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1.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 191-201, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000526

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#O-cyclic phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (cP1P) is a synthetic chemical and has a structure like sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P is known to promote cell migration, invasion, proliferation, and anti-apoptosis through hippocampal signals. However, S1P mediated cellular-, molecular mechanism is still remained in the lung.Acute lung injury (ALI) and its severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by excessive immune response, increased vascular permeability, alveolar-peritoneal barrier collapse, and edema. In this study, we determined whether cP1P primed human dermal derived mesenchymal stem cells (hdMSCs) ameliorate lung injury and its therapeutic pathway in ALI mice. @*Methods@#and Results: cP1P treatment significantly stimulated MSC migration and invasion ability. In cytokine array, secretion of vascular-related factors was increased in cP1P primed hdMSCs (hdMSCcP1P ), and cP1P treatment induced inhibition of Lats while increased phosphorylation of Yap. We next determined whether hdMSCcP1P reduce inflammatory response in LPS exposed mice. hdMSCcP1P further decreased infiltration of macrophage and neutrophil, and release of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were reduced rather than naïve hdMSC treatment. In addition, phosphorylation of STAT1 and expression of iNOS were significantly decreased in the lungs of MSCcP1P treated mice. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, these data suggest that cP1P treatment enhances hdMSC migration in regulation of Hippo signaling and MSCcP1P provide a therapeutic potential for ALI/ARDS treatment.

2.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 297-306, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926023

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Intracranial atypical meningiomas have a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Moreover, up to one-third of the recurrences undergo high-grade transformation into malignant meningiomas. We aimed to investigate the clinical factors that can predict the propensity of malignant transformation from atypical to anaplastic meningiomas. @*Methods@#: Between 2001 and 2018, all patients with atypical meningioma, in whom the tumors had undergone malignant transformation to anaplastic meningioma, were included. The patients’ medical records documenting the diagnosis of atypical meningioma prior to malignant transformation were reviewed to identify the predictors of transformation. The control group comprised 56 patients with atypical meningiomas who were first diagnosed between January 2017 and December 2018 and had no malignant transformation. @*Results@#: Nine patients in whom the atypical meningiomas underwent malignant transformation were included. The median time interval from diagnosis of atypical meningioma to malignant transformation was 19 months (range, 7–78). The study group showed a significant difference in heterogeneous enhancement (77.8% vs. 33.9%), bone invasion (55.6% vs. 12.5%), mitotic index (MI; 14.8±4.9 vs. 3.5±3.9), and Ki-67 index (20.7±13.9 vs. 9.5±7.1) compared with the control group. In multivariate analysis, increased MI (odds ratio, 1.436; 95% confidence interval, 1.127–1.900; p=0.004) was the only significant factor for predicting malignant transformation. @*Conclusion@#: An increased MI within atypical meningiomas might be used as a predictor of malignant transformation. Tumors at high risk for malignant transformation might require more attentive surveillance and management than other atypical meningiomas.

3.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874632

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive- fibrosing disease characterized by extensive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), scarring of the lung parenchyma. Despite increased awareness of IPF, etiology and physiological mechanism of IPF are unclear. Therefore, preclinical model will require relevant and recapitulative features of IPF. Recently, pluripotent stem cells (PSC)-based organoid studies are emerging as an alternative approach able to recapitulate tissue architecture with remarkable fidelity. Moreover, these biomimetic tissue models can be served to investigate the mechanisms of diverse disease progression. In this review, we will overview the current organoids technology for human disease modeling including lung organoids for IPF.

4.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 455-462, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899135

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Managing hydrocephalus in patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) is controversial. We evaluated the clinical factors associated with hydrocephalus. @*Methods@#Between 2000 and 2019, 562 patients with VS were treated at our institute. We applied endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), external ventricular drainage (EVD), and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts to patients with hydrocephalus. The relationships of patient, tumor, and surgical variables with the hydrocephalus outcome were assessed. @*Results@#Preoperative hydrocephalus (Evans ratio ≥0.3) was present in 128 patients. Six patients who received a preresectional VP shunt were excluded after analyzing the hydrocephalus outcome. Seven of the remaining 122 patients had severe hydrocephalus (Evans ratio ≥0.4). Primary tumor resection, VP shunting, ETV, and EVD were performed in 60, 6, 57, and 5 patients, respectively. The hydrocephalus treatment failure rate was highest in the EVD group. Persistent hydrocephalus was present in five (8%) and seven (12%) patients in the primary resection and ETV groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that severe hydrocephalus, the cystic tumor, and the extent of resection (subtotal resection or partial resection) were associated with hydrocephalus treatment failure. @*Conclusions@#Larger ventricles and a higher cystic portion are predictive of persistent hydrocephalus. We recommend attempting near-total tumor resection in patients with VS.

5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 277-284, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918406

ABSTRACT

Background@#Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease. Despite alveolar epithelial cells is crucial role in lung, its contribution and the associated biomarker remain unknown in the pathogenesis of IPF. Recently, environmental factors including stone dust, silica and cigarette smoking were found as risk factors involved in IPF. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin super family of cell surface receptors. It has been shown that interaction between RAGE and its ligands on immune cells mediates cellular migration and regulation of pro-inflammation. RAGE is highly expressed in the lung, in particular, alveolar epithelial cells. Therefore, we determined whether RAGE expression is associated with fibrosis-associated genes in patients with IPF and mice. @*Results@#When bleomycin (BLM) was intratracheally administered to C57BL/6 mice for 1, 2 weeks, macrophage and neutrophils were significantly increased. The fibrotic nodule formed and accumulation of collagen was determined after BLM injection in H&E- and Masson’s trichrome staining. Levels of elastin, Col1a1 and fibronectin were increased in quantitative real-time PCR and protein levels of α-SMA was increased in western blot analysis. In the lung tissues of 1 mg/kg BLM-induced mice, RAGE expression was gradually decreased in 1- and 2 weeks in immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, and 3 mg/kg of BLM-induced mice exhibited decreased RAGE levels while α-SMA expression was increased. We next determined RAGE expression in the lungs of IPF patients using immunohistochemistry.As a result, RAGE expression was decreased, while α-SMA expression was increased compared with non-IPF subjects. @*Conclusions@#Our findings suggest that reduced RAGE was associated with increased fibrotic genes in BLM-induced mice and patients with IPF. Therefore, RAGE could be applied with a biomarker for prognosis and diagnosis in the pathogenesis of IPF.

6.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 975-982, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915592

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The occurrence of posterior fossa teratomas in adulthood is extremely rare. In this study, we aimed to report our experience with two cases of posterior fossa mature teratoma in adults who underwent surgical resection. We also performed a systematic review of published papers available to date. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who had onset of posterior fossa teratomas in adulthood at our institute between 1995 and 2020. We evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and pathological features of mature teratomas at the posterior fossa in adulthood. Furthermore, we searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science database and reviewed published articles. @*Results@#: We found 507 articles on database review; of them, 102 were duplicates and 389 were excluded based on the inclusion criteria. Finally, 16 cases of posterior fossa from the web search and related articles. Subsequently, we added two cases that underwent surgery at our institute. We analyzed a total of 18 cases of mature teratomas. Headache was the most common (55.6%) symptom. The teratomas showed heterogeneous signals on magnetic resonance imaging. Thirteen patients (72.2%) had lesion at midline, five patients (27.8%) had calcification. Surgical resection was performed in all patients. No studies reported recurrence after resection. @*Conclusion@#: The occurrence of posterior fossa teratomas in adulthood is difficult to diagnose at the initial stage. Radiographic diagnosis alone can lead to misdiagnosis. Pathological confirmation is essential. Surgical resection is a curative option for posterior fossa teratomas in adulthood.

7.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 455-462, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891431

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Managing hydrocephalus in patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) is controversial. We evaluated the clinical factors associated with hydrocephalus. @*Methods@#Between 2000 and 2019, 562 patients with VS were treated at our institute. We applied endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), external ventricular drainage (EVD), and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts to patients with hydrocephalus. The relationships of patient, tumor, and surgical variables with the hydrocephalus outcome were assessed. @*Results@#Preoperative hydrocephalus (Evans ratio ≥0.3) was present in 128 patients. Six patients who received a preresectional VP shunt were excluded after analyzing the hydrocephalus outcome. Seven of the remaining 122 patients had severe hydrocephalus (Evans ratio ≥0.4). Primary tumor resection, VP shunting, ETV, and EVD were performed in 60, 6, 57, and 5 patients, respectively. The hydrocephalus treatment failure rate was highest in the EVD group. Persistent hydrocephalus was present in five (8%) and seven (12%) patients in the primary resection and ETV groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that severe hydrocephalus, the cystic tumor, and the extent of resection (subtotal resection or partial resection) were associated with hydrocephalus treatment failure. @*Conclusions@#Larger ventricles and a higher cystic portion are predictive of persistent hydrocephalus. We recommend attempting near-total tumor resection in patients with VS.

8.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 1-12, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834313

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are regarded as one of essential cell sources for treating regenerative diseases. Among many stem cells, the feasibility of using adult-derived hematopoietic stem cells in therapeutic approaches is very diverse, and is unarguably regarded as an important cell source in stem cell biology. So far, many investigators are exploring HSCs and modified HSCs for use in clinical and basic science. In the present review, we briefly summarized HSCs and their application in pathophysiologic conditions, including non-hematopoietic tissue regeneration as well as blood disorders. HSCs and HSCs-derived progenitors are promising cell sources in regenerative medicine and their contributions can be properly applied to treat pathophysiologic conditions. Among many adult stem cells, HSCs are a powerful tool to treat patients with diseases such as hematologic malignancies and liver disease. Since HSCs can be differentiated into diverse progenitors including endothelial progenitors, they may be useful for constructing strategies for effective therapy.

9.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 495-503, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833436

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) is an extremely rare functioning form of PA that accounts for 0.7–2% of all such cases. The previously reported outcomes of the surgical removal of TSH-PA are poor. Owing to its extremely low incidence, most available reports on TSH-PA are case reports or small case series. Thus, we investigated the clinical and endocrinological outcomes of surgically treated TSH-PA through our institutional series. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed 14 consecutive cases of surgically treated TSH-PA, focusing on the clinical, radiological, surgical, and endocrinological data. @*Results@#: There were seven male (50%) and seven female (50%) patients. The mean age was 42.5 years (range, 19–63). The mean tumor size was 16.6 mm (range, 4–30). Optic chiasm compression was noted in six patients (42.9%), and no patient showed cavernous sinus invasion. Thirteen of 14 patients (92.8%) underwent transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TSA), and one patient underwent TSA followed by transcranial approach for residual tumor removal. Thirteen of 14 patients (92.8%) showed endocrinological remission; all patients who experienced remission showed subnormal levels of TSH (<0.4 μU/mL) on postoperative day 2. Recurrence occurred in two patients (14.2%). One patient underwent subsequent revision transnasal TSA for recurrent tumor removal, and the other patient underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrence. @*Conclusion@#: Surgical treatment showed excellent surgical outcomes. The TSH level in the immediate postoperative period may be a predictor for endocrinological remission.

10.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 353-360, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788772

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy surgery that eliminates the epileptogenic focus or disconnects the epileptic network has the potential to significantly improve seizure control in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has been an established option for epilepsy surgery since the US Food and Drug Administration cleared the use of MRgLITT in neurosurgery in 2007. MRgLITT is an ablative stereotactic procedure utilizing heat that is converted from laser energy, and the temperature of the tissue is monitored in real-time by MR thermography. Real-time quantitative thermal monitoring enables titration of laser energy for cellular injury, and it also estimates the extent of tissue damage. MRgLITT is applicable for lesion ablation in cases that the epileptogenic foci are localized and/or deep-seated such as in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma. Seizure-free outcomes after MRgLITT are comparable to those of open surgery in well-selected patients such as those with mesial temporal sclerosis. Particularly in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma. In addition, MRgLITT can also be applied to ablate multiple discrete lesions of focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex without the need for multiple craniotomies, as well as disconnection surgery such as corpus callosotomy. Careful planning of the target, the optimal trajectory of the laser probe, and the appropriate parameters for energy delivery are paramount to improve the seizure outcome and to reduce the complication caused by the thermal damage to the surrounding critical structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Craniotomy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hamartoma , Hot Temperature , Laser Therapy , Malformations of Cortical Development , Neurosurgery , Sclerosis , Seizures , Thermography , Tuberous Sclerosis , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 419-429, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perivascular stem cells (PVCs) have been identified as precursors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that offer promising prospects for application in the development of cellular therapies. Although PVCs have been demonstrated to have greater therapeutic potential compared to bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs in various diseases, the regulatory role of PVCs on inflammasome activation during macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses has not been investigated.METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we found that the PVC secretome effectively alleviates secretion of both caspase-1 and interleukin-1β in lipopolysaccharide-primed and activated human and murine macrophages by blocking inflammasome activation and attenuating the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that the PVC secretome significantly reduces inflammatory responses and endoplasmic reticulum stress in peritoneal macrophages in a mouse model of monosodium urate-induced peritonitis. A cytokine antibody array analysis revealed that the PVC secretome contains high levels of serpin E1 and angiogenin, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effects on mitochondrial ROS generation as well as on inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PVCs may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of macrophage- and inflammation-mediated diseases by paracrine action via the secretion of various biological factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Biological Factors , Bone Marrow , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Peritonitis , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Reactive Oxygen Species , Stem Cells
12.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 484-496, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785825

ABSTRACT

Previously, the majority of human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells have been derived on feeder layers and chemically undefined medium. Those media components related to feeder cells, or animal products, often greatly affect the consistency of the cell culture. There are clear advantages of a defined, xeno-free, and feeder-free culture system for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) cultures, since consistency in the formulations prevents lot-to-lot variability. Eliminating all non-human components reduces health risks for downstream applications, and those environments reduce potential immunological reactions from stem cells. Therefore, development of feeder-free hPSCs culture systems has been an important focus of hPSCs research. Recently, researchers have established a variety of culture systems in a defined combination, xeno-free matrix and medium that supports the growth and differentiation of hPSCs. Here we described detailed hPSCs culture methods under feeder-free and chemically defined conditions using vitronetin and TeSR-E8 medium including supplement bioactive lysophospholipid for promoting hPSCs proliferation and maintaining stemness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cell Culture Techniques , Embryonic Stem Cells , Extracellular Matrix , Feeder Cells , Human Embryonic Stem Cells , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Stem Cells
13.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 63-72, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients suffer from long-term diabetes can result in severe complications in multiple organs through induction of vascular dysfunctions. However, the effects of chronic hyperglycemic conditions on hematopoiesis and the microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM) are not yet well understood. METHODS: BM cells were harvested from femurs of mice and analyzed using flow cytometry. Human PVCs were cultured in serum-free α-MEM. After 24hrs, PVC-CM was collected and filtered through a 0.22 μm filter. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that hyperglycemia alters hematopoietic composition in the BM, which can partially be restored via paracrine mechanisms, including perivascular cells (PVCs) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Prolonged hyperglycemic conditions resulted in an increase in the frequency and number of long-term hematopoietic stem cells as well as the number of total BM cells. The altered hematopoiesis in the BM was partially recovered by treatment with PVC-derived conditioned medium (CM). Long-term diabetes also increased the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the BM, which was partially restored by the administration of PVC-CM and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor. We further showed the downregulation of ERK and p38 phosphorylation in BM cells of diabetic mice treated with PVC-CM and DPI. This may be associated with dysfunction of hematopoietic cells and promotion of subsequent diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that alterations in BM hematopoietic composition due to prolonged hyperglycemic conditions might be restored by improvement of the hematopoietic microenvironment and modulation of NOX activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Bone Marrow , Culture Media, Conditioned , Diabetes Complications , Down-Regulation , Femur , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hyperglycemia , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation
14.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Quality Assurance ; : 82-104, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765641

ABSTRACT

Rapid and correct diagnosis is essential for national tuberculosis (TB) control. A greater national concern for quality control (QC) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) testing is required to improve the proficiency of domestic clinical laboratories using diverse testing protocols in private and public sectors. External quality assessment (EQA) is an important program accompanying internal QC in clinical TB laboratories. In Korea, the EQA program initiated in 2005 by the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service (KEQAS) has made remarkable progress in the harmonization of private and public sectors with governmental support since 2011. An integrative TB EQA program led by the KEQAS with financial support from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides optimized EQA materials for both public and private sectors. In 2017, the KEQAS implemented ‘The Next-Generation Proficiency Testing Program’ equipped with a centralized control system of QC material production and electronic data management, which increased the scale of operating programs from 46 to 54 and recruited 1,700 participants. The TB program was also expanded to provide three times EQA for private laboratories from 2 times a year. For TB EQA programs implemented via the Clinical Microbiology Subcommittee of the KEQAS, survey materials were distributed by sectional orders for tests such as acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, AFB culturing and identification, antituberculous drug susceptibility screening, AFB molecular diagnosis, and rapid detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance. All survey materials were produced by sophisticated manufacturing processes and thoroughly analyzed by various commercial kits, targeted DNA sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing in pre- and post-manufacturing phases for advancement in the EQA program.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis , Financial Support , Isoniazid , Korea , Mass Screening , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Private Sector , Public Sector , Quality Control , Rifampin , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis
15.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 353-360, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765344

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy surgery that eliminates the epileptogenic focus or disconnects the epileptic network has the potential to significantly improve seizure control in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has been an established option for epilepsy surgery since the US Food and Drug Administration cleared the use of MRgLITT in neurosurgery in 2007. MRgLITT is an ablative stereotactic procedure utilizing heat that is converted from laser energy, and the temperature of the tissue is monitored in real-time by MR thermography. Real-time quantitative thermal monitoring enables titration of laser energy for cellular injury, and it also estimates the extent of tissue damage. MRgLITT is applicable for lesion ablation in cases that the epileptogenic foci are localized and/or deep-seated such as in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma. Seizure-free outcomes after MRgLITT are comparable to those of open surgery in well-selected patients such as those with mesial temporal sclerosis. Particularly in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma. In addition, MRgLITT can also be applied to ablate multiple discrete lesions of focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex without the need for multiple craniotomies, as well as disconnection surgery such as corpus callosotomy. Careful planning of the target, the optimal trajectory of the laser probe, and the appropriate parameters for energy delivery are paramount to improve the seizure outcome and to reduce the complication caused by the thermal damage to the surrounding critical structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Craniotomy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hamartoma , Hot Temperature , Laser Therapy , Malformations of Cortical Development , Neurosurgery , Sclerosis , Seizures , Thermography , Tuberous Sclerosis , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 133-142, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells. METHODS: Mouse AE II cell line MLE-12 were exposed to 1–10 µg/mL BLM and 0.01–100 µM baicalein (Bai), a G1/G2 cell cycle inhibitor, for 24 hours. Cell viability and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular morphology was determined after DAPI and Hoechst 33258 staining. To verify cell cycle arrest, propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed for MLE-12 after exposure to BLM. RESULTS: BLM decreased the proliferation of MLE-12 cells. However, it significantly increased expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β1. Based on Hoechst 33258 staining, BLM induced condensation of nuclear and fragmentation. Based on DAPI and PI staining, BLM significantly increased the size of nuclei and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BLM increased mRNA levels of BAX but decreased those of Bcl2. In addition, BLM/Bai increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, SLFN1, 2, 4 of Schlafen family. CONCLUSION: BLM exposure affects pulmonary epithelial type II cells, resulting in decreased proliferation possibly through apoptotic and cell cycle arrest associated signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Bisbenzimidazole , Bleomycin , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression , Genes, vif , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Propidium , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 133-142, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse AE II cell line MLE-12 were exposed to 1–10 µg/mL BLM and 0.01–100 µM baicalein (Bai), a G1/G2 cell cycle inhibitor, for 24 hours. Cell viability and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular morphology was determined after DAPI and Hoechst 33258 staining. To verify cell cycle arrest, propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed for MLE-12 after exposure to BLM.@*RESULTS@#BLM decreased the proliferation of MLE-12 cells. However, it significantly increased expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β1. Based on Hoechst 33258 staining, BLM induced condensation of nuclear and fragmentation. Based on DAPI and PI staining, BLM significantly increased the size of nuclei and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BLM increased mRNA levels of BAX but decreased those of Bcl2. In addition, BLM/Bai increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, SLFN1, 2, 4 of Schlafen family.@*CONCLUSION@#BLM exposure affects pulmonary epithelial type II cells, resulting in decreased proliferation possibly through apoptotic and cell cycle arrest associated signaling.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e178-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. We previously reported the identification of a new genetic marker, cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2), in lung cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to assess plasma levels of CRABP2 from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Blood samples that were collected from 122 patients with NSCLC between September 2009 and September 2013 were selected for the analysis, along with samples from age- (± 5 years), sex-, and cigarette smoking history (± 10 pack-years [PY])-matched controls from the Korea Biobank Network. The control specimens were from patients who were without malignancies or pulmonary diseases. We measured plasma levels of CRABP2 using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS: The mean age of the NSCLC patients was 71.8 ± 8.9 years, and the median cigarette smoking history was 32 PY (range, 0–150 PY). Plasma CRABP2 levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC than in the matched controls (37.63 ± 28.71 ng/mL vs. 24.09 ± 21.09 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Higher plasma CRABP2 levels were also correlated with lower survival rates in NSCLC patients (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Plasma CRABP2 levels might be a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carrier Proteins , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genetic Markers , Korea , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Mortality , Plasma , Smoking , Survival Rate , Tretinoin
19.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 179-185, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649837

ABSTRACT

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a useful source of cells for exploring the role of genes related with early developmental processes and specific diseases due to their ability to differentiate into all somatic cell types. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system has proven to be a robust tool for targeted genetic modification. Here, we generated miR-451-deficient PSCs using the CRISPR/Cas9 system with PCR-based homologous recombination donor and investigated the impact of its deletion on self-renewal and hematopoietic development. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-451 knockout did not alter the gene expressions of pluripotency, cellular morphology, and cell cycle, but led to impaired erythrocyte development. These findings propose that a combination of PSCs and CRISPR/Cas9 system could be useful to promote biomedical applications of PSCs by elucidating the function and manipulating of specific miRNAs during lineage specification and commitment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Cell Cycle , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Erythrocytes , Gene Expression , Hematopoiesis , Homologous Recombination , MicroRNAs , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
20.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 161-168, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728583

ABSTRACT

Understanding the crosstalk mechanisms between perivascular cells (PVCs) and cancer cells might be beneficial in preventing cancer development and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the paracrine influence of PVCs derived from human umbilical cords on the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and erythroleukemia cells (TF-1α and K562) in vitro using Transwell® co-culture systems. PVCs promoted the proliferation of A549 cells without inducing morphological changes, but had no effect on the proliferation of TF-1α and K562 cells. To identify the factors secreted from PVCs, conditioned media harvested from PVC cultures were analyzed by antibody arrays. We identified a set of cytokines, including persephin (PSPN), a neurotrophic factor, and a key regulator of oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. Supplementation with PSPN significantly increased the proliferation of A549 cells. These results suggested that PVCs produced a differential effect on the proliferation of cancer cells in a cell-type dependent manner. Further, secretome analyses of PVCs and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms could facilitate the discovery of therapeutic target(s) for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Coculture Techniques , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cytokines , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Umbilical Cord
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