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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 75-84, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899000

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Tumor size and lymph node metastasis are important factors that contribute to the progression of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the relationship between tumor size and lymph node metastasis molecular subtype and examine the effects of nodal metastasis on overall survival (OS). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 16,552 patients who underwent breast surgery in Samsung Medical Center between 2000 and 2015. Information on tumor size (largest diameter of the invasive component), number of positive lymph nodes, and molecular subtype were obtained. We constructed a linear regression model to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and lymph node metastasis. To determine the effect of nodal metastasis on OS, we performed a Cox proportional regression analysis with Np/T (number of metastatic lymph nodes [n]/tumor size [cm]). @*Results@#This study included 12,007 patients with a median follow-up of 62 months. The linear regression coefficients were 1.043 for luminal A, 1.024 for luminal B, 0.656 for HER2, and 0.435 for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. No significant difference was observed in the coefficients between the luminal A and B subtypes (p = 0.797), while all other coefficients showed significant difference. After adjusting for other risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) of Np/T for each subtype was significant for OS: luminal A (HR, 1.134; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.097–1.171; p < 0.001), luminal B (HR, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.013–1.086;p = 0.007), HER2 (HR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.014–1.126; p = 0.013), and TNBC (HR, 1.038; 95% CI, 1.01–1.067; p = 0.008). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of lymph node metastasis differed according to molecular subtype. Luminal types have higher incidence of nodal metastasis than HER2 and TNBC. The HR of Np/T was highest in luminal A subtypes and lowest in TNBC subtypes.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 75-84, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891296

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Tumor size and lymph node metastasis are important factors that contribute to the progression of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the relationship between tumor size and lymph node metastasis molecular subtype and examine the effects of nodal metastasis on overall survival (OS). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 16,552 patients who underwent breast surgery in Samsung Medical Center between 2000 and 2015. Information on tumor size (largest diameter of the invasive component), number of positive lymph nodes, and molecular subtype were obtained. We constructed a linear regression model to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and lymph node metastasis. To determine the effect of nodal metastasis on OS, we performed a Cox proportional regression analysis with Np/T (number of metastatic lymph nodes [n]/tumor size [cm]). @*Results@#This study included 12,007 patients with a median follow-up of 62 months. The linear regression coefficients were 1.043 for luminal A, 1.024 for luminal B, 0.656 for HER2, and 0.435 for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. No significant difference was observed in the coefficients between the luminal A and B subtypes (p = 0.797), while all other coefficients showed significant difference. After adjusting for other risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) of Np/T for each subtype was significant for OS: luminal A (HR, 1.134; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.097–1.171; p < 0.001), luminal B (HR, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.013–1.086;p = 0.007), HER2 (HR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.014–1.126; p = 0.013), and TNBC (HR, 1.038; 95% CI, 1.01–1.067; p = 0.008). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of lymph node metastasis differed according to molecular subtype. Luminal types have higher incidence of nodal metastasis than HER2 and TNBC. The HR of Np/T was highest in luminal A subtypes and lowest in TNBC subtypes.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health ; : 123-132, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836448

ABSTRACT

Community-based preconception care for men and women of childbearing age has been introduced in Seoul. The program aims to focus on problem areas such as low birth rate, fertility issues potentially due to late marriages, preterm or premature births, and low-birthweight in newborn babies. The district administration officials of Seoul, as well as, academics from the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health, developed a protocol by using a questionnaire and laboratory test for screening risk factors in pregnancy. The protocol was tested on a trial basis in four local districts in Seoul from July 2017 to 2018, extended to 12 local districts in 2019, and all 25 districts in Seoul in 2020. The protocol includes AntiMullerian Hormone tests to assess women’s ovarian reserve and male health checkups that include semen analysis and physical examinations of genitalia. These tests are conducted for early detection and treatment of infertility, especially in cases of late marriages. In order to prevent women being abandoned during pregnancy (leading them to single-parenting), the protocol also emphasizes building a gender-sen sitive environment by encouraging more male participation. A monitoring group comprised of Seoul city district officials and academics from the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health, regularly visited the local districts to observe improvements and keep the program officials up to date. In addition, the group also conducted a mobile phone survey for feedback on the program. The interest and support of the resi dents in Seoul city, and positive results and development in pregnancy care and childbirth, are needed to stabilize and extend this protocol.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 160-167, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918253

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The goal of this study is to analyze the trends in surgical management of Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Korea during the last 5 years from 2014 to 2018.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#We retrieved the medical statistics associated with the Healthcare Big Data Opening System available online. We analyzed the number of cases after 2014 for transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), respectively. We then analyzed and charted the cases according to the number of patients hospitalized or treated as outpatients, depending on age group, type of medical institutions, and the location of medical institutions.@*RESULTS@#The number of patients with BPH has increased steadily. The number of TURP and HoLEP procedures steadily increased, while the number of PVP interventions decreased dramatically. The number of HoLEP cases increased by 22% from 2014 to 2018, which is the fastest rate among the three surgeries. In addition, the number of patients aged 75 years or older as well as the proportion of inpatient surgeries compared with outpatient treatments has increased. The number of cases undergoing TURP increased rapidly in general hospital and those treated with HoLEP increased in the general and tertiary referral hospitals.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Interventions using TURP and HoLEP has increased, and the age of patients undergoing surgery has increased gradually. Cases treated with TURP and HoLEP in general and tertiary referral hospitals showed an increasing trend from the metropolitan area to the province.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 103-109, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741482

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the relationship of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and obesity indices (weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]) in Korean middle-aged men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February to September 2013, 1,900 police men under 60 years old who participated in a prostate health screening program were included this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent clinical examinations including weight, height, BMI, WC, fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and PSA. Total prostate volume (TPV) was assessed clinically. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression tests were performed to evaluate the obesity indices and PSA relationships. RESULTS: The mean age was 52.0±4.7 years, and the mean PSA was 0.97±0.99 ng/mL. The PSA showed a significant positive correlation with the age (r=0.108, p < 0.01), TPV (r=0.349, p < 0.01), height (r=−0.052, p < 0.05), weight (r=0.186, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.056, p < 0.05), and GFR (r=−0.096, p < 0.01). All obesity indices including weight, BMI, and WC showed negative correlations with PSA (beta=−0.013, p < 0.001; beta=−0.039, p < 0.001; and beta=−0.010, p=0.005; respectively) in age and TPV-adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Common obesity indices (weight, BMI, and WC) were associated with lower PSA in Korean middle-aged population. Thus, an individual's degree of obesity should be considered when PSA is checked in the first prostate cancer screening of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Linear Models , Lipoproteins , Mass Screening , Obesity , Police , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Waist Circumference
6.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 22-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross-facial nerve graft is considered the treatment of choice for facial reanimation in patients with unilateral facial palsy caused by central facial nerve damage. In most cases, a traditional parotidectomy skin incision is used to locate the buccal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. METHODS: In this study, cross-facial nerve graft with the sural nerve was planned for three patients with facial palsy through an intraoral approach. RESULTS: An incision was made on the buccal cheek mucosa, and the dissection was performed to locate the buccal branch of the facial nerve. The parotid papillae and parotid duct were used as anatomic landmarks to locate the buccal branch. CONCLUSIONS: The intraoral approach is more advantageous than the conventional extraoral approach because of clear anatomic marker (parotid papilla), invisible postoperative scar, reduced tissue damage from dissection, and reduced operating time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anatomic Landmarks , Cheek , Cicatrix , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Mucous Membrane , Skin , Sural Nerve , Transplants
7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 67-100, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722001

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Bacteriuria , Communicable Diseases , Cystitis , Diagnosis , Immunocompromised Host , Methods , Prostatitis , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
8.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 66-72, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714257

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Desmoplastic melanoma of the oral cavity is an extremely rare condition that is often confused on initial diagnosis with non-melanotic benign lesion or spindle cell tumors. The purpose of this article was to raise awareness of the disease using a literature review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 19 desmoplastic melanoma cases reported in the literature and added our experience. Data on clinical, histopathology, treatment, and survival were retrieved and analyzed. Survival analysis was by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Initial clinical and histopathological features were indistinctive, and a definite diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma at initial assessment was possible in only 23.5% of cases. Among tests, immunohistochemical studies for S-100 and vimentin were all positive. The 5-year disease-free survival rate for oral desmoplastic melanoma was 0%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 55.0%. CONCLUSION: Oral desmoplastic melanoma has a high percentage of initial misdiagnosis and propensity for local recurrence. Thus, careful initial diagnosis and adequate surgery may result in improved overall survival.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Disease-Free Survival , Melanoma , Methods , Mouth , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Vimentin
9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 67-100, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721496

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Bacteriuria , Communicable Diseases , Cystitis , Diagnosis , Immunocompromised Host , Methods , Prostatitis , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
10.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 88-91, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217620

ABSTRACT

Calcinosis cutis-calcification in soft tissue-is a rare benign disease that is separated into the following subtypes: dystrophic, iatrogenic, metastatic, calciphylaxis, and idiopathic. One of common site of calcinosis cutis is the scrotum. The nodules slowly grow for years or decades. The characteristic of calcinosis cutis of the scrotum is generally asymptomatic, yellowish marble-like, hard, polypoidal, solitary, or multiple. However, the pathogenesis of this nodule remains ambiguous and controversial. Thus, we reviewed possible causes and therapeutic consideration of calcinosis cutis of the scrotum.


Subject(s)
Calcinosis , Calciphylaxis , Scrotum , Skin
11.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 32-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze and describe the morbidity and mortality associated with tracheostomy in patients with oral cancer and to identify the risk factors associated with tracheostomy complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent tracheostomy during a major oral cancer resection between March 2001 and January 2016 at the National Cancer Center, Korea. Overall, we included 51 patients who underwent tracheostomy after oral cancer surgery. We assessed the morbidity and mortality of tracheostomy and determined the risks associated with tracheostomy complications. RESULTS: Twenty-two tracheostomy-related complications occurred in 51 patients. The morbidity and mortality rates were 35.2% (n = 18) and 0% (n = 0), respectively. Tracheostomy-related complications were tracheitis (n = 4), obstructed tracheostomy (n = 9), displaced tracheostomy (n = 5), air leakage (n = 1), stomal dehiscence (n = 1), and decannulation failure (n = 2). Most complications (19/22) occurred during the early postoperative period. Considering the risk factors for tracheostomy complications, the type of tube used was associated with the occurrence of tracheitis (p < 0.05). Additionally, body mass index and smoking status were associated with tube displacement (p < 0.05). However, no risk factors were significantly associated with obstructed tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with risk factors for tracheostomy complications should be carefully observed during the early postoperative period by well-trained medical staff.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Korea , Medical Staff , Mortality , Mouth Neoplasms , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Tracheitis , Tracheostomy
12.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 133-138, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between muscle invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge and cervical lymph node metastasis on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge were evaluated by MRI. The associations between cervical lymph node metastasis and independent factors evaluated by MRI were analyzed. Overall survival was also analyzed in this manner. Representative biopsy specimens were stained with anti-podoplanin and anti-CD34 antibodies. RESULTS: Mylohyoid muscle invasion was associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. A combinational factor of mylohyoid and/or buccinator muscle invasion was also associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. Cervical lymph node metastasis and masticator space invasion had a negative effect on overall survival. No lymphatic vessels were identified near the tumor invasion front within the mandible. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were identified near the front of tumor invasion in the muscles. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between muscular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge and cervical lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alveolar Process , Antibodies , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Epithelial Cells , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Vessels , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mandible , Muscles , Neoplasm Metastasis
13.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 386-392, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is no reported evidence for an anthropometric index that might link obesity to men's sexual health. We evaluated the ability of an anthropometric index and the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires to detect men's health problems. We determined the predictive abilities of two obesity indexes and other clinical parameters for screening for lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in middle-aged men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,910 middle-aged men were included in the study. Participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires. The participants' body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were determined. Serum prostate-specific antigen, urinalysis, testosterone, estimated glomerular filtration rate, evaluation of metabolic syndrome, and transrectal ultrasonography were assessed. RESULTS: By use of logistic regression analysis, age and total prostate volume were independent predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis symptoms. Age and metabolic syndrome were independent predictive factors for erectile dysfunction. Waist-to-hip ratio had a statistically significant value for predicting erectile dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that total prostate volume is a significant predictor of lower urinary tract symptoms, and central obesity has predictive ability for erectile dysfunction. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The management of correctable factors such as waist-to-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome may be considered preventive modalities against the development of men's health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aging , Body Mass Index , Erectile Dysfunction/diagnosis , Logistic Models , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Men's Health , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Obesity , Organ Size , Prognosis , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatitis/diagnosis , Testosterone/blood , Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal , Waist-Hip Ratio
14.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 144-149, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine effectiveness of Valsalva maneuver and standing position on scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) for the varicocele diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the physical examination and CDU finding in 87 patients who visited National Police Hospital from January 2011 to April 2014. Diameters of pampiniform plexus were measured bilaterally during resting and Valsalva maneuver in the supine position and standing position. We calculated the ratio of mean of maximal vein diameter (mMVD) during resting and Valsalva maneuver (resting-Valsalva ratio) and compared in the both position. RESULTS: In the resting and supine position, mMVD of varicocele testis units were 1.8 mm, 2.1 mm, 2.6 mm (grades I, II, III, respectively), and that of normal testis units (NTU) 1.2 mm. During Valsalva maneuver in the supine position, mMVD were 3.0 mm, 3.4 mm, 4.2 mm (grades I, II, III) vs 1.8 mm (NTU) (p=0.007, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Average of resting-Valsalva ratio in the supine position were 0.69, 0.74, 0.74 (grades I, II, III) and 0.67 (NTU). Whereas in the resting and standing position, mMVD were 2.8 mm, 3.3 mm, 3.8 mm (grades I, II, III) and 1.8 mm (NTU) (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001). During Valsalva maneuver in the standing position, mMVD were 5.0 mm, 5.8 mm, 6.6 mm (grades I, II, III) and 2.5 mm (NTU) (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001). And average resting-Valsalva ratio were 0.76, 0.90, 0.71 (grades I, II, III) and 0.26 (NTU), which showed significant differences from all grades (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the standing position and Valsalva maneuver during CDU could improve diagnostic ability for varicocele. Resting-Valsalva ratio in the standing position could be a new diagnostic index for varicocele diagnosis using CDU.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Patient Positioning/methods , Physical Examination/methods , Posture/physiology , Scrotum/diagnostic imaging , Supine Position/physiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods , Valsalva Maneuver , Varicocele/diagnostic imaging , Veins/diagnostic imaging
15.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 831-836, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95482

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the differences of semen parameters in Korean young population for three periods from 2002 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 516 semen samples were collected from Korean men presenting for infertility, varicoceles or other infectious problems for three periods from 2002 to 2012: January 2002-December 2003, January 2007-December 2008, and January 2012-December 2013. A standard World Health Organization procedure for semen analysis was performed for assessment of semen concentration, volume, motility, morphology, and pH. RESULTS: A total of 160, 162, 194 men constituted the study populations in 2002 to 2003, in 2007 to 2008, and in 2012 to 2013, respectively. The overall sperm parameter results suggested a statistically significant difference between 2002 to 2003 and 2012 to 2013 except pH. However, considering the data from 2007 to 2008, there were no trends in changes in overall semen parameters. Negative correlations were observed in all semen parameters with increasing age in all patients, except for pH. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology had higher negative correlation coefficients with age, from 2002 to 2013, serially. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in the semen parameters of Korean men from 2002 to 2013. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology showed higher negative correlation coefficients with age from 2002 to 2013, serially.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Aging/pathology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Semen Analysis/methods , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/cytology
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1271-1277, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79641

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Odds Ratio , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Quinolones/pharmacology , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Urinalysis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
17.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 470-474, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178073

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare prostate volume measured by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) between transaxial scanning and midsagittal scanning. We tried to determine which method is superior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 968 patients who underwent TRUS for diagnosis of any diseases related to the prostate were included in this study. When measuring prostate volume by TRUS, we conducted the measurements two ways at the same time in all patients: by use of height obtained by transaxial scanning and by use of height obtained by midsagittal scanning. Prostate volume was calculated by using the ellipsoid formula ([heightxlengthxwidth]xpi/6). RESULTS: For prostate volume measured by TRUS, a paired t-test revealed a significant difference between using height obtained by transaxial scanning and that obtained by midsagittal scanning in all patients (28.5+/-10.1 g vs. 28.7+/-9.9 g, respectively, p=0.004). However, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of prostate volume more than 20 g (known benign prostatic enlargement [BPE]) between the two methods by chi-square test (90.5% [n=876], 90.8% [n=879], respectively; p=0.876). When analyzed in the same way, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of prostate volume more than 30 g (generally, high-risk BPE) between the two methods (34.5% [n=334], 36.3% [n=351], respectively; p=0.447). CONCLUSIONS: Although prostate volume by TRUS differed according to the method used to measure height, that is, transaxial or midsagittal scanning, we conclude that there are no problems in diagnosing BPE clinically by use of either of the two methods.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Age Factors , Prospective Studies , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/methods
18.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 9-13, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates (BP) are widely used in medicine for inhibiting bone resorption; however bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a major side effect of BP. To date, there have been no specific reports on the incidence of BRONJ among Koreans. This study investigated the preliminary results from a nationwide survey of BRONJ in the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) at individual training hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 15 OMFS departments (10 from dental schools, 4 from medical schools, and 1 from a dental hospital) participated in a multi-centric survey. This study assessed every BRONJ case diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2010. The patient age and BP type were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 254 BRONJ cases were collected. The majority of BRONJ cases were associated with oral BP therapy, while 21.8% of the cases were associated with intravenous administration. Alendronate was the drug most frequently related to BRONJ (59.2% of cases), followed by risedronate (14.3%) and zolendronate (17.0%). The average age of BRONJ patients was 70.0+/-10.1 years, with a range of 38-88 years of age. With the number of BP patients in Korea reported to be around 600,000 in 2008, the estimated incidence of BRONJ is at least 0.04% or 1 per 2,300 BP patients. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the estimated incidence of BRONJ in Korea is higher than the incidence of other countries. Future prospective studies should be carried out to investigate the exact epidemiological characteristics of BRONJ in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intravenous , Alendronate , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Data Collection , Diphosphonates , Etidronic Acid , Incidence , Jaw , Korea , Osteonecrosis , Schools, Dental , Schools, Medical , Surgery, Oral , Risedronic Acid
19.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 9-13, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates (BP) are widely used in medicine for inhibiting bone resorption; however bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a major side effect of BP. To date, there have been no specific reports on the incidence of BRONJ among Koreans. This study investigated the preliminary results from a nationwide survey of BRONJ in the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) at individual training hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 15 OMFS departments (10 from dental schools, 4 from medical schools, and 1 from a dental hospital) participated in a multi-centric survey. This study assessed every BRONJ case diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2010. The patient age and BP type were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 254 BRONJ cases were collected. The majority of BRONJ cases were associated with oral BP therapy, while 21.8% of the cases were associated with intravenous administration. Alendronate was the drug most frequently related to BRONJ (59.2% of cases), followed by risedronate (14.3%) and zolendronate (17.0%). The average age of BRONJ patients was 70.0+/-10.1 years, with a range of 38-88 years of age. With the number of BP patients in Korea reported to be around 600,000 in 2008, the estimated incidence of BRONJ is at least 0.04% or 1 per 2,300 BP patients. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the estimated incidence of BRONJ in Korea is higher than the incidence of other countries. Future prospective studies should be carried out to investigate the exact epidemiological characteristics of BRONJ in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intravenous , Alendronate , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Data Collection , Diphosphonates , Etidronic Acid , Incidence , Jaw , Korea , Osteonecrosis , Schools, Dental , Schools, Medical , Surgery, Oral , Risedronic Acid
20.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 53-58, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65095

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in first-voided urine samples and to determine the factors associated with positivity for sexually transmissible microorganisms in healthy, middle-aged Korean men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred fifty-one men who came to the hospital for a general prostate health checkup were tested between August 2011 and December 2011. PCR assays for CT, NG, MG, and UU were done with first-voided urine samples and the prevalence of microorganism positivity and association with several clinical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the men studied was 50.8+/-4.7 years. Among the 551 men, 72 (13.1%) had a positive result for at least one microorganism; one (0.2%) had two different species. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 11.1% (61/551). The prevalence rates of CT, NG, MG, and UU infection in the general population were 0.4% (2/551), 0.0% (0/551), 1.0% (6/551), and 11.8% (65/551), respectively. CT-positive patients had a lower mean age than did CT-negative patients. There were no significant differences in symptoms by positivity of each microorganism. CONCLUSIONS: We checked the prevalence rates of four microorganisms, the proportion of symptomatic people, and the association of microbes, age, and symptoms, as the baseline data for Korean middle-aged men. In this population, CT, NG, MG, and UU infections do not seem to be symptomatic. However, the potential role of CT in young men and of UU in middle-aged men with a high rate of detection should be studied continuously as a source of opportunistic infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Korea , Mycoplasma genitalium , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Opportunistic Infections , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porphyrins , Prevalence , Prostate , Ureaplasma , Ureaplasma urealyticum
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