four extraction variables (solvent concentrations, extraction time, number of repeated extraction, and solvent volumes) on isoquercitrin and caffeic acid yield was examined via HPLC-UV. Our results showed that the highest extract and isoquercitrin yield were observed when A. scaber was extracted with 450 mL distilled water for 8 hr repeatedly for three times. In case of caffeic acid, the content was higher in the two repeated extracts. Also, content analysis of isoquercitrin in Aster species was performed in which A. fastigiatus, A. ageratoides, and A. scaber exhibited the highest isoquercitrin content at 6.39, 5.68, and 2.79 mg/g extract, respectively. In case of caffeic acid, the highest content of A. scaber and A. glehni was 0.64 and 0.56 mg/g extract, respectively. This study reports an optimized method for extraction of isoquercitrin and caffeic acid from A. scaber and evaluates potential sources of the compounds.


Subject(s)
Methods , Water
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741613

ABSTRACT

Silymarin is the standardized extract from Silybum marianum which consists mainly of flavonoids and polyphenols. It is highly regarded for its hepatoprotective ability. Silybin B is a flavonolignan and one of the active components of silymarin. The content of silybin B in various parts of S. marianum was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Results show that the extract of seeds contain the highest amount of silybin B (7.434 mg/g DW). The petioles of S. marianum showed a low content of silybin B. This study revealed that seeds of S. marianum contain high amount of silybin B and could be a good source of the compound.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Milk Thistle , Polyphenols , Silymarin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741599

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical analysis of Boehmeria nivea (Bn) leaves by medium pressure liquid chromatography led to the isolation of a flavonoid glycoside identified by spectroscopic analysis as rutin. The amount of rutin in the leaves of Bn harvested from nine regions in South Korea (Bn 1–9) which were collected on the months of June, July, August, and September was determined by HPLC-UV analysis. A gradient elution program that utilizes a Discovery® C18 (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) column and mobile phase composed of 1% acetic acid-water: acetonitrile (90:10 to 60:40 for min) was followed. The injection volume and flow rate were 10 µl and 1 mL/ min, respectively. UV detection was set at 350 nm. Results show that Bn-8 harvested in September reported the highest content of rutin among the samples analyzed. This study provides a basis for the optimal harvest time of Bn which maximizes the yield of rutin.


Subject(s)
Boehmeria , Chromatography, Liquid , Korea , Rutin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727980

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have suggested that physical and psychological stresses may trigger fibromyalgia (FM). Stress is an important risk factor in the development of depression and memory impairments. Antidepressants have been used to prevent stress-induced abnormal pain sensation. Among various antidepressants, tianeptine has been reported to be able to prevent neurodegeneration due to chronic stress and reverse decreases in hippocampal volume. To assess the possible effect of tianeptine on FM symptoms, we constructed a FM animal model induced by restraint stress with intermittent cold stress. All mice underwent nociceptive assays using electronic von Frey anesthesiometer and Hargreaves equipment. To assess the relationship between tianeptine and expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB), western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed. In behavioral analysis, nociception tests showed that pain threshold was significantly decreased in the FM group compared to that in the control group. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus showed downregulation of BDNF and p-CREB proteins in the FM group compared to the control group. However, tianeptine recovered these changes in behavioral tests and protein level. Therefore, this FM animal model might be useful for investigating mechanisms linking BDNF-CREB pathway and pain. Our results suggest that tianeptine might potentially have therapeutic efficacy for FM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Depression , Down-Regulation , Fibromyalgia , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Mice , Models, Animal , Pain Measurement , Pain Threshold , Prefrontal Cortex , Risk Factors , Sensation , Stress, Psychological
14.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 270-273, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41799

ABSTRACT

A quantitative analysis of bakkenolide D in the different parts of Petasites japonicus and Farfugium japonicum was performed by HPLC. A gradient HPLC elution system with a mobile phase consisting of water:acetonitrile solution (20:80 to 0:100 for 45 min) was followed and an INNO C₁₈ column was used for the chromatographic separation. The injection volume, flow rate, and UV detection were 10 µL, 1 mL/min, and 290 nm, respectively. Results show that both species showed the highest amount of bakkenolide D in the roots being 107.203 and 166.103 mg/g for P. japonicas and F. japonicum, respectively. Content analysis on the different parts of both plants displayed remarkably lower values which ranged from 0.403 – 4.419 and 7.252 – 32.614 mg/g for P. japonicas and F. japonicum, respectively. The results show that the roots of both plants are rich in bakkenolide D showing a promising use in the development of nutraceuticals and industrial application of the compound.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dietary Supplements , Petasites
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50088

ABSTRACT

Variant surface antigens (VSAs) encoded by pir families are considered to be the key proteins used by many Plasmodium spp. to escape the host immune system by antigenic variation. This attribute of VSAs is a critical issue in the development of a novel vaccine. In this regard, a population genetic study of vir genes from Plasmodium vivax was performed in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Eighty-five venous blood samples and 4 of the vir genes, namely vir 27, vir 21, vir 12, and vir 4, were selected for study. The number of segregating sites (S), number of haplotypes (H), haplotype diversity (Hd), DNA diversity (π and Θw), and Tajima’s D test value were conducted. Phylogenetic trees of each gene were constructed. The vir 21 (S=143, H=22, Hd=0.827) was the most genetically diverse gene, and the vir 4 (S=6, H=4, Hd=0.556) was the opposite one. Tajima’s D values for vir 27 (1.08530, P>0.1), vir 12 (2.89007, P0.1) were positive, and that of vir 4 (−1.32162, P>0.1) was negative. All phylogenetic trees showed 2 clades with no particular branching according to the geographical differences and cluster. This study is the first survey on the vir genes in ROK, providing information on the genetic level. The sample sequences from vir 4 showed a clear difference to the Sal-1 reference gene sequence, whereas they were very similar to those from Indian isolates.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation , Antigens, Surface , DNA , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , Humans , Immune System , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Republic of Korea , Trees , United Nations
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 259-262, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146019

ABSTRACT

The content analysis of fatty acids in Perilla cultivars and commercial oils is conducted through gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Results show that Perilla cultivars, such as Deulsaem and Daesil, contain high amounts of α-linolenic acid (262.22 and 261.97 mg/g, respectively). Among commercial oils, Perilla oil contains a higher amount of α-linolenic acid (515.20 mg/g). Accordingly, α-linolenic acid is a major fatty acid of Perilla cultivars and oil. Therefore, Perilla cultivars could be used as a food supplement for nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Gas , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids , Flame Ionization , Industrial Oils , Perilla
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178614

ABSTRACT

High-performance liquid chromatography was performed in order to analyze the changes in the flavonoid content (rutin, hyperin, afzelin, quercetin, and kaempferol) of Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum, in response to different cultivation methods (pinching height, planting time, and top dressing). The total flavonoid content of A. divaricatus and A. koreanum ranged from 0.201 to 0.690 mg/g with different pinching heights, 0.143 to 1.001 mg/g for different planting times, and 0.156 to 1.074 mg/g depending on the rate of fertilizer application. In both A. divaricatus and A. koreanum, the total flavonoid content in the upper section of the plant was greater than that in the lower section. These results demonstrate which cultivation methods maximize the flavonoid content of A. divaricatus and A. koreanum, and thus help to optimize flavonoid yields to improve production for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical applications.


Subject(s)
Eleutherococcus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids , Methods , Plants , Quercetin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plays a key role in cognitive dysfunction. Perilla frutescens var. japonica extract (PFE) and its major compound, rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether administration of PFE and RA contributes to cognitive improvement in an Aβ25-35-injected mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 to induce AD. Aβ25-35-injected mice were fed PFE (50 mg/kg/day) or RA (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and examined for learning and memory ability through the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Our present study demonstrated that PFE and RA administration significantly enhanced cognition function and object discrimination, which were impaired by Aβ25-35, in the T-maze and object recognition tests, respectively. In addition, oral administration of PFE and RA decreased the time to reach the platform and increased the number of crossings over the removed platform when compared with the Aβ25-35-induced control group in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PFE and RA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, kidney, and liver. In particular, PFE markedly attenuated oxidative stress by inhibiting production of NO and MDA in the Aβ25-35-injected mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PFE and its active compound RA have beneficial effects on cognitive improvement and may help prevent AD induced by Aβ.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Brain , Cognition , Discrimination, Psychological , Humans , Kidney , Learning , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Perilla frutescens , Perilla , Water
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plays a key role in cognitive dysfunction. Perilla frutescens var. japonica extract (PFE) and its major compound, rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether administration of PFE and RA contributes to cognitive improvement in an Aβ25-35-injected mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 to induce AD. Aβ25-35-injected mice were fed PFE (50 mg/kg/day) or RA (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and examined for learning and memory ability through the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Our present study demonstrated that PFE and RA administration significantly enhanced cognition function and object discrimination, which were impaired by Aβ25-35, in the T-maze and object recognition tests, respectively. In addition, oral administration of PFE and RA decreased the time to reach the platform and increased the number of crossings over the removed platform when compared with the Aβ25-35-induced control group in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PFE and RA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, kidney, and liver. In particular, PFE markedly attenuated oxidative stress by inhibiting production of NO and MDA in the Aβ25-35-injected mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PFE and its active compound RA have beneficial effects on cognitive improvement and may help prevent AD induced by Aβ.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Brain , Cognition , Discrimination, Psychological , Humans , Kidney , Learning , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Perilla frutescens , Perilla , Water
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51938

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases are often associated with oxidative damage in neuronal cells. This study was conducted to investigate the neuro-protective effect of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Perilla frutescens var. japonica and its one of the major compounds, rosmarinic acid, under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in C6 glial cells. Exposure of C6 glial cells to H2O2 enhanced oxidative damage as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assays. The MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid prevented oxidative stress by increasing cell viability and inhibiting cellular lipid peroxidation. In addition, the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid reduced H2O2-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcriptional level. Moreover, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression was down-regulated in H2O2-indcued C6 glial cells treated with the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid. These findings suggest that P. frutescens var. japonica and rosmarinic acid could prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through attenuation of neuronal oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lipid Peroxidation , Methanol , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Perilla frutescens , Perilla
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