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1.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925372

ABSTRACT

Insomnia is a common disease in the elderly. It is caused by various etiologies and their combinations. Therefore, treatment should be tailored to the individual. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the treatment of choice for chronic insomnia; however, hypnotics are commonly used as a primary treatment in the clinical practice. The hypnotics approved for insomnia management in Korea include zolpidem, eszopiclone, triazolam, doxepin, prolonged-release melatonin, and flurazepam. Although not approved, sedative antidepressants and antipsychotics are also frequently used. When prescribing hypnotics to elderly patients, the side effects and limitations of pharmacotherapy should be explained in advance, and the lowest effective dose and “as needed” prescription should be employed. Moreover, the adverse effects should be considered, including dependence, in the elderly. When reducing the medication dose, gradual tapering is safe and realistic considering the withdrawal symptoms. Even in long-term pharmacotherapy, the combination of sleep hygiene education and CBT-I should be considered to increase the effectiveness of and satisfaction from the insomnia treatment, and minimize the medication dose.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 521-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897889

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with breathing-related sleep disorder (BRSD) often complain of psychiatric symptoms such as depression in addition to snoring, excessive sleepiness, and disturbed sleep. However, the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and severity of sleep apnea in BRSD is controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and sleep electroencephalography (EEG) findings in BRSD patients using spectral analysis. @*Methods@#All participants underwent polysomnography and evaluation using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. We analyzed the absolute spectral power density values of standard EEG frequency bands in the participants (n = 169) with BRSD during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep period. We performed correlation analysis between the domain scores of SCL-90-R scale and the absolute values of the EEG frequency bands. @*Results@#Significant positive correlation was observed between the absolute spectral power density values in the slow oscillation band and the degree of paranoid ideation (r = 0.226, p = 0.028) and depression (r = 0.216, p = 0.044) in SCL-90-R. The multiple linear regression model showed that higher paranoid ideation domain score (B = 0.007, p = 0.020), younger age (B = −0.011, p < 0.001), and female sex (B = 0.213, p = 0.004) were associated with higher slow oscillation power during NREM sleep. @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study suggested a relationship between sleep EEG and psychiatric symptoms in patients with BRSD. This relationship needs to be validated with further studies.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 521-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890185

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with breathing-related sleep disorder (BRSD) often complain of psychiatric symptoms such as depression in addition to snoring, excessive sleepiness, and disturbed sleep. However, the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and severity of sleep apnea in BRSD is controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and sleep electroencephalography (EEG) findings in BRSD patients using spectral analysis. @*Methods@#All participants underwent polysomnography and evaluation using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. We analyzed the absolute spectral power density values of standard EEG frequency bands in the participants (n = 169) with BRSD during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep period. We performed correlation analysis between the domain scores of SCL-90-R scale and the absolute values of the EEG frequency bands. @*Results@#Significant positive correlation was observed between the absolute spectral power density values in the slow oscillation band and the degree of paranoid ideation (r = 0.226, p = 0.028) and depression (r = 0.216, p = 0.044) in SCL-90-R. The multiple linear regression model showed that higher paranoid ideation domain score (B = 0.007, p = 0.020), younger age (B = −0.011, p < 0.001), and female sex (B = 0.213, p = 0.004) were associated with higher slow oscillation power during NREM sleep. @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study suggested a relationship between sleep EEG and psychiatric symptoms in patients with BRSD. This relationship needs to be validated with further studies.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 117-124, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874488

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The response to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, augmentation with other antipsychotics is common in clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of psychiatric symptoms and side effects after amisulpride add-on therapy. @*Methods@#Forty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder without treatment response to second-generation antipsychotics were included in this study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Korean version of Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after the addition of amisulpride. @*Results@#Among the 29 subjects who completed the 8-week study, 34.5% were responders according to PANSS total score. At week 8, the mean positive (p < 0.001), negative (p < 0.001), general (p < 0.001), and total (p < 0.001) PANSS scores and CDSS scores (p = 0.002) showed significant improvement compared to baseline. There was no increase in extrapyramidal side effects according to Simpson Angus Scale (p = 0.379) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (p = 0.070) and no weight gain (p = 0.308) after the add-on treatment. @*Conclusion@#The addition of amisulpride for schizophrenia patients without therapeutic response to second-generation antipsychotics is considered an effective and safe treatment. This study's results suggested that augmentation of second-generation antipsychotics with amisulpride could be a useful option for patients with schizophrenia unresponsive to second-generation antipsychotics. Further studies investigating the efficacy of amisulpride add-on therapy using placebo control are necessary to confirm these results.

5.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 24-31, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837176

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Subjective-objective discrepancy of sleep (SODS) is a common symptom and one of the major phenotypes of insomnia. A distorted perception of sleep deficit might be related to abnormal brain reactivity to insomnia-related stimuli. We aimed to investigate differences in brain activation to insomnia-related stimuli vs. general anxiety-inducing stimuli among insomnia patients with SODS, insomnia patients without SODS, and healthy controls (HCs). @*Methods@#All participants were evaluated for subjective sleep status using a sleep diary and questionnaires; occult sleep disorders and objective sleep status were assessed using polysomnography and actigraphy. Task functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during insomnia-related stimuli (Ins) and general anxiety-inducing stimuli (Gen). Brain reactivity to Ins versus Gen was compared among insomnia with SODS, insomnia without SODS, and HC groups, and a combined insomnia disorder group (ID, insomnia with and without SODS) was also compared with HCs. @*Results@#In the insomnia with SODS group compared to the insomnia without SODS group, the right precuneus and right supplementary motor areas showed significantly increased BOLD signals in response to Ins versus Gen. In the ID group compared to the HC group, the left anterior cingulate cortex showed significantly increased BOLD signals in response to Ins versus Gen. @*Conclusion@#The insomnia with SODS and ID groups showed higher brain activity in response to Ins versus Gen, while this was not observed in the insomnia without SODS and HC groups, respectively. These results suggest that insomnia patients with sleep misperception are more sensitive to sleep-related threats than general anxiety-inducing threats.

6.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 202-214, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833619

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeMild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition with diverse clinical outcomes and subgroups. Here we investigated the topographic distribution of tau in vivo using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]THK5351 in MCI subgroups. @*Methods@#This study included 96 participants comprising 38 with amnestic MCI (aMCI), 21 with nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), and 37 with normal cognition (NC) who underwent 3.0-T MRI, [18F]THK5351 PET, and detailed neuropsychological tests. [18F]flutemetamol PET was also performed in 62 participants. The aMCI patients were further divided into three groups: 1) verbal-aMCI, only verbal memory impairment; 2) visual-aMCI, only visual memory impairment; and 3) both-aMCI, both visual and verbal memory impairment. Voxel-wise statistical analysis and region-of-interest -based analyses were performed to evaluate the retention of [18F]THK5351 in the MCI subgroups. Subgroup analysis of amyloid-positive and -negative MCI patients was also performed. Correlations between [18F]THK5351 retention and different neuropsychological tests were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping analyses. @*Results@#[18F]THK5351 retention in the lateral temporal, mesial temporal, parietal, frontal, posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus was significantly greater in aMCI patients than in NC subjects, whereas it did not differ significantly between naMCI and NC participants. [18F] THK5351 retention was greater in the both-aMCI group than in the verbal-aMCI and visualaMCI groups, and greater in amyloid-positive than amyloid-negative MCI patients. The cognitive function scores were significantly correlated with cortical [18F]THK5351 retention. @*Conclusions@#[18F]THK5351 PET might be useful for identifying distinct topographic patterns of [18F]THK5351 retention in subgroups of MCI patients who are at greater risk of the progression to Alzheimer's dementia.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 417-423, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832576

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Since the risk of suicide cannot be predicted by clinical symptoms alone, and suicide is known to have a genetic component, the discovery of genetic markers that can predict the lethality of suicide attempts is a clinically important topic. There have been many studies aiming to determine whether the rs6265 polymorphism of the BDNF gene is associated with suicidality; however, the results have been mixed, and there have been few studies investigating the relationship between this polymorphism and suicide attempt lethality. @*Methods@#We assessed suicide lethality in 258 individuals who had attempted suicide using the relative risk ratio (RRR) scale and by genotyping the rs6265 polymorphism of the BDNF gene. @*Results@#The RRR score for suicide attempts was higher in subjects with Met/Val and Val/Val genotypes than in that with a Met/Met genotype (p=0.015). The RRR score for suicide attempts was also higher in Val allele carriers (Met/Val+Val/Val) than in Met/Met homozygotes (p=0.006). @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrates the possibility that the rs6265 polymorphism of the BDNF gene could be used as a genetic marker to predict the lethality of suicide attempts, but more replication studies are needed for the application of this result in clinical practice.

8.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 13-19, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811247

ABSTRACT

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs or arms and is associated with discomfort and paresthesia in the legs. RLS is diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms, and polysomnography is performed to quantify the periodic limb movements during sleep or in patients who undergo the suggested immobilization test. Determining the cause of RLS is important for accurately diagnosing and evaluating this condition. The treatment of RLS varies according to the etiology, severity, and frequency of the patients' symptoms. Accurate identification and treatment of the cause of RLS are important in patients with secondary RLS. Iron supplementation could be useful in patients with uremia, iron deficiency, and for RLS during pregnancy. Dopamine agonists have been used as the first-line treatment for primary RLS. On the other hand, augmentation is a known adverse effect associated with the long-term use of dopamine agonists. Therefore, recent treatment guidelines recommend the administration of anticonvulsants, such as pregabalin and gabapentin, to treat RLS. Iron, opioids, or benzodiazepines may be useful in patients refractory to anticonvulsants or dopamine agonists. RLS is a chronic condition. Therefore, it is essential to establish a long-term treatment plan, considering both the efficacy and adverse effects of therapeutic agents used in patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Analgesics, Opioid , Anticonvulsants , Arm , Benzodiazepines , Diagnosis , Dopamine Agonists , Extremities , Hand , Immobilization , Iron , Leg , Paresthesia , Polysomnography , Pregabalin , Restless Legs Syndrome , Sleep Wake Disorders , Uremia
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 701-709, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the proposed association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and the prevalence of hypertension. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted based on searches of the PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Korean electronic databases. Cohort and cross-sectional studies reporting the incidence of hypertension in individuals with RLS were included. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the prevalence of hypertension in individuals with RLS. The main outcome measure of the study was prevalence of hypertension in patients with RLS compared with a control group. RESULTS: One cohort study and eight cross-sectional studies were included in the meta-analysis. Individuals with RLS had an increased prevalence of hypertension (all studies: OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04–1.23; cross-sectional studies: OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01–1.24). However, in subgroup analyses controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, the differences in the prevalence of hypertension between RLS and control patients were no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Patients with RLS may have a higher prevalence of hypertension, according to a pooled analysis, but the results remain to be confirmed in well-designed prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Incidence , Odds Ratio , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Restless Legs Syndrome , Risk Factors
10.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 45-50, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738925

ABSTRACT

Smoking is one of the most harmful causes of disease. Many previous researches have shown that cigarette smoking leads to cardiovascular, respiratory, oncologic, and cerebrovascular diseases. In addition to such adverse effects, the literature indicates that cigarette smoking can worsen sleep quality and induce sleep disorders. This review focuses on the relationship between smoking/nicotine and sleep and sleep disorders of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome. Because smoking is a behavioral pattern that can be changed, it is important to quit smoking to improve overall health and sleep.


Subject(s)
Cerebrovascular Disorders , Nicotine , Restless Legs Syndrome , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Smoke , Smoking , Tobacco Products
11.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 5-8, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738918

ABSTRACT

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs or arms and uncomfortable paresthesia in the legs. Treatment of RLS can be various depending on the causes, severity, and frequency of the symptoms. In the case of secondary RLS, it is important to identify and manage the cause of RLS. Dopamine agonists have been used as firstline treatments for primary RLS treatment. However, due to augmentation, which is a common side effect of dopamine agonists, recent treatment guidelines are changing to prefer to anticonvulsants such as pregabalin and gabapentin. Iron, opioid, or benzodiazepine may be used when anticonvulsants or dopamine agonists are not adequately treated. Because RLS is a chronic disease, it is essential to establish a long-term treatment plan considering both efficacy and side effects.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Arm , Benzodiazepines , Chronic Disease , Dopamine Agonists , Iron , Leg , Paresthesia , Pregabalin , Restless Legs Syndrome , Sleep Wake Disorders
12.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 9-14, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic insomnia disorder is a common and one of the most distressing sleep disorders. This pilot study was conducted to compare the spatial function between insomnia disorder patients and good sleeping control. METHODS: We enrolled the 22 patients with chronic insomnia during over one year who met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of insomnia disorder and 27 normal sleeping controls. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) has been performed to compare the spatial cognitive function between insomnia disorder patients and good sleeping controls. RESULTS: The CANTAB results showed significant differences in the problems solved in minimum moves of Stockings of Cambridge test (t = −2.499, p = 0.017). The significant difference between two groups remained after controlling age, sex, and Beck Depression Index non-sleep scores (F = 5.631, p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the patients with insomnia disorder have poor spatial planning function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognition , Depression , Neuropsychological Tests , Pilot Projects , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 520-530, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. METHODS: The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2). Salivary melatonin was measured before and after sleep on each night. For further investigation, the female and male subjects of our previous study were collected (48 subjects), and differences according to gender were compared. RESULTS: dLAN during sleep was significantly associated with decreased total sleep time (TST; F=4.818, p=0.039), sleep efficiency (SE; F=5.072, p=0.034), and Stage R latency (F=4.664, p=0.041) for female subjects, and decreased TST (F=14.971, p<0.001) and SE (F=7.687, p=0.008), and increased wake time after sleep onset (F=6.322, p=0.015) and Stage R (F=5.031, p=0.03), with a night-group interaction (F=4.579, p=0.038) for total sample. However, no significant melatonin changes. There was no significant gender difference of the impact of dLAN on sleep, showing the negative changes in the amount and quality of sleep and the increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the both gender group under 10 lux condition. CONCLUSION: We found a negative impact of exposure to dLAN on sleep in female as well as in merged subjects. REM sleep showed a pronounced increase under 10 lux than under 5 lux in merged subjects, suggesting the possibility of subtle influences of dLAN on REM sleep.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Melatonin , Polysomnography , Sleep, REM
14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 147-155, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide clinical consensus and evidence regarding initial treatment strategies for the pharmacological treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Korea. METHODS: We prepared a questionnaire to derive a consensus from clinicians regarding their preference for the pharmacological treatment of SAD in Korea. Data regarding medication regimens and psychotropic drugs used during initial treatment, the doses used, and the pharmacological treatment duration were obtained. Responses were obtained from 66 SAD experts, and their opinions were classified into three categories (first-line, second-line, third-line) using a chi-square analysis. RESULTS: Clinicians agreed upon first-line regimens for SAD involving monotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine, or combined therapy using antidepressants with betablockers or benzodiazepines on a standing or as-needed basis. First-line psychotropic drug choices for initial treatment included the following: escitalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, and propranolol. The medication dosage used by domestic clinicians was found to be comparable with foreign guidelines. Domestic clinicians tended to make treatment decisions in a shorter amount of time and preferred a similar duration of maintenance treatment for SAD when compared with foreign clinicians. CONCLUSION: This study may provide significant information for developing SAD pharmacotherapy guidelines in Korea, especially in the early stage of treatment.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Benzodiazepines , Citalopram , Consensus , Drug Therapy , Korea , Paroxetine , Propranolol , Psychotropic Drugs , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Sertraline , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 84-89, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is considered a genetic disease and, following a genome-wide association study conducted in 2007, the mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MAP2K5) gene has been regarded as the promising candidate gene for RLS. The present study investigated whether polymorphisms of MAP2K5 are associated with antipsychotics-induced RLS in schizophrenia. METHODS: We assessed antipsychotics-induced RLS symptoms in 190 Korean schizophrenic patients using the diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MAP2K5 were genotyped. We investigated genetic and haplotypic associations of these five SNPs with the risk of antipsychotics-induced RLS symptoms. RESULTS: We divided the 190 subjects into 2 groups: 1) those with RLS symptoms (n=96) and 2) those without RLS symptoms (n=94). There were no significant intergroup differences in the distributions of the genotypes and alleles of the rs1026732, rs11635424, rs12593813, rs4489954, and rs3784709 SNPs. However, the haplotype analysis showed that the G-G-G-G-T (rs1026732-rs11635424-rs12593813-rs4489954-rs3784709) haplotype was associated with RLS symptoms (permutation p=0.033). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a haplotype of MAP2K5 polymorphisms confers increased susceptibility to antipsychotics-induced RLS symptoms in schizophrenic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Antipsychotic Agents , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Haplotypes , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Kinases , Restless Legs Syndrome , Schizophrenia
16.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 493-501, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare the characteristics of first suicide attempt patients with self-poisoning with those of self-injured patients. METHODS: In this retrospective data analysis, data were collected from emergency department patients who made a first suicide attempt between October 2013 and January 2017. Data included demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health status, method of suicide attempt, and authenticity of suicide intent. Patients were classified into a self-poisoning and self-injury group. RESULTS: Among 2,252 patients, 788 patients were making their first suicide attempt. Of these patients, 443 were self-poisoning patients. Males were less common among the self-poisoning group. Cohabitants (303 [89.4%] vs. 193 [81.4%]; p=0.010), married state (214 [57.4%] vs. 108 [41.2%]; p<0.001), and asking for help after suicide attempt (136 [86.1%] vs. 103 [73.6%]; p=0.009) was more common in the self-poisoning group than the self-injury group. However, planned suicide attempt was more frequent in the self-injury group (26 [16.0%] vs. 9 [4.7%]; p=0.001). Moreover, authenticity of suicide intent was higher in the self-injury group (12 [11.3%] vs. 42 [40.4%]; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In the self-poisoning group, there was a higher rate of females, married people, existing cohabitants, and tendency to ask for help after suicide attempt. There were also more impulsive suicide attempts in this group. The results presented herein will help prevent self-poisoning suicide attempts among high risk patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Emergency Service, Hospital , Mental Health , Methods , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Statistics as Topic , Suicide
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 458-462, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The provision of care for elderly people with dementia by healthy elderly caregivers is one of the new health-care paradigms in South Korea. The aim of this study was to determine whether this type of care, which includes cognitive stimulation, would improve the cognitive function of dementia patients and the quality of life of the healthy elderly caregiver. METHODS: Totals of 132 dementia patients and 197 healthy elderly caregivers participated in this study. We evaluated the cognitive function of the dementia patients at baseline and after providing the program for 6 months using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease, 1st Edition (CERAD-K). We also evaluated the quality of life of the healthy elderly caregivers using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Short Version (WHOQOL-BREF) at baseline and after 6 months. RESULTS: The word-list memory results of CERAD-K for the included dementia patients improved after 6 months (Z=-2.855, p=0.004). The WHOQOL-BREF score among the elderly caregiver also improved significantly (Z=-2.354, p=0.019). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that dementia care is associated with improvements in both the cognitive function of dementia patients and the quality of life of the healthy elderly caregivers.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Caregivers , Cognition , Dementia , Korea , Memory , Quality of Life , World Health Organization
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 830-838, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a highly heritable and common neurological sensorimotor disease disturbing sleep. The objective of study was to investigate significant gene for RLS by performing GWA and replication study in a Korean population. METHODS: We performed a GWA study for RLS symptom group (n=325) and non-RLS group (n=2,603) from the Korea Genome Epidemiology Study. We subsequently performed a replication study in RLS and normal controls (227 RLS and 229 controls) to confirm the present GWA study findings as well as previous GWA study results. RESULTS: In the initial GWA study of RLS, we observed an association of rs11645604 (OR=1.531, p=1.18×10−6) in MPHOSPH6 on chromosome 16q23.3, rs1918752 (OR=0.6582, p=1.93×10−6) and rs9390170 (OR=0.6778, p=7.67×10−6) in UTRN on chromosome 6q24. From the replication samples, we found rs9390170 in UTRN (p=0.036) and rs3923809 and rs9296249 in BTBD9 (p=0.045, p=0.046, respectively) were significantly associated with RLS. Moreover, we found the haplotype polymorphisms of rs9357271, rs3923809, and rs9296249 (overall p=5.69×10−18) in BTBD9 was associated with RLS. CONCLUSION: From our sequential GWA and replication study, we could hypothesize rs9390170 polymorphism in UTRN is a novel genetic marker for susceptibility to RLS. Regarding with utrophin, which is encoded by UTRN, is preferentially expressed in the neuromuscular synapse and myotendinous junctions, we speculate that utrophin is involved in RLS, particularly related to the neuromuscular aspects.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Genetic Markers , Genome , Genome-Wide Association Study , Haplotypes , Korea , Restless Legs Syndrome , Synapses , Utrophin
19.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 402-406, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported associations of retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with depression and anxiety disorders. Based on these, we attempt to test whether RORA polymorphism is associated with anxiety sensitivity (AS), the intermediate phenotype of depression and anxiety disorders. Considering gene-environment interactions and sex differences in AS, childhood maltreatment (CM) and sex were considered as confounders. METHODS: Two-hundred and five healthy young Korean adults (female: 98, male: 107; age, 23.0±3.2 years) completed genotyping for the RORA SNP rs11071547, as well as measures for AS and CM. Generalized linear models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of RORA genotype, CM, and sex in determining AS. RESULTS: The main effect of RORA polymorphisms was not found (p=0.760) whereas the main effect of CM and interaction effects among sex, genotype, and maltreatment were significant on AS. In separate analyses by sex, the interaction effect between RORA genotype and maltreatment was significant only in males (p < 0.001). In females, the main effects of genotype and CM were significant (both were p < 0.001), in which both a history of CM and C genotype tended to be associated with higher AS. CONCLUSION: The association between RORA polymorphism and AS might differ by sex. The interaction between RORA polymorphism and CM was significant only in males whereas RORA genotype and CM independently associated with AS in females. Further studies are encouraged to confirm the relationship between RORA polymorphism and AS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Child, Orphaned , Depression , Gene-Environment Interaction , Genotype , Linear Models , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sex Characteristics
20.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 16-24, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often undiagnosed but is an important risk factor affecting the health of an individual. The level of awareness of the illness among patients with OSA is low and is not correlated with severity of the illness. This study was conducted to compare awareness of OSA symptoms and illness between patients with OSA and simple snorers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two patients who were suspected of having OSA participated in this study. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography. Those with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 were classified as the OSA group, while those with an AHI < 5 were classified as the simple snoring group. A sleep questionnaire, which included items on awareness of the illness, OSA, and sleep symptoms, was administered to all subjects and their bed-partners. RESULTS: Simple snorers were much more aware of their symptoms such as snoring, irregular breathing, and apnea than were patients with OSA. Bed-partners of simple snorers were also more aware of the participants' sleep symptoms than were partners of patients with OSA. However, the duration of OSA symptoms was longer in the OSA group. In the correlation analysis, the level of awareness of OSA symptoms was negatively correlated with AHI, age, body mass index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. Among the sleep questionnaire and polysomnography results, only Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was positively correlated with level of awareness of OSA symptoms. The minority of the respondents had heard about the treatment methods of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance and preferred them as treatment options. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that simple snorers are more aware of their symptoms than are patients with OSA. A higher severity of OSA, represented by a higher AHI, is correlated with lower awareness of one's OSA symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apnea , Body Mass Index , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Polysomnography , Respiration , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Snoring , Surveys and Questionnaires
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