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1.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 67-73, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875085

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The aim of this study was to examine the structural change in the hippocampal subfields in early-onset (EO) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients associated with the APOE ε4 carrier state. @*Methods@#:This study had 50 subjects aged 55-63 years, all of whom were diagnosed with amnestic MCI at baseline via the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K). The EO-MCI patients were divided into the MCI continued (MCIcont) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) converted (ADconv) groups 2 years later. The volumes of hippocampal subfields were measured for all the subjects. The calculations were based on the change of the volumes between the 2-year-interval brain Magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans between MCIcont and ADconv groups according to the Apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE ε4) carrier state. @*Results@#:There was a significant correlation between APOE ε4 allele and structural changes in several hippocampal subfields. The volume reduction in cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) field and subiculum, especially in the APOE ε4 carriers. The significance was more prominent in ADconv group. @*Conclusion@#:These results suggest that the possession of APOE ε4 allele may lead to significantly greater predilection for the structural changes in hippocampal subfields, showing significant changes, especially in the ADconv patients compared with MCIcont patients.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1058-1067, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918725

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Recently, rational polypharmacy approaches have been proposed, regardless of the lower risk and cost of monotherapy. Considering monotherapy as first-line treatment and polypharmacy as rational treatment, a balanced attitude toward polypharmacy is recommended. However, the high prevalence of polypharmacy led the Japanese government to establish a polypharmacy reduction policy. Based on this, the association between the policy and psychiatrists’ attitude toward polypharmacy has been under debate. @*Methods@#We developed an original questionnaire about Psychiatrists’ attitudes toward polypharmacy (PAP). We compared the PAP scores with the treatment decision-making in clinical case vignettes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to quantify associations of explanatory variables including policy factors and PAP scores. The anonymous questionnaires were administered to psychiatrists worldwide. @*Results@#The study included 347 psychiatrists from 34 countries. Decision-making toward polypharmacy was associated with high PAP scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed that low PAP scores were associated with the policy factor (β=-0.20, p=0.004). The culture in Korea was associated with high PAP scores (β=0.34, p<0.001), whereas the culture in India and Nepal were associated with low scores (β=-0.15, p=0.01, and β=-0.17, p=0.006, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Policy on polypharmacy may influence psychiatrists’ decision-making. Thus, policies considering rational polypharmacy should be established.

3.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836004

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the frequency of depressive disorders in the elderly with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia patients living in the community to find out the association between cognitive disorders and depressive disorders in the community dwelling elderly. @*Methods@#6,262 baseline study subjects from November 2010 through October 2012 were enrolled based on the Korean longitudinal study on cognitive aging and dementia which is the first nationwide multi-center population based prospective cohort study in Korea. Diagnosis of MCI, dementia, major depressive disorder (MDD), minor depressive disorder (mDD) and subsyndromal depression (SSD) was made by psychiatrists with expertise in dementia based on the appropriate diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#4,303 NC, 1,737 MCI, 222 dementia were enrolled. The frequency of MDD, mDD, SSD were highest in dementia and lowest in NC and showed significant difference among three groups. The odds ratio also increased significantly in MCI and dementia compared with NC showing highest odds ratio in dementia. @*Conclusion@#Our findings propose that MCI and dementia in the community dwelling elderly were significantly associated with various types of depressive disorders showing highest association tendency in dementia.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1006-1012, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832598

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The correlation among the thyroid-related hormones, Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) and cognitive function has been reported despite controversial results. This study was designed to investigate this correlation among cognitively-normal elderly dwellers. @*Methods@#This study assessed 507 cognitively normal individuals aged over 60 who underwent comprehensive hematological and neuropsychological assessments including the quantification of serum free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as the Korean version of the Consortium Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease. The Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale was also employed to evaluate the severity of depression. Age, gender, education, and the presence of APOE ε4 were taken into account as covariates. @*Results@#There was a significant positive association between verbal fluency test (VFT), Word List Memory Test (WLMT), and Word List Recall Test (WLRT) score and serum TSH levels (p=0.007, 0.031, and 0.023 respectively). The further analysis adding the interaction between APOE ε4 and TSH level, however, revealed only VFT score was significantly influenced by this interaction (p=0.026). @*Conclusion@#Lower serum TSH levels had impacts on both semantic memory (VFT) and episodic memory (WLMT, WLRT) among cognitively-normal elderly, whereas the interaction of TSH and APOE ε4 influenced only the task of semantic memory (VFT) in this group.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 21-28, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cardiovascular diseases are representative risk factors for the onset of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly people in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from subjects who were enrolled in the prospective Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were used in this study. Data from 701 subjects whose diastolic blood pressure range did not change (≤79 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg) over 2 years were analyzed. To analyze the differences in cognitive function between the groups at the 2-year follow-up, an analysis of covariance was performed with covariates, which were significantly different between the two groups, and the baseline cognitive function. @*Results@#Significant differences were observed between the two groups, and the mean scores on the constructional praxis (η2=0.010) and word list recall tests (η2=0.018) in the diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg group were higher than those in the diastolic blood pressure ≤79 mm Hg group at the 2-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that maintaining a DBP below 79 mm Hg presents a greater risk of cognitive decline in Korean elderly people.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 744-750, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study estimated the incidence of driving-related adverse events and examined the association of cognitive function with the risk of future driving-related adverse events in the elderly Korean male population. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,172 male drivers aged 60 years or older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD). Using the data from Korean National Police Agency, we classified the participants into three groups: safe driving (drove for 2 years after baseline without a traffic accident or repeated violations), driving cessation (stopped driving), and risky driving (one or more traffic accidents or repeated violations). We estimated the incidences of driving cessation and risky driving, and examined the effect of cognitive function on their risks. @*Results@#The incidence of driving cessation and risky driving in the Korean male drivers aged 60 years or older was 19.3 and 69.9 per 1,000 person-years respectively and increased in the late 80s. Drivers with better baseline Word List Memory Test scores showed less risky driving (OR=0.94, p=0.039). @*Conclusion@#Driving-related adverse events increased in late 80s, and better memory function was protective against these events.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 575-580, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of depressed mood (dysphoria) and loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia)on the risk of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals. METHODS: This study included 2,685 cognitively-normal elderly individuals who completed the baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We ascertained the presence of dysphoria and anhedonia using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We defined subjective cognitive decline as the presence of subjective cognitive complaints without objective cognitive impairments. We analyzed the association of dysphoria and anhedonia with the risk of cognitive disorders using multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, Apolipoprotein E genotype, and neuropsychological test performance. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up period, anhedonia was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.20–3.64, p=0.008) and fivefold higher risk of dementia (OR=5.07, 95% CI=1.44–17.92, p=0.012) but was not associated with the risk of subjective cognitive decline. In contrast, dysphoria was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of subjective cognitive decline (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.33–3.19, p=0.001) and 1.7-fold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.00–3.05, p=0.048) but was not associated with the risk of dementia. CONCLUSION: Anhedonia, but not dysphoria, is a risk factor of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Anhedonia , Apolipoproteins , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Depression , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychological Tests , Pleasure , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 532-538, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between normal-but-low folate levels and cognitive function in the elderly population using a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We analyzed 3,910 participants whose serum folate levels were within the normal reference range (1.5–16.9 ng/mL) at baseline evaluation in the population-based prospective cohort study named the “Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia.” The association between baseline folate quartile categories and baseline cognitive disorders [mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia] was examined using binary logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables. The risks of incident MCI and dementia associated with the decline of serum folate level during a 4-year follow-up period were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The lowest quartile group of serum folate (≥1.5, ≤5.9 ng/mL) showed a higher risk of cognitive disorders than did the highest quartile group at baseline evaluation (odds ratio 1.314, p=0.012). Over the 4 years of follow-up, the risk of incident dementia was 2.364 times higher among subjects whose serum folate levels declined from the 2nd–4th quartile group to the 1st quartile than among those for whom it did not (p=0.031). CONCLUSION: Normal-but-low serum folate levels were associated with the risk of cognitive disorders in the elderly population, and a decline to normal-but-low serum folate levels was associated with incident dementia. Maintaining serum folate concentration above 5.9 ng/mL may be beneficial for cognitive status.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Folic Acid , Follow-Up Studies , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Reference Values
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 767-774, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to an unprecedented rate of population aging, South Korea is facing a dementia epidemic. For this reason, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD) was launched in 2009 with support from the Korean Health Industry Development Institute to investigate the epidemiology, biopsychosocial risk factors, and outcomes of dementia and dementia-related conditions. METHODS: The KLOSCAD is the first nationwide multi-center population-based prospective cohort study. In October 2010, 12,694 individuals were randomly sampled from residents aged 60 years or older who lived in 13 districts across South Korea. In the baseline assessment, which was conducted from November 2010 through October 2012, 6,818 (53.7%) individuals participated. Follow-up assessments have been conducted every two years, with the first follow-up assessment conducted between November 2012 and October 2014, and the second between November 2014 and October 2016. The third is now in progress, and will span from November 2016 to October 2018. Diagnosis of cognitive disorders, neuropsychological battery, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, activities of daily living, physical and neurologic examination and laboratory tests, life styles, quality of life, and identification of death were evaluated in each assessment. RESULTS: The cumulative drop-out rate at the second follow-up assessment was 38.7%. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment were 5.0% and 27.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The KLOSCAD may provide strong scientific evidence for advancing the fight against dementia both in Korea and globally.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurologic Examination , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 677-686, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of physically abusive behaviors (PhAB) and psychologically abusive behaviors (PsAB) towards people with dementia (PWD) in family caregivers, and compared their prevalences between East Asian and Western countries. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of PhAB and PsAB in 467 Korean pairs of community-dwelling PWD and their primary family caregivers. We evaluated abusive behaviors using the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale. In addition, we compared the prevalence of abusive behaviors between Asian and Western countries through a meta-analysis on 12 studies including the current one. RESULTS: More than a half of the caregivers reported PsAB and about one out of seven caregivers admitted PhAB within past three months. PsAB and PhAB were slightly more prevalent in East Asian countries than in Western countries. Non-Alzheimer type and moderate to severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were associated with the risk of PhAB but not with the risk of PsAB. Severe care burden and low income were associated with the risk of PhAB and PsAB. CONCLUSION: PhAB and PsAB were as prevalent in the family caregivers of PWD in Asian countries including Korea as in Western countries. Prevention strategies should be implemented according to the type of abusive behaviors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Caregivers , Dementia , Korea , Prevalence , Risk Factors
11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 531-537, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the change in the hippocampal volume and shape in early-onset mild cognitive impairment (EO-MCI) associated with the APOE ε4 carrier state. METHODS: This study had 50 subjects aged 55–63 years, all of whom were diagnosed with MCI at baseline via the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet. The EO-MCI patients were divided into the MCI continued (MCIcont) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) converted (ADconv) groups 2 years later. The hippocampal volume and shape were measured for all the subjects. The local shape analysis (LSA) was used to conduct based on the 2-year-interval magnetic resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between APOE ε4 allele and hippocampal volume atrophy. Over two years, the volume reduction in the left hippocampus was found to be faster than that in the right hippocampus, especially in the APOE ε4 carriers. LSA showed that the 2 subfields were significantly affected in the left hippocampus. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the possession of APOE ε4 allele may lead to greater predilection for left hippocampal atrophy in EO-MCI, and some specific subfields of the hippocampus may be more prominently involved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Alzheimer Disease , Apolipoproteins E , Atrophy , Carrier State , Hippocampus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 271-280, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and they might influence the course and prognosis of AD. Depression could appear anytime in the course of the disease, and could either last considerably long or disappear easily. This study is intended to investigate the occurrence of depression in the course of AD and the risk factors of incidence. METHODS: This study targeted 1,272 AD patients without depressive symptoms at the start of this study in Korea. A total of 775 subjects completed the study, and the occurrence of depression was assessed after 12 months. Demographic information of subjects was collected and cognitive functions, overall functions, and depression severity were assessed at the start of this study and after 12 months. RESULTS: Among the 775 subjects, 103 subjects (13.29%) developed depression 12 months later. The MMSE-KC scores showed significant changes in both groups that developed depression and did not. In the univariate analysis, significant differences in the incidence of depression were found in terms of gender, the administration of the antidepressant at the baseline, the SGDS-K score, and the GDS score. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the increase in the incidence of depression was associated with a female, in the increase in SGDS-K score and the GDS score. CONCLUSION: The incidence of depression in the subjects who completed the 12-month follow-up observation was 13.29%. Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, a female gender and the severity of dementia, including the overall functions, seemed associated with the occurrence of depression.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Cognition , Dementia , Depression , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Risk Factors
13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 181-185, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the association between scoliosis and psychopathological effects using the Military Personality Inventory (MPI). METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted of 19-yr-old examinees admitted to the Military Manpower Administration in Korea from February 2007-January 2010. The authors compared the profiles of MPI of 3004 scoliosis cases with the profiles of MPI of 11920 normal controls. The scoliosis cases were classified into two groups according to severity, including mild to moderate, and severe. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the two groups based on the validity scales. The neurosis scales, including anxiety, depression, somatization and personality disorder, were significantly different between the groups. Concerning the anxiety, depression and somatization subscales, the scores of the mild to moderate group and the severe group were higher than those of the control group. Regarding the personality disorder subscale, the mild to moderate group was higher than the control group. For the paranoid subscale, there was a significant difference between the groups and the mild to moderate group had a higher score than the control group. Furthermore, the partial eta square was 0.018, 0.019, and 0.018 for anxiety, depression, and somatization respectively, which suggests that scoliosis was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. CONCLUSION: Young men with scoliosis tended to have higher scores concerning the MPI than young men without scoliosis. In particular, the scores were higher for anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms. This result shows that scoliosis may have psychopathological effects on young men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Korea , Military Personnel , Personality Disorders , Personality Inventory , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis , Weights and Measures
14.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 140-145, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Parental behavior is related to personality development and ego resilience in the childhood. The objective of this study was to identify the influence of parental behavior on ego resilience in Korean middle school student. METHODS: Subjects were selected based on stratified multi-stage cluster sampling in Korea youth panel study 2013(Boy : N=1,075, Girl : N=1,033). We used Parental behavior inventory(PBI) to estimate parental behavior and the Ego resilience scale to estimate ego resilience. The data were statistically analyzed using a Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis with the statistical package for the social sciences(SPSS). We considered differences to be significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: A regression analysis showed that rational explanation, affection, Interest and inconsistency of the parental behavior domains influence ego resilience. Also rational explanation, affection and Interest of the parental behavior domains showed a significant positive correlation with ego resilience(r=0.24, r=0.31, r=0.22, p<0.01). In contrast to early childhood studies, inconsistency showed no significant correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents who had taken more rational explanation, interest and affection from their parents were more likely to have higher ego resilience. However, inconsistency of parental behavior showed no correlation with ego resilience of adolescents, which means that they are affected by several other factors than parental behavior. This study would be a basic research that could be a help to psychosocial approach in pediatric psychiatry.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Ego , Korea , Parents , Personality Development
15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 467-471, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify associations between pneumo- or hemo-thorax presence and psychological distress in young males by using the Military Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MPI) test. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on data from 19-year-old examinees that were admitted to the Military Manpower Administration in Korea between February 2009 and January 2010. A total of 1955 young males were enrolled in this study. Among them, a normal volunteer control group (n=1561) included individuals without a pneumo- or hemo-thorax. The pneumo- or hemo-thorax group (n=394) included individuals with a pneumo- or hemo-thorax. The latter group was divided into two subgroups : Group A (treated with conservative care or chest tube insertion, n=341) and Group B (treated with wedge resection, n=53). RESULTS: We compared each of three groups (Control group, Group A, Group B) by using covariance analysis. The somatization subscale score within the neurosis category was significantly higher in Group A (p<0.001) than in the Control group, and there was a tendency toward a higher somatization score in Group B than in the Control group (p=0.073). The other score categories (validity scale ; anxiety, depression, and personality disorder subscales for neurosis scale ; and psychopath scale) showed no significant differences among the three tested groups. CONCLUSION: Conservative care or chest tube insertion group was associated with higher somatization symptom scores than that in the control group. The wedge resection group had a tendency toward a higher somatization score than that in the control group. The result indicate that individuals with a history of pneumo- or hemo-thorax may be more concerned about their body shape and/or general condition than those without such a history. Supportive intervention and psychiatric education approaches may be useful in relieving somatic distress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anxiety , Chest Tubes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Education , Healthy Volunteers , Hemothorax , Korea , Military Personnel , Personality Disorders , Personality Inventory , Pneumothorax , Retrospective Studies
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 125-135, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This article investigates subjects aged 55 to 65 from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to broaden our understanding of early-onset (EO) cognitive impairment using neuroimaging and genetics biomarkers. METHODS: Nine of the subjects had EO-AD (Alzheimer's disease) and 27 had EO-MCI (mild cognitive impairment). The 15 most important neuroimaging markers were extracted with the Global Shape Analysis (GSA) Pipeline workflow. The 20 most significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and were associated with specific neuroimaging biomarkers. RESULTS: We identified associations between the neuroimaging phenotypes and genotypes for a total of 36 subjects. Our results for all the subjects taken together showed the most significant associations between rs7718456 and L_hippocampus (volume), and between rs7718456 and R_hippocampus (volume). For the 27 MCI subjects, we found the most significant associations between rs6446443 and R_superior_frontal_gyrus (volume), and between rs17029131 and L_Precuneus (volume). For the nine AD subjects, we found the most significant associations between rs16964473 and L_rectus gyrus (surface area), and between rs12972537 and L_rectus_gyrus (surface area). CONCLUSION: We observed significant correlations between the SNPs and the neuroimaging phenotypes in the 36 EO subjects in terms of neuroimaging genetics. However, larger sample sizes are needed to ensure that the effects will be detectable for a reasonable false-positive error rate using the GSA and Plink Pipeline workflows.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Brain , Genetics , Genotype , Memory , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuroimaging , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sample Size
17.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 168-173, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the difference in responses to donepezil between carriers and non-carriers of the A allele at the +4 position of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene in Koreans. METHODS: Patients who met the criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=199) were recruited. Among these, 145 completed the 12-week follow-up evaluation and 135 completed the 26-week scheduled course. Differences and changes in the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE-KC) score, Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-K[N]) wordlist subtest score (WSS), CERAD-K(N) total score (TS), and the Korean version of geriatric depression scale (GDS-K) score between baseline and 12 weeks or 26 weeks were assessed by the Student's t-test. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, the changes in the MMSE-KC score, CERAD-K(N) WSS, and CERAD-K(N) TS from baseline were not significant between ChAT A allele carriers and non-carriers; however, at 26 weeks, these changes were significantly larger in ChAT A allele carriers than in non-carriers (p=0.02 for MMSE-KC and p=0.03 for CERAD-K(N) WSS respectively). CONCLUSION: Our findings in this study suggested that presence of the A allele at the +4 position of ChAT might positively influence the treatment effect of donepezil in the early stages of AD in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Alzheimer Disease , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Choline , Depression , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
18.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 24-31, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated caregivers' attitudes toward dementia, which may play a key role in the timely treatment and optimal care of people with dementia (PWD), and patient and caregiver factors potentially associated with these attitudes. METHODS: As a part of the Nationwide Survey on Dementia Care in Korea, we evaluated the attitudes of 731 community-dwelling caregivers of PWD with the Dementia Attitude Scale (DAS). Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, we investigated the sociodemographic factors of the caregivers, the clinicodemographic factors of the PWD, and the situational factors of caregiving that may influence caregivers' attitudes. RESULTS: The mean score on the DAS total was 80.65+/-16.0 (maximum : 140). The mean score on the DAS Knowledge subscale, which reflects awareness of dementia, was 42.86+/-9.6 (maximum : 70), and that on the DAS Comfort subscale, which reflects emotional and behavioral attitudes toward dementia, was 37.79+/-10.3 (maximum : 70). Non-spouse caregiver, living in a rural area, completion of a formal care education program (caregiver factors) and female patient, high educational level, high clinical dementia rating and mild behavioral symptoms (patient factors) were associated with a high DAS total score. CONCLUSION: We found much room for improvement in caregivers' attitudes towards PWD in Korea, indicating a need for strategies to improve these attitudes, targeting the at-risk group.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Behavioral Symptoms , Caregivers , Dementia , Education , Korea
19.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 175-181, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It was the aim to examine the association of the thyroid-related hormones with cognitive function, depression, and subjective memory impairment in community-dwelling elders with questionable dementia. METHODS: The sample consisted of 399 community residents with 'questionable dementia' aged 60 or over in whom serum thyroid-related hormones [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine] had been assayed. Cognitive impairment was defined using the Korean version of the Consortium Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease. Depression was diagnosed using the Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale and subjective memory complaint (SMC) was checked using the subjective memory complaints questionnaire (SMCQ). Age, gender, education, and the presence of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 were included as covariates. RESULTS: There was a significant positive association between verbal fluency test (VFT) score and serum TSH levels (p = 0.01). There was a significant negative association between SMCQ total score and word list memory test (WLMT)(p = 0.002) or word list recall test (WLRT) score (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Lower serum TSH levels were associated with semantic memory (VFT), and we found that SMC was associated with episodic memory (WLMT and WLRT) in this sample.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Apolipoproteins , Cognition , Dementia , Depression , Education , Korea , Memory , Memory, Episodic , Semantics , Thyroid Hormones , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 303-305, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88906

ABSTRACT

Reported herein is a case of recurrent major depression with impulse control difficulty in a 33-year-old man with Dandy-Walker variant. He was diagnosed as having major depressive disorder a year before he presented himself to the authors' hospital, and had a history of three-time admission to a psychiatric unit in the previous 12 months. He was readmitted and treated with sodium valporate 1,500 mg/day, mirtazapine 45 mg/day, and quetiapine 800 mg/day during the three months that he was confined in the authors' hospital, and the symptoms were reduced within three months but remained thereafter. This is the only case so far reporting recurrent depression with impulse control difficulty associated with Dandy-Walker variant. This case implies that any cerebellar lesion may cause the appearance of recurrent depression with impulse control difficulty in major depressive disorder.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Aggression , Cerebellar Diseases , Cerebellum , Dandy-Walker Syndrome , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Dibenzothiazepines , Impulsive Behavior , Mianserin , Valproic Acid , Quetiapine Fumarate
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