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1.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 211-218, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967519

ABSTRACT

Pediatric nondysraphic intramedullary lipoma is very rare, and only limited cases have been reported. In the present case, we present two infant patients with these pathologies who were surgically treated. Previous literature on 20 patients with these diseases who had undergone surgical treatments was analyzed. Surgical treatment should be considered in most symptomatic patients, and laminoplastic laminotomy and internal debulking of the lipoma under intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring are mostly recommended.

2.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 162-171, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967513

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The goal of this study was to analyze the clinical outcomes of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic septostomy when shunt malfunction occurs in a patient who has previously undergone placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. @*Methods@#: From 2001 to 2020 at Seoul National University Children's Hospital, patients who underwent ETV or endoscopic septostomy for shunt malfunction were retrospectively analyzed. Initial diagnosis (etiology of hydrocephalus), age at first shunt insertion, age at endoscopic procedure, magnetic resonance or computed tomography image, subsequent shunting data, and follow-up period were included. @*Results@#: Thirty-six patients were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-nine patients, 18 males and 11 females, with shunt malfunction underwent ETV. At the time of shunting, the age ranged from 1 day to 15.4 years (mean, 2.4 years). The mean age at the time of ETV was 13.1 years (range, 0.7 to 29.6 years). Nineteen patients remained shunt revision free. The 5-year shunt revisionfree survival rate was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.88). Seven patients, three males and four females, with shunt malfunction underwent endoscopic septostomy. At the time of shunting, the age ranged from 0.2 to 12 years (mean, 3.9 years). The mean age at the time of endoscopic septostomy was 11.9 years (range, 0.5 to 29.5 years). Four patients remained free of shunt revision or addition. The 5-year shunt revision-free survival rate was 57% (95% CI, 0.3–1.0). There were no complications associated with the endoscopic procedures. @*Conclusion@#: The results of our study demonstrate that ETV or endoscopic septostomy can be effective and safe in patients with shunt malfunction.

3.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 642-651, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001267

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) have been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD). We have previously observed stagnant growth in MMD ECFCs with functional impairment of tubule formation. We aimed to verify the key regulators and related signaling pathways involved in the functional defects of MMD ECFCs. @*Methods@#: ECFCs were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers (normal) and MMD patients. Low-density lipoproteins uptake, flow cytometry, high content screening, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, immunofluorescence, cell cycle, tubule formation, microarray, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, small interfering RNA transfection, and western blot analyses were performed. @*Results@#: The acquisition of cells that can be cultured for a long time with the characteristics of late ECFCs was significantly lower in the MMD patients than the normal. Importantly, the MMD ECFCs showed decreased cellular proliferation with G1 cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence compared to the normal ECFCs. A pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the cell cycle pathway was the major enriched pathway, which is consistent with the results of the functional analysis of ECFCs. Among the genes associated with the cell cycle, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) showed the highest expression in MMD ECFCs. Knockdown of CDKN2A in MMD ECFCs enhanced proliferation by reducing G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibiting senescence through the regulation of CDK4 and phospho retinoblastoma protein. @*Conclusion@#: Our study suggests that CDKN2A plays an important role in the growth retardation of MMD ECFCs by inducing cell cycle arrest and senescence.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999799

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the consistent efficacy and safety of eflapegrastim, a novel long-acting granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), in Koreans and Asians compared with the pooled population of two global phase 3 trials. @*Materials and Methods@#Two phase 3 trials (ADVANCE and RECOVER) evaluated the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose eflapegrastim (13.2 mg/0.6 mL [3.6 mg G-CSF equivalent]) compared to pegfilgrastim (6 mg based on G-CSF) in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant docetaxel/cyclophosphamide. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of eflapegrastim compared to pegfilgrastim in mean duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) in cycle 1, in Korean and Asian subpopulations. @*Results@#Among a total of 643 patients randomized to eflapegrastim (n=314) or pegfilgrastim (n=329), 54 Asians (29 to eflapegrastim and 25 to pegfilgrastim) including 28 Koreans (14 to both eflapegrastim and pegfilgrastim) were enrolled. The primary endpoint, DSN in cycle 1 in the eflapegrastim arm was non-inferior to the pegfilgrastim arm in Koreans and Asians. The DSN difference between the eflapegrastim and pegfilgrastim arms was consistent across populations: –0.120 days (95% confidence interval [CI], –0.227 to –0.016), –0.288 (95% CI, –0.714 to 0.143), and –0.267 (95% CI, –0.697 to 0.110) for pooled population, Koreans and Asians, respectively. There were few treatment-related adverse events that caused discontinuation of eflapegrastim (1.9%) or pegfilgrastim (1.5%) in total and no notable trends or differences across patient populations. @*Conclusion@#This study may suggest that eflapegrastim showed non-inferior efficacy and similar safety compared to pegfilgrastim in Koreans and Asians, consistently with those of pooled population.

5.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 254-265, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999765

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aims to elucidate clinical features, therapeutic strategies, and prognosis of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) by analyzing a 30-year dataset of a single institution. @*Methods@#We reviewed data from 43 patients diagnosed with PPT at Seoul National UniversityHospital between 1990 and 2020. We performed survival analyses and assessed prognostic factors. @*Results@#The cohort included 10 patients with pineocytoma (PC), 13 with pineal parenchymaltumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID), and 20 with pineoblastoma (PB). Most patients presented with hydrocephalus at diagnosis. Most patients underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy, with some undergoing additional resection after diagnosis confirmation. Radiotherapy was administered with a high prevalence of gamma knife radiosurgery for PC and PPTID, and craniospinal irradiation for PB. Chemotherapy was essential in the treatment of grade 3 PPTID and PB. The 5-year progression-free survival rates for PC, grade 2 PPTID, grade 3 PPTID, and PB were 100%, 83.3%, 0%, and 40%, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 100%, 40%, and 55%, respectively. High-grade tumor histology was associated with lower survival rates. Significant prognostic factors varied among tumor types, with World Health Organization (WHO) grade and leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) for PPTID, and the extent of resection and LMS for PB. Three patients experienced malignant transformations. @*Conclusion@#This study underscores the prognostic significance of WHO grades in PPT. It is nec-essary to provide specific treatment according to tumor grade. Grade 3 PPTID showed a poor prognosis. Potential LMS and malignant transformations necessitate aggressive multimodal treatment and close-interval screening.

6.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 147-161, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999389

ABSTRACT

The survival rate of children admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth is on the increase; hence, proper evaluation and care of their neurodevelopment has become an important issue. Neurodevelopmental assessments of individual domains regarding motor, language, cognition, and sensory perception are crucial in planning prompt interventions for neonates requiring immediate support and rehabilitation treatment. These assessments are essential for identifying areas of weakness and designing targeted interventions to improve future functional outcomes and the quality of lives for both the infants and their families. However, initial stratification of risk to select those who are in danger of neurodevelopmental disorders is also important in terms of cost-effectiveness. Efficient and robust functional evaluations to recognize early signs of developmental disorders will help NICU graduates receive interventions and enhance functional capabilities if needed. Several age-dependent, domain-specific neurodevelopmental assessment tools are available; therefore, this review summarizes the characteristics of these tools and aims to develop multidimensional, standardized, and regular follow-up plans for NICU graduates in Korea.

7.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 585-591, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900110

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Filum transection is one of the most commonly performed operative procedure in pediatric neurosurgery. However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the surgical indication are not well-established. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of patients who underwent transection of the filum during the last 10 years in a single institute. @*Methods@#: A total of 82 patients underwent transection of the filum during the period. As a general rule, we performed the transection in patients who are symptomatic or have abnormality in the urologic or neuromuscular evaluations. There were exceptions as asymptomatic patients who only fit the definition of thickened filum (width greater than 2.0 mm or conus level below L3 vertebral body) were operated by parent’s wish or surgeon’s preference according to radiological findings, etc. @*Results@#: Seventy-six out of 82 patients had fibrous tissue in the pathologic specimen of filum. Interestingly, patients who had glial cells were more correlated with no preoperative syrinx, and no progression of syrinx even for those who did have syrinx initially. Also, larger percentage of symptomatic patients had peripheral nerve twigs than asymptomatic patients. No difference in conus level or thickness of filum was found between patients with or without preoperative syrinx. Significantly more patients with syrinx (56%) were chosen to be operated without any symptom or abnormality in study i.e., solely based on radiological findings than those without syrinx (21%). The surgical outcome for syrinx was favorable, as all but one patient had either improved or static syrinx. The exceptional case had increase in size due to the upward displacement of the proximal end of the cut filum. @*Conclusion@#: This study evaluated the pathological, clinical, radiological features of patients who underwent transection of the filum. Interesting correlations between pathological findings and clinical features were found. Excellent outcome regarding preoperative syrinx was also shown.

8.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 592-607, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Few studies exist on primary spinal cord tumors (PSCTs) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to perform descriptive analysis and detailed survival analysis for PSCTs. @*Methods@#: Between 1985 and 2017, 126 pediatric patients (male : female, 56 : 70) with PSCTs underwent surgery in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding demographics, tumor characteristics, outcomes, and survival statistics. Subgroup analysis was performed for the intramedullary (IM) tumors and extradural (ED) tumors separately. @*Results@#: The mean age of the participants was 6.4±5.04 years, and the mean follow-up time was 69.5±46.30 months. The most common compartment was the ED compartment (n=57, 45.2%), followed by the IM (n=43, 34.1%) and intradural extramedullary (IDEM; n=16, 12.7%) compartments. Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant (n=69, 54.8%). The most common pathologies were schwannomas (n=14) and neuroblastomas (n=14). Twenty-two patients (17.5%) died from the disease, with a mean disease duration of 15.8±15.85 months. Thirty-six patients (28.6%) suffered from progression, with a mean period of 22.6±30.81 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 81% and 66%, respectively. Regarding IM tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 79% and 57%, respectively. In ED tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 80% and 81%, respectively. Pathology and the extent of resection showed beneficial effects on OS for total PSCTs, IM tumors, and ED tumors. PFS was affected by both the extent of removal and pathology in total PSCTs and ED tumors; however, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal in IM tumors. The degree of improvement in the modified McCormick scale showed a trend towards improvement in patients with IM tumors who achieved gross total removal (p=0.447). @*Conclusion@#: Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant, and ED tumors were most common. The most common pathologies were schwannomas and neuroblastomas. Both the pathology and extent of resection had a decisive effect on OS. For IM tumors, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal. Radical excision of IM tumors could be a viable option for better survival without an increased risk of worse functional outcomes.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 983-990, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

11.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 585-591, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892406

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Filum transection is one of the most commonly performed operative procedure in pediatric neurosurgery. However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the surgical indication are not well-established. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of patients who underwent transection of the filum during the last 10 years in a single institute. @*Methods@#: A total of 82 patients underwent transection of the filum during the period. As a general rule, we performed the transection in patients who are symptomatic or have abnormality in the urologic or neuromuscular evaluations. There were exceptions as asymptomatic patients who only fit the definition of thickened filum (width greater than 2.0 mm or conus level below L3 vertebral body) were operated by parent’s wish or surgeon’s preference according to radiological findings, etc. @*Results@#: Seventy-six out of 82 patients had fibrous tissue in the pathologic specimen of filum. Interestingly, patients who had glial cells were more correlated with no preoperative syrinx, and no progression of syrinx even for those who did have syrinx initially. Also, larger percentage of symptomatic patients had peripheral nerve twigs than asymptomatic patients. No difference in conus level or thickness of filum was found between patients with or without preoperative syrinx. Significantly more patients with syrinx (56%) were chosen to be operated without any symptom or abnormality in study i.e., solely based on radiological findings than those without syrinx (21%). The surgical outcome for syrinx was favorable, as all but one patient had either improved or static syrinx. The exceptional case had increase in size due to the upward displacement of the proximal end of the cut filum. @*Conclusion@#: This study evaluated the pathological, clinical, radiological features of patients who underwent transection of the filum. Interesting correlations between pathological findings and clinical features were found. Excellent outcome regarding preoperative syrinx was also shown.

12.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 592-607, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892404

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Few studies exist on primary spinal cord tumors (PSCTs) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to perform descriptive analysis and detailed survival analysis for PSCTs. @*Methods@#: Between 1985 and 2017, 126 pediatric patients (male : female, 56 : 70) with PSCTs underwent surgery in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding demographics, tumor characteristics, outcomes, and survival statistics. Subgroup analysis was performed for the intramedullary (IM) tumors and extradural (ED) tumors separately. @*Results@#: The mean age of the participants was 6.4±5.04 years, and the mean follow-up time was 69.5±46.30 months. The most common compartment was the ED compartment (n=57, 45.2%), followed by the IM (n=43, 34.1%) and intradural extramedullary (IDEM; n=16, 12.7%) compartments. Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant (n=69, 54.8%). The most common pathologies were schwannomas (n=14) and neuroblastomas (n=14). Twenty-two patients (17.5%) died from the disease, with a mean disease duration of 15.8±15.85 months. Thirty-six patients (28.6%) suffered from progression, with a mean period of 22.6±30.81 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 81% and 66%, respectively. Regarding IM tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 79% and 57%, respectively. In ED tumors, the 10-year OS rates and PFS rates were 80% and 81%, respectively. Pathology and the extent of resection showed beneficial effects on OS for total PSCTs, IM tumors, and ED tumors. PFS was affected by both the extent of removal and pathology in total PSCTs and ED tumors; however, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal in IM tumors. The degree of improvement in the modified McCormick scale showed a trend towards improvement in patients with IM tumors who achieved gross total removal (p=0.447). @*Conclusion@#: Approximately half of PSCTs were malignant, and ED tumors were most common. The most common pathologies were schwannomas and neuroblastomas. Both the pathology and extent of resection had a decisive effect on OS. For IM tumors, pathology was a main determinant of PFS rather than the extent of removal. Radical excision of IM tumors could be a viable option for better survival without an increased risk of worse functional outcomes.

13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 235-242, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811472

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize associated reactions (ARs) in the contralateral arm across multiple muscles during unimanual tasks and to identify factors related to ARs in children with cerebral palsy (CP).MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 35 children with CP. The extent of ARs of the contra-lateral, non-task hand was assessed while performing three unimanual tasks (opening and clenching the fist, a finger opposition task, and tapping fingers). The occurrence of ARs in each trial was evaluated separately for each task using a four-point scale (total scores ranged from 0 to 12). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was used to measure the firing activity of the muscles of the opposite arm during the task. The Manual Ability Classification System and Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA-2) were used to evaluate upper limb function.RESULTS: AR scores were higher in the more-affected limb than in the less-affected limb. SEMG data on the non-task hand showed motor overflow up to the elbow muscles in the more-affected limb. Root mean square ratios of EMG signals were significantly higher in children with ARs than in children without ARs. Multiple regression analysis showed both age and MA-2 to be significant factors related to ARs in the more-affected limb.CONCLUSION: Children with visible ARs showed motor overflow in the non-task limb during unimanual hand tasks. Age and upper limb function were significantly related to the extent of ARs in the more-affected limb of children with CP.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Arm , Cerebral Palsy , Classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elbow , Electromyography , Extremities , Fingers , Fires , Hand , Muscles , Prospective Studies , Upper Extremity
15.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 94-98, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830496

ABSTRACT

Arytenoid cartilage dislocation is one of the most common mechanical causes of vocal fold immobility. The most common etiologies are intubation and external trauma, but its incidence is lower than 0.1%. Its symptoms include dysphonia, vocal fatigue, loss of vocal control, breathiness, odynophagia, dysphagia, dyspnea, and cough. Although there are some reports of arytenoid cartilage dislocation in adults, there are only few reports on its occurrence in children. It is particularly difficult to detect the symptoms of arytenoid cartilage dislocation in uncooperative pediatric patients with brain lesions without verbal output or voluntary expression. We report a case of arytenoid cartilage dislocation with incidental findings in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study performed to evaluate the swallowing function.

16.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 64-72, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835611

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The management of intraductal papilloma (IDP) without atypia remains controversial. This study evaluated the manifestations and incidence of malignancy during observation without surgery in patients diagnosed with IDP by core needle biopsy (CNB), to confirm whether close follow-up instead of surgical treatment is the preferred treatment option in selected patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 589 patients diagnosed with IDP by CNB between January 2009 to December 2018. The data of the 102 IDP lesions from 90 women who did not undergo immediate excision were analyzed. Of these, 84 patients received imaging follow-up without excision, while 18 patients underwent delayed excision during follow-up. @*Results@#During the median follow-up period of 18.6 months, the mean change in tumor size and mean percent change in tumor size were −0.06 cm and −0.22%, respectively. Delayed excision was performed in 18 patients (17.6%). In the delayed excision group, three (16.7%) patients and one (5.6%) patient were diagnosed with atypical papilloma and intraductal papillary carcinoma, respectively, based on the final pathological findings. The upstaged group (atypia and malignancy; four patients) showed a 62.0% increase in the tumor size, which is higher than the benign group that showed a 10.4% increase in tumor size. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.185). @*Conclusion@#Observation without excision is possible for small IDP without atypia, because of the minimal changes in tumor size and low incidence of malignancy after excision. However, to avoid a missed diagnosis of malignancy, excision should be considered if the lesion increases in size during follow-up.

17.
18.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 551-560, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are not common in young age patients. We sought to find the characteristics of the intracranial aneurysms in patients under 20 years of age.METHODS: We reviewed 23 consecutive patients ≤20 years of age treated for their intracranial aneurysms during the period from 1995 to 2017. From medical records and imaging studies, we gathered data on age, sex, presentation, associated medical condition, location and characteristics of aneurysms, treatment and clinical outcomes.RESULTS: The patients’ ages ranged from 13 months to 20 years (median, 14 years). There were 16 males and seven females (male to female ratio, 2.3 : 1) with 31 aneurysms. Clinical presentations included sudden severe headache in 61%, followed by altered mentality in 17% and seizure in 17%. More than one-fourth patients had specific medical conditions related to the development of the cerebral aneurysms. The majority of aneurysms occurred in the anterior circulation (71%), and were saccular (71%). There were each three patients with false aneurysms (13%) and giant aneurysms (13%), and only one patient with multiple aneurysms (4%). We treated 22 patients : 21 aneurysms with the endovascular methods, three with open surgery, and one with combined treatment. Good functional outcome could be achieved in 86% during the follow-up period.CONCLUSION: In this series, the young-age patients with intracranial aneurysms were characterized by male predominance, related specific medical conditions, low incidence of multiple aneurysms, high incidence of giant aneurysms and good functional outcome after treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Aneurysm , Aneurysm, False , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Risk Factors , Seizures , Treatment Outcome
19.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 263-264, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788783

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy
20.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 313-320, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788777

ABSTRACT

Brain tumors are the second most common type of structural brain lesion that causes chronic epilepsy. Patients with low-grade brain tumors often experience chronic drug-resistant epilepsy starting in childhood, which led to the concept of long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and ganglioglioma are representative LEATs and are characterized by young age of onset, frequent temporal lobe location, benign tumor biology, and chronic epilepsy. Although highly relevant in clinical epileptology, the concept of LEATs has been criticized in the neuro-oncology field. Recent genomic and molecular studies have challenged traditional views on LEATs and low-grade gliomas. Molecular studies have revealed that low-grade gliomas can largely be divided into three groups : LEATs, pediatric-type diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG; astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma), and adult-type DLGG. There is substantial overlap between conventional LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG in regard to clinical features, histology, and molecular characteristics. LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG are characterized by mutations in BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB/MYBL1, which converge on the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. Gene (mutation)-centered classification of epilepsy-associated tumors could provide new insight into these heterogeneous and diverse neoplasms and may lead to novel molecular targeted therapies for epilepsy in the near future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Age of Onset , Astrocytoma , Biology , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Classification , Epilepsy , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial , Seizures , Temporal Lobe
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