Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 102
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900110

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Filum transection is one of the most commonly performed operative procedure in pediatric neurosurgery. However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the surgical indication are not well-established. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of patients who underwent transection of the filum during the last 10 years in a single institute. @*Methods@#: A total of 82 patients underwent transection of the filum during the period. As a general rule, we performed the transection in patients who are symptomatic or have abnormality in the urologic or neuromuscular evaluations. There were exceptions as asymptomatic patients who only fit the definition of thickened filum (width greater than 2.0 mm or conus level below L3 vertebral body) were operated by parent’s wish or surgeon’s preference according to radiological findings, etc. @*Results@#: Seventy-six out of 82 patients had fibrous tissue in the pathologic specimen of filum. Interestingly, patients who had glial cells were more correlated with no preoperative syrinx, and no progression of syrinx even for those who did have syrinx initially. Also, larger percentage of symptomatic patients had peripheral nerve twigs than asymptomatic patients. No difference in conus level or thickness of filum was found between patients with or without preoperative syrinx. Significantly more patients with syrinx (56%) were chosen to be operated without any symptom or abnormality in study i.e., solely based on radiological findings than those without syrinx (21%). The surgical outcome for syrinx was favorable, as all but one patient had either improved or static syrinx. The exceptional case had increase in size due to the upward displacement of the proximal end of the cut filum. @*Conclusion@#: This study evaluated the pathological, clinical, radiological features of patients who underwent transection of the filum. Interesting correlations between pathological findings and clinical features were found. Excellent outcome regarding preoperative syrinx was also shown.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Few studies exist on primary spinal cord tumors (PSCTs) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to perform descriptive analysis and detailed survival analysis for PSCTs. @*Methods@#: Between 1985 and 2017, 126 pediatric patients (male : female, 56 : 70) with PSCTs underwent surgery in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding demographics, tumor characteristics, outcomes, and survival statistics. Subgroup analysis was performed for the intramedullary (IM) tumors and extradural (ED) tumors separately. @*Results@#: The mean age of the participants was 6.4±5.04 years, and the mean follow-up time was 69.5±46.30 months. The most common compartment was the ED compartment (n=57, 45.2%), followed by the IM (n=43, 34.1%) and intradural extramedullary (IDEM; n=16, 12.7%) compartments. Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant (n=69, 54.8%). The most common pathologies were schwannomas (n=14) and neuroblastomas (n=14). Twenty-two patients (17.5%) died from the disease, with a mean disease duration of 15.8±15.85 months. Thirty-six patients (28.6%) suffered from progression, with a mean period of 22.6±30.81 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 81% and 66%, respectively. Regarding IM tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 79% and 57%, respectively. In ED tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 80% and 81%, respectively. Pathology and the extent of resection showed beneficial effects on OS for total PSCTs, IM tumors, and ED tumors. PFS was affected by both the extent of removal and pathology in total PSCTs and ED tumors; however, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal in IM tumors. The degree of improvement in the modified McCormick scale showed a trend towards improvement in patients with IM tumors who achieved gross total removal (p=0.447). @*Conclusion@#: Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant, and ED tumors were most common. The most common pathologies were schwannomas and neuroblastomas. Both the pathology and extent of resection had a decisive effect on OS. For IM tumors, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal. Radical excision of IM tumors could be a viable option for better survival without an increased risk of worse functional outcomes.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892406

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Filum transection is one of the most commonly performed operative procedure in pediatric neurosurgery. However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the surgical indication are not well-established. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of patients who underwent transection of the filum during the last 10 years in a single institute. @*Methods@#: A total of 82 patients underwent transection of the filum during the period. As a general rule, we performed the transection in patients who are symptomatic or have abnormality in the urologic or neuromuscular evaluations. There were exceptions as asymptomatic patients who only fit the definition of thickened filum (width greater than 2.0 mm or conus level below L3 vertebral body) were operated by parent’s wish or surgeon’s preference according to radiological findings, etc. @*Results@#: Seventy-six out of 82 patients had fibrous tissue in the pathologic specimen of filum. Interestingly, patients who had glial cells were more correlated with no preoperative syrinx, and no progression of syrinx even for those who did have syrinx initially. Also, larger percentage of symptomatic patients had peripheral nerve twigs than asymptomatic patients. No difference in conus level or thickness of filum was found between patients with or without preoperative syrinx. Significantly more patients with syrinx (56%) were chosen to be operated without any symptom or abnormality in study i.e., solely based on radiological findings than those without syrinx (21%). The surgical outcome for syrinx was favorable, as all but one patient had either improved or static syrinx. The exceptional case had increase in size due to the upward displacement of the proximal end of the cut filum. @*Conclusion@#: This study evaluated the pathological, clinical, radiological features of patients who underwent transection of the filum. Interesting correlations between pathological findings and clinical features were found. Excellent outcome regarding preoperative syrinx was also shown.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892404

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Few studies exist on primary spinal cord tumors (PSCTs) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to perform descriptive analysis and detailed survival analysis for PSCTs. @*Methods@#: Between 1985 and 2017, 126 pediatric patients (male : female, 56 : 70) with PSCTs underwent surgery in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding demographics, tumor characteristics, outcomes, and survival statistics. Subgroup analysis was performed for the intramedullary (IM) tumors and extradural (ED) tumors separately. @*Results@#: The mean age of the participants was 6.4±5.04 years, and the mean follow-up time was 69.5±46.30 months. The most common compartment was the ED compartment (n=57, 45.2%), followed by the IM (n=43, 34.1%) and intradural extramedullary (IDEM; n=16, 12.7%) compartments. Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant (n=69, 54.8%). The most common pathologies were schwannomas (n=14) and neuroblastomas (n=14). Twenty-two patients (17.5%) died from the disease, with a mean disease duration of 15.8±15.85 months. Thirty-six patients (28.6%) suffered from progression, with a mean period of 22.6±30.81 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 81% and 66%, respectively. Regarding IM tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 79% and 57%, respectively. In ED tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 80% and 81%, respectively. Pathology and the extent of resection showed beneficial effects on OS for total PSCTs, IM tumors, and ED tumors. PFS was affected by both the extent of removal and pathology in total PSCTs and ED tumors; however, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal in IM tumors. The degree of improvement in the modified McCormick scale showed a trend towards improvement in patients with IM tumors who achieved gross total removal (p=0.447). @*Conclusion@#: Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant, and ED tumors were most common. The most common pathologies were schwannomas and neuroblastomas. Both the pathology and extent of resection had a decisive effect on OS. For IM tumors, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal. Radical excision of IM tumors could be a viable option for better survival without an increased risk of worse functional outcomes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 64-72, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835611

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The management of intraductal papilloma (IDP) without atypia remains controversial. This study evaluated the manifestations and incidence of malignancy during observation without surgery in patients diagnosed with IDP by core needle biopsy (CNB), to confirm whether close follow-up instead of surgical treatment is the preferred treatment option in selected patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 589 patients diagnosed with IDP by CNB between January 2009 to December 2018. The data of the 102 IDP lesions from 90 women who did not undergo immediate excision were analyzed. Of these, 84 patients received imaging follow-up without excision, while 18 patients underwent delayed excision during follow-up. @*Results@#During the median follow-up period of 18.6 months, the mean change in tumor size and mean percent change in tumor size were −0.06 cm and −0.22%, respectively. Delayed excision was performed in 18 patients (17.6%). In the delayed excision group, three (16.7%) patients and one (5.6%) patient were diagnosed with atypical papilloma and intraductal papillary carcinoma, respectively, based on the final pathological findings. The upstaged group (atypia and malignancy; four patients) showed a 62.0% increase in the tumor size, which is higher than the benign group that showed a 10.4% increase in tumor size. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.185). @*Conclusion@#Observation without excision is possible for small IDP without atypia, because of the minimal changes in tumor size and low incidence of malignancy after excision. However, to avoid a missed diagnosis of malignancy, excision should be considered if the lesion increases in size during follow-up.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 235-242, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811472

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize associated reactions (ARs) in the contralateral arm across multiple muscles during unimanual tasks and to identify factors related to ARs in children with cerebral palsy (CP).MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 35 children with CP. The extent of ARs of the contra-lateral, non-task hand was assessed while performing three unimanual tasks (opening and clenching the fist, a finger opposition task, and tapping fingers). The occurrence of ARs in each trial was evaluated separately for each task using a four-point scale (total scores ranged from 0 to 12). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was used to measure the firing activity of the muscles of the opposite arm during the task. The Manual Ability Classification System and Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA-2) were used to evaluate upper limb function.RESULTS: AR scores were higher in the more-affected limb than in the less-affected limb. SEMG data on the non-task hand showed motor overflow up to the elbow muscles in the more-affected limb. Root mean square ratios of EMG signals were significantly higher in children with ARs than in children without ARs. Multiple regression analysis showed both age and MA-2 to be significant factors related to ARs in the more-affected limb.CONCLUSION: Children with visible ARs showed motor overflow in the non-task limb during unimanual hand tasks. Age and upper limb function were significantly related to the extent of ARs in the more-affected limb of children with CP.


Subject(s)
Arm , Cerebral Palsy , Child , Classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elbow , Electromyography , Extremities , Fingers , Fires , Hand , Humans , Muscles , Prospective Studies , Upper Extremity
10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830496

ABSTRACT

Arytenoid cartilage dislocation is one of the most common mechanical causes of vocal fold immobility. The most common etiologies are intubation and external trauma, but its incidence is lower than 0.1%. Its symptoms include dysphonia, vocal fatigue, loss of vocal control, breathiness, odynophagia, dysphagia, dyspnea, and cough. Although there are some reports of arytenoid cartilage dislocation in adults, there are only few reports on its occurrence in children. It is particularly difficult to detect the symptoms of arytenoid cartilage dislocation in uncooperative pediatric patients with brain lesions without verbal output or voluntary expression. We report a case of arytenoid cartilage dislocation with incidental findings in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study performed to evaluate the swallowing function.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are not common in young age patients. We sought to find the characteristics of the intracranial aneurysms in patients under 20 years of age. METHODS: We reviewed 23 consecutive patients ≤20 years of age treated for their intracranial aneurysms during the period from 1995 to 2017. From medical records and imaging studies, we gathered data on age, sex, presentation, associated medical condition, location and characteristics of aneurysms, treatment and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The patients’ ages ranged from 13 months to 20 years (median, 14 years). There were 16 males and seven females (male to female ratio, 2.3 : 1) with 31 aneurysms. Clinical presentations included sudden severe headache in 61%, followed by altered mentality in 17% and seizure in 17%. More than one-fourth patients had specific medical conditions related to the development of the cerebral aneurysms. The majority of aneurysms occurred in the anterior circulation (71%), and were saccular (71%). There were each three patients with false aneurysms (13%) and giant aneurysms (13%), and only one patient with multiple aneurysms (4%). We treated 22 patients : 21 aneurysms with the endovascular methods, three with open surgery, and one with combined treatment. Good functional outcome could be achieved in 86% during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In this series, the young-age patients with intracranial aneurysms were characterized by male predominance, related specific medical conditions, low incidence of multiple aneurysms, high incidence of giant aneurysms and good functional outcome after treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aneurysm , Aneurysm, False , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Risk Factors , Seizures , Treatment Outcome
12.
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765349

ABSTRACT

Brain tumors are the second most common type of structural brain lesion that causes chronic epilepsy. Patients with low-grade brain tumors often experience chronic drug-resistant epilepsy starting in childhood, which led to the concept of long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and ganglioglioma are representative LEATs and are characterized by young age of onset, frequent temporal lobe location, benign tumor biology, and chronic epilepsy. Although highly relevant in clinical epileptology, the concept of LEATs has been criticized in the neuro-oncology field. Recent genomic and molecular studies have challenged traditional views on LEATs and low-grade gliomas. Molecular studies have revealed that low-grade gliomas can largely be divided into three groups : LEATs, pediatric-type diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG; astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma), and adult-type DLGG. There is substantial overlap between conventional LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG in regard to clinical features, histology, and molecular characteristics. LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG are characterized by mutations in BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB/MYBL1, which converge on the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. Gene (mutation)-centered classification of epilepsy-associated tumors could provide new insight into these heterogeneous and diverse neoplasms and may lead to novel molecular targeted therapies for epilepsy in the near future.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Astrocytoma , Biology , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Classification , Epilepsy , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial , Seizures , Temporal Lobe
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigated the seizure recurrence rate and potential predictors of seizure recurrence following antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal after resective epilepsy surgery in children with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 70 children and adolescents with FCD types I, II, and IIIa who underwent resective epilepsy surgery between 2004 and 2015 and were followed for at least 2 years after surgery. RESULTS: We attempted AED withdrawal in 40 patients. The median time of starting the AED reduction was 10.8 months after surgery. Of these 40 patients, 14 patients (35%) experienced seizure recurrence during AED reduction or after AED withdrawal. Half of the 14 patients who experienced recurrence regained seizure freedom after AED reintroduction and optimization. Compared with their preoperative status, the AED dose or number was decreased in 57.1% of patients, and remained unchanged in 14.3% after surgery. A multivariate analysis found that incomplete resection (p=0.004) and epileptic discharges on the postoperative EEG (p=0.025) were important predictors of seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal. Over the mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years after surgery, 34 patients (48.6% of the entire cohort) were seizure-free with and without AEDs. CONCLUSIONS: Children with incomplete resection and epileptic discharges on postoperative EEG are at a high risk of seizure recurrence after drug withdrawal. Complete resection of FCD may lead to a favorable surgical outcome and successful AED withdrawal after surgery.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anticonvulsants , Child , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Follow-Up Studies , Freedom , Humans , Malformations of Cortical Development , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in adults, has poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of disulfiram (DSF), an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, on in vitro radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells with different methylation status of O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and the underlying mechanism of such effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five human glioblastoma cells (U138MG, T98G, U251MG, U87MG, and U373MG) and one normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell were cultured and treated with DSF or 6MV X-rays (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy). For combined treatment, cells were treated with DSF before irradiation. Surviving fractions fit from cell survival based on colony forming ability. Apoptosis, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle distributionwere assayed bywestern blot for cleaved caspase-3, γH2AX staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: DSF induced radiosensitization in most of the glioblastoma cells, especially, in the cells with radioresistance as wildtype unmethylated promoter (MGMT-wt), but did not in normal NHA cell. DSF augmented or induced cleavage of caspase-3 in all cells after irradiation. DSF inhibited repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in MGMT-wt cells, but not in cells with methylated MGMT promoter. DSF abrogated radiation-induced G2/M arrest in T98G and U251MG cells. CONCLUSION: Radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells were preferentially enhanced by pre-irradiation DSF treatment compared to normal cell, especially radioresistant cells such as MGMT-wt cells. Induction of apoptosis or inhibition of DNA damage repair may underlie DSF-induced radiosensitization. Clinical benefit of combining DSF with radiotherapy should be investigated in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Brain Neoplasms , Caspase 3 , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , Disulfiram , DNA Damage , Flow Cytometry , Glioblastoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methylation , Prognosis , Radiation Tolerance , Radiotherapy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are not common in young age patients. We sought to find the characteristics of the intracranial aneurysms in patients under 20 years of age.METHODS: We reviewed 23 consecutive patients ≤20 years of age treated for their intracranial aneurysms during the period from 1995 to 2017. From medical records and imaging studies, we gathered data on age, sex, presentation, associated medical condition, location and characteristics of aneurysms, treatment and clinical outcomes.RESULTS: The patients’ ages ranged from 13 months to 20 years (median, 14 years). There were 16 males and seven females (male to female ratio, 2.3 : 1) with 31 aneurysms. Clinical presentations included sudden severe headache in 61%, followed by altered mentality in 17% and seizure in 17%. More than one-fourth patients had specific medical conditions related to the development of the cerebral aneurysms. The majority of aneurysms occurred in the anterior circulation (71%), and were saccular (71%). There were each three patients with false aneurysms (13%) and giant aneurysms (13%), and only one patient with multiple aneurysms (4%). We treated 22 patients : 21 aneurysms with the endovascular methods, three with open surgery, and one with combined treatment. Good functional outcome could be achieved in 86% during the follow-up period.CONCLUSION: In this series, the young-age patients with intracranial aneurysms were characterized by male predominance, related specific medical conditions, low incidence of multiple aneurysms, high incidence of giant aneurysms and good functional outcome after treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aneurysm , Aneurysm, False , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Risk Factors , Seizures , Treatment Outcome
18.
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788777

ABSTRACT

Brain tumors are the second most common type of structural brain lesion that causes chronic epilepsy. Patients with low-grade brain tumors often experience chronic drug-resistant epilepsy starting in childhood, which led to the concept of long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and ganglioglioma are representative LEATs and are characterized by young age of onset, frequent temporal lobe location, benign tumor biology, and chronic epilepsy. Although highly relevant in clinical epileptology, the concept of LEATs has been criticized in the neuro-oncology field. Recent genomic and molecular studies have challenged traditional views on LEATs and low-grade gliomas. Molecular studies have revealed that low-grade gliomas can largely be divided into three groups : LEATs, pediatric-type diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG; astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma), and adult-type DLGG. There is substantial overlap between conventional LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG in regard to clinical features, histology, and molecular characteristics. LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG are characterized by mutations in BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB/MYBL1, which converge on the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. Gene (mutation)-centered classification of epilepsy-associated tumors could provide new insight into these heterogeneous and diverse neoplasms and may lead to novel molecular targeted therapies for epilepsy in the near future.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Astrocytoma , Biology , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Classification , Epilepsy , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial , Seizures , Temporal Lobe
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In recent years, breast implants have been frequently placed in the subcutaneous pocket, in the so-called prepectoral approach. We report our technique of prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction (IBR), as well as its surgical and aesthetic outcomes, in comparison with subpectoral IBR. We also discuss relevant considerations and pitfalls in prepectoral IBR and suggest an algorithm for the selection of patients for IBR based on our experiences.@*METHODS@#We performed 79 immediate breast reconstructions with a breast implant and an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) sling, of which 47 were subpectoral IBRs and 32 were prepectoral IBRs. Two-stage IBR was performed in 36 cases (20 subpectoral, 16 prepectoral), and direct-to-implant IBR in 43 cases (27 prepectoral, 16 subpectoral). The ADM sling supplemented the inferolateral side of the breast prosthesis in the subpectoral group and covered the entire anterior surface of the breast prosthesis in the prepectoral group.@*RESULTS@#The postoperative pain score was much lower in the prepectoral group than in the subpectoral group (1.78 vs. 7.17). The incidence of seroma was higher in the prepectoral group (31.3% vs. 6.4%). Other postoperative complications, such as surgical site infection, flap necrosis, implant failure, and wound dehiscence, occurred at similar rates in both groups. Animation deformities developed in 8.5% of patients in the subpectoral group and rippling deformities were more common in the prepectoral group (21.9% vs. 12.8%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The indications for prepectoral IBR include moderately-sized breasts with a thick well-vascularized mastectomy flap and concomitant bilateral breast reconstruction with prophylactic mastectomy.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL