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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1987-1997, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981184

ABSTRACT

With the environmental pollution caused by waste plastics becoming increasingly serious, biodegradable polyester has become the focus of public attention. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is a biodegradable polyester formed by the copolymerization of aliphatic and aromatic groups, which has excellent performance of both. The degradation of PBAT under natural conditions requires strict environmental conditions and long degradation cycle. To address these shortcomings, this study explored the application of cutinase in PBAT degradation and the impact of butylene terephthalate (BT) content on the biodegradability of PBAT, so as to improve the degradation rate of PBAT. Five Polyester degrading enzymes from different sources were selected to degrade PBAT to pick out the most efficient enzyme. Subsequently, the degradation rate of PBAT materials with different BT content were determined and compared. The results showed that cutinase ICCG was the best enzyme for PBAT biodegradation, and the higher the BT content, the lower the degradation rate of PBAT. Furthermore, the optimum temperature, buffer type, pH, the ratio of enzyme to substrate (E/S) and substrate concentration in the degradation system were determined to be 75 ℃, Tris HCl, 9.0, 0.4% and 1.0% respectively. These findings may facilitate the application of cutinase in PBAT degradation.


Subject(s)
Polyesters/chemistry , Adipates
2.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 562-566, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986821

ABSTRACT

The anatomical studies of intersphincteric resection (ISR) have made remarkable progress in recent years. The anatomy of internal, external sphincter and hiatal ligament has been further understood. In this paper, the generation and functional mechanism of ISR related anatomy are described from the embryonic development process, and then the influence of hiatal ligament and internal sphincter on ISR surgery is analyzed respectively according to the anatomical characteristics. Finally, the correlation analysis of anatomical factors on the common problems of mucosal bleeding and instrument anastomosis in ISR is carried out. The objective of this paper is to improve the safety of ISR surgery by providing detailed anatomical explanations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Clinical Relevance , Anastomosis, Surgical
3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 634-639, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986182

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence and survival rate of liver cancer cases in the entire population in the Qidong region from 1972 to 2019, so as to provide a basis for prognosis evaluation, prevention, and treatment. Methods: The observed survival rate (OSR) and relative survival rate (RSR) of 34 805 cases of liver cancer in the entire Qidong region population from 1972 to 2019 were calculated using Hakulinen's method with SURV3.01 software. Hakulinen's likelihood ratio test was used for statistical analysis. Age-standardized relative survival (ARS) was calculated using the International Cancer Survival Standard. The Joinpoint regression analysis was performed with Joinpoint 4.7.0.0 software to calculate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) of the liver cancer survival rate. Results: 1-ASR increased from 13.80% in 1972-1977 to 50.20% in 2014-2019, while 5-ASR increased from 1.27% in 1972-1977 to 27.64% in 2014-2019. The upward trend of RSR over eight periods was statistically significant (χ (2) = 3045.29, P < 0.001). Among them, male 5-ASR was 0.90%, 1.80%, 2.33%, 4.92%, 5.43%, 7.05%, 10.78%, and 27.78%, and female 5-ASR was 2.33%, 1.51%, 3.35%, 3.92%, 3.84%, 7.18%, 11.45%, and 29.84%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in RSR between males and females (χ (2) = 45.68, P < 0.001). The 5-RSR for each age group of 25-34 years old, 35-44 years old, 45-54 years old, 55-64 years old, 65-74 years old, and 75 years old were 4.92%, 5.29%, 8.17%, 11.70%, 11.63%, and 9.60%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in RSR among different age groups (χ (2) = 501.29, P < 0.001). The AAPC in Qidong region from 1972 to 2019 for 1-ARS, 3-ASR, and 5-ARS were 5.26% (t = 12.35, P < 0.001), 8.10% (t = 15.99, P < 0.001), and 8.96 % (t = 16.06, P < 0.001), respectively. The upward trend was statistically significant in all cases. The AAPC of 5-ARS was 9.82% in males (t = 14.14, P < 0.001), and 8.79% in females (t = 11.48, P < 0.001), and the upward trend was statistically significant in both. The AAPC of 25-34 years old, 35-44 years old, 45-54 years old, 55-64 years old, 65-74 years old, and 75 years old were 5.37% (t = 5.26, P = 0.002), 5.22% (t = 5.66, P = 0.001), 7.20% (t = 6.88, P < 0.001), 10.00% (t = 12.58, P < 0.001), 9.96% (t = 7.34, P < 0.001) and 8.83% (t = 3.51, P = 0.013), and the upward trend was statistically significant. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of registered cases of liver cancer in the Qidong region's entire population has greatly improved, but there is still much room for improvement. Hence, constant attention should be paid to the study on preventing and treating liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Survival Rate , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prognosis , Incidence , Software , China/epidemiology
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1107-1118, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970426

ABSTRACT

L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) is the key enzyme that isomerizes D-galactose to D-tagatose. In this study, to improve the activity of L-arabinose isomerase on D-galactose and its conversion rate in biotransformation, an L-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 was recombinantly expressed and applied in biotransformation. Moreover, its substrate binding pocket was rationally designed to improve the affinity and catalytic activity on D-galactose. We show that the conversion of D-galactose by variant F279I was increased 1.4 times that of the wild-type enzyme. The Km and kcat values of the double mutant M185A/F279I obtained by superimposed mutation were 530.8 mmol/L and 19.9 s-1, respectively, and the catalytic efficiency was increased 8.2 times that of the wild type. When 400 g/L lactose was used as the substrate, the conversion rate of M185A/F279I reached a high level of 22.8%, which shows great application potential for the enzymatic production of tagatose from lactose.


Subject(s)
Galactose/metabolism , Limosilactobacillus fermentum/genetics , Lactose , Hexoses/metabolism , Aldose-Ketose Isomerases/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 32-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969704

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the efficacy of eltrombopag for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults and the predictive factors for treatment-free response (TFR) . Methods: Clinical data of adults with ITP who received eltrombopag from June 14, 2013 to May 31, 2021 in the Hematology Department of Ruijin Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical College were retrospectively analyzed. The initial dose of eltrombopag was 25 mg/d, and the maximum dose was 75 mg/d; the dose was adjusted to maintain the platelet count to within 50-150×10(9)/L. Treatment was discontinued according either to the protocol, on the patient's wishes or doctor's judgment (prescription medication), or based on clinical trials. The efficacy of eltrombopag and factors for TFR among patients who achieved complete response and those who discontinued treatment were analyzed. Results: Overall, 106 patients with ITP (33 men and 73 women) were included in the study. The median age of patients was 50 (18-89) years. There were 2, 10, and 94 cases of newly diagnosed, persistent, and chronic ITP, respectively. The complete response rate was 44.3% (47/106), the response rate was 34.0% (36/106), and the overall response rate was 78.3% (83/106). Meanwhile, 83 patients who responded to treatment discontinued eltrombopag; of these, 81 patients were evaluated. Additionally, 17 patients (21.0%) achieved TFR. The median follow-up duration of patients who achieved TFR was 126 (30-170) weeks. The recurrence rate was 17.6% (3/17), and the relapse-free survival rate was 76.5%. The results of univariate analysis revealed that non-recurrence after discontinuation of other treatments for ITP (P=0.001), and platelet count and eltrombopag dose of ≥100×10(9)/L (P=0.007) and ≤25 mg/d (P=0.031), respectively, upon discontinuation of eltrombopag were predictors of TFR; these effects were attributed to prolonged effective duration of eltrombopag. Multivariate analysis showed that there was a correlation between non-recurrence and prolonged effective duration after discontinuation of other treatments for ITP (P=0.002) . Conclusion: Eltrombopag is effective for patients with ITP as it can result in TFR. Predictors for TFR include non-recurrence after discontinuation of concomitant ITP treatment, and platelet count and eltrombopag dose of ≥100 × 10(9)/L and ≤25 mg/d upon discontinuation of treatment, respectively.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , China/epidemiology , Benzoates/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981909

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and apoptosis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Methods hBMSCs were isolated and cultured. The cells were divided into control group, 3-MA group, H2O2 group, H2O2 combined with 3-MA group. DCFH-DA staining was used to analyze the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). hBMSCs were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L H2O2, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The level of autophagy was detected by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and LysoTracker Red staining. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of beclin 1, mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3) and caspase-3 proteins. Results Compared with the control group and 3-MA group, ROS level and autophagosomes were increased and the proliferation and apoptosis were decreased in H2O2 group. The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Compared with the 3-MA group, the H2O2 combined with 3-MA group also had an increased ROS level and autophagosomes, but not with significantly increased apoptosis rate; The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, and the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Conclusion H2O2 can induce hMSCs to trigger oxidative stress response. It enhances the autophagy and inhibits the proliferation and apoptosis of hBMSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beclin-1/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Apoptosis , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2233-2240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981354

ABSTRACT

Regan Syrup has the effect of clearing heat, releasing exterior, benefiting pharynx and relieving cough, and previous phase Ⅱ clinical trial showed that the efficacy of Regan Syrup high-dose and low-dose groups was better than that of the placebo group, and there was no statistically significant difference in the safety between the three groups. The present study was conducted to further investigate the efficacy and safety of the recommended dose(20 mL) of Regan Syrup in the treatment of common cold(wind-heat syndrome). Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and divided into the test group(Regan Syrup+Shufeng Jiedu Capsules placebo), positive drug group(Regan Syrup placebo+Shufeng Jiedu Capsules) and placebo group(Regan Syrup placebo+Shufeng Jiedu Capsules placebo) at a 1∶1∶1 using a block randomization method. The course of treatment was 3 days. A total of 119 subjects were included from six study centers, 39 in the test group, 40 in the positive drug group and 40 in the placebo group. The onset time of antipyretic effect was shorter in the test group than in the placebo group(P≤0.01) and the positive drug group, but the difference between the test group and the positive drug group was not significant. The test group was superior to the positive drug group in terms of fever resolution(P<0.05), and had a shorter onset time of fever resolution than the placebo group, but without obvious difference between the two groups. Compared to the positive drug group, the test group had shortened disappearance time of all symptoms(P≤0.000 1). In addition, the test group was better than the positive drug group and the placebo group in relieving symptoms of sore throat and fever(P<0.05), and in terms of clinical efficacy, the recovery rate of common cold(wind-heat syndrome) was improved in the test group compared to that in the placebo group(P<0.05). On the fourth day after treatment, the total TCM syndrome score in both test group and positive drug group was lower than that in the placebo group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between three groups and none of them experienced any serious adverse events related to the study drug. The results indicated that Regan Syrup could shorten the onset time of antipyretic effect, reduce the time of fever resolution, alleviate the symptoms such as sore throat and fever caused by wind-heat cold, reduce the total score of Chinese medicine symptoms, and improve the clinical recovery rate with good safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Capsules , Common Cold/diagnosis , Double-Blind Method , Fever/drug therapy , Hot Temperature , Pharyngitis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 81-91, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967705

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The optimal management of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) compared to medical management (MM) for acute BAO through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). @*Methods@#We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of patients with acute BAO. We analyzed the pooled effect of EVT compared to MM on the primary outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] of 0–3 at 3 months), secondary outcome (mRS 0–2 at 3 months), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), and 3-month mortality rates. For each study, effect sizes were computed as odds ratios (ORs) with random effects and Mantel-Haenszel weighting. @*Results@#Four RCTs met inclusion criteria including 988 patients. There were higher odds of mRS of 0-3 at 90 days in the EVT versus MM group (45.1% vs. 29.1%, OR 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–3.80; P=0.04). Patients receiving EVT had a higher sICH compared to MM (5.4% vs. 0.8%, OR 7.89, 95% CI 4.10–15.19; P<0.01). Mortality was lower in the EVT group (35.5% vs. 45.1%, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42–0.99; P=0.05). In an analysis of two trials with BAO patients and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) <10, there was no difference in 90-day outcomes between EVT versus MM. @*Conclusion@#In this systematic review and meta-analysis, EVT was associated with favorable outcome and decreased mortality in patients with BAO up to 24 hours from stroke symptoms compared to MM. The treatment effect in BAO patients with NIHSS <10 was less certain. Further studies are of interest to evaluate the efficacy of EVT in basilar occlusion patients with milder symptoms.

9.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 52-59, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967103

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Oral nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are the mainstay treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Myotoxicity is an important extrahepatic effect related to NA treatment. Telbivudine is the NA for CHB that is frequently associated with muscle-related side effects. The risk factors for telbivudine-induced myopathy (TIM) are not yet clear. @*Methods@#This study characterized the clinical, magnetic resonance images (MRI), and pathological features of 12 TIM cases. A group of telbivudine-tolerant (TT) patients with CHB who received regular telbivudine treatment during the same period without the occurrence of myopathy was collected. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between the patients with TIM and the TT controls. Factors independently associated with TIM were identified using logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The patients with TIM (males/females: 7/5, mean age: 57 years) developed myopathy after using telbivudine for a median period of 19.5 months. Muscle histopathology revealed abnormal proliferation, subsarcolemmal or sarcoplasmic accumulations, and ultrastructural defects of mitochondria. When compared with TT cases, patients with TIM had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and were more frequently positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). @*Conclusions@#Mitochondrial abnormalities are characteristic histopathological features, and impaired renal function and HBeAg positivity are risk factors for TIM. Telbivudine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and immune activation related to mitochondrial damage and HBeAg serostatus changes may underlie TIM. Constant clinical surveillance of myopathy during telbivudine treatment is needed due to the significant latency of its development. Dose adjustment for impaired renal function does not eliminate the risk of TIM occurrence.

10.
Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 654-658, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006004

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic simple prostatectomy (LSP) in the treatment of large volume benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). 【Methods】 Clinical and follow-up data of 30 patients with large volume BPH treated with LSP in our hospital during Feb.2019 and Dec.2021 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent extraperitoneal LSP operation. The perioperative and 1-12 month postoperative follow-up data were analyzed. 【Results】 The average prostate volume was (92.4±38.9) mL, operation time (125±45) min, and weight of resected prostate (60.25±16.90) g. The hemoglobin decreased by (12.21±7.25) g/d after operation. No blood transfusion was needed. There was no need for bladder irrigation after operation in 21 cases (70%), and 9 cases (30%) had bladder irrigation time of (0.95±0.49) d. The postoperative catheter indwelling time was (6.92±2.51) d, and hospital stay (5.36±1.63) d. During the follow-up of (9.25±5.4) months, there was 1 case of postoperative intestinal obstruction (Clavien-Dindo grade II), 1 case of transient urinary incontinence (Clavien-Dindo grade I), and 1 case of delayed hematuria (Clavien-Dindo grade I). No urethral stricture occurred. The maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) 3 months after operation were significantly improved compared with those before operation (P0.05). 【Conclusion】 LSP is safe and effective in the treatment of large volume BPH. It has advantages of complete resection of glands, minor bleeding and short postoperative bladder irrigation time. However, it still needs to be confirmed by a prospective control study of large samples.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1034-1044, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002738

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Problematic use of social media (PUSM) may affect sleep quality and self-stigma in people with schizophrenia and consequently reduce their quality of life (QoL). This longitudinal study investigated if sleep quality and self-stigma mediated relationships between PUSM and QoL. @*Methods@#One-hundred-and-ninety-three outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from a psychiatric center in Taiwan from April 2019 to August 2021 and participated in a longitudinal study at intervals of three months between measurements. QoL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire Brief Version; sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; self-stigma using the Self-Stigma Scale-Short; and PUSM using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. Via SPSS 20.0, general estimating equation models assessed temporal associations between variables. Via R software, mediating effects of self-stigma and sleep quality were examined through Monte Carlo simulations with 20,000 repetitions. @*Results@#Mean scores of physical, psychological, social and environmental QoL ranged from 11.86 to 13.02. Mean scores of sleep quality and self-stigma were 9.1±4.5 and 2.2±0.8, respectively. Sleep quality and self-stigma were directly related to QoL (p<0.001) and mediated indirect relationships between PUSM and all components of QoL with a range of 95% confidence intervals spanning from -0.0591 to -0.0107 for physical QoL; -0.0564 to -0.0095 for psychological QoL; -0.0292 to -0.0035 for social QoL; and -0.0357 to -0.0052 for environmental QoL. @*Conclusion@#Sleep quality and self-stigma mediated relationships between PUSM and QoL in people with schizophrenia. Developing interventions targeting PUSM, sleep, and self-stigma may help improve QoL in people with schizophrenia.

12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 371-377, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001594

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Intravenous tenecteplase (TNK) efficacy has not been well demonstrated in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) beyond 4.5 hours after onset. This study aimed to determine the effect of intravenous TNK for AIS within 4.5 to 24 hours of onset. @*Methods@#In this pilot trial, eligible AIS patients with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch were randomly allocated to intravenous TNK (0.25 mg/kg) or standard care within 4.5–24 hours of onset. The primary endpoint was excellent functional outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score of 0–1). The primary safety endpoint was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). @*Results@#Of the randomly assigned 80 patients, the primary endpoint occurred in 52.5% (21/40) of TNK group and 50.0% (20/40) of control group, with no significant difference (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval 0.46–2.66; P=0.82). More early neurological improvement occurred in TNK group than in control group (11 vs. 3, P=0.03), but no significant differences were found in other secondary endpoints, such as mRS 0–2 at 90 days, shift analysis of mRS at 90 days, and change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at 24 hours and 7 days. There were no cases of sICH in this trial; however, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 3 of the 40 patients (7.5%) in the TNK group. @*Conclusion@#This phase 2, randomized, multicenter study suggests that intravenous TNK within 4.5–24 hours of onset may be safe and feasible in AIS patients with a DWI-FLAIR mismatch.

13.
International Eye Science ; (12): 2040-2045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998487

ABSTRACT

AIM:To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Buyang Huanwu Decoction in treating non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR)of qi and yin deficiency and stagnation of collaterals, and to quantitatively analyze the changes in peripapillary vessel density before and after treatment using optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA).METHODS:A randomized controlled trial was used to collect a total of 58 patients(99 eyes)with qi and yin deficiency and stagnation of collaterals NPDR who visited our hospital from June 2022 to November 2022, and patients were randomly divided into an observation group(n=29, 51 eyes)and a control group(n=29, 48 eyes). The control group received basic treatment according to the recommendations for DR published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology in 2019(blood glucose control, diabetes health education, and regular follow-up for patients with mild NPDR; and add local/grid-like laser photocoagulation if necessary for patients with moderate NPDR), while the observation group received modified Buyang Huanwu Decoction in addition to the basic treatment for 1mo. The best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA), traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)efficacy, peripapillary telangiectasia vessel density(ppVD), and changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer(pRNFL)thickness were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.RESULTS:The BCVA(LogMAR)of the observation group was 0.20(0.10, 0.30)after 1mo of treatment, which was significantly improved compared with that of the control group of 0.30(0.20, 0.40; P&#x003C;0.05). The TCM efficacy in the observation group after 1mo of treatment was better than that in the control group(P&#x003C;0.05). The ppVD in all quadrants of the observation group showed a significant improvement at 1mo after treatment, and the ppVD in all quadrants of the observation group was higher than that of the control group(P&#x003C;0.05). The pRNFL thickness in the superior, temporal, and average peripapillary areas of the observation group increased after 1mo of treatment, and the pRNFL thickness in the superior, temporal, inferior quadrants, and average peripapillary area of the observation group was higher than that of the control group(P&#x003C;0.05).CONCLUSION:Modified Buyang Huanwu Decoction can improve visual acuity and enhance TCM efficacy in patients with NPDR of qi and yin deficiency and stagnation of collaterals. It may be related to its ability to improve ppVD and reduce damage to the pRNFL.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 982-997, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971767

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapy is one of the important methods to treat cancer, and the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is one major cause for the failure of cancer chemotherapy. Almost all anti-tumor drugs develop drug resistance over a period of time of application in cancer patients, reducing their effects on killing cancer cells. Chemoresistance can lead to a rapid recurrence of cancers and ultimately patient death. MDR may be induced by multiple mechanisms, which are associated with a complex process of multiple genes, factors, pathways, and multiple steps, and today the MDR-associated mechanisms are largely unknown. In this paper, from the aspects of protein-protein interactions, alternative splicing (AS) in pre-mRNA, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediation, genome mutations, variance in cell functions, and influence from the tumor microenvironment, we summarize the molecular mechanisms associated with MDR in cancers. In the end, prospects for the exploration of antitumor drugs that can reverse MDR are briefly discussed from the angle of drug systems with improved targeting properties, biocompatibility, availability, and other advantages.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 998-1013, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971741

ABSTRACT

The skeletal system, which contains bones, joints, tendons, ligaments and other elements, plays a wide variety of roles in body shaping, support and movement, protection of internal organs, production of blood cells and regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. The prevalence of skeletal diseases and disorders, such as osteoporosis and bone fracture, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and intervertebral disc degeneration, increases with age, causing pain and loss of mobility and creating a huge social and economic burden globally. Focal adhesions (FAs) are macromolecular assemblies that are composed of the extracellular matrix (ECM), integrins, intracellular cytoskeleton and other proteins, including kindlin, talin, vinculin, paxillin, pinch, Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK) and other proteins. FA acts as a mechanical linkage connecting the ECM and cytoskeleton and plays a key role in mediating cell-environment communications and modulates important processes, such as cell attachment, spreading, migration, differentiation and mechanotransduction, in different cells in skeletal system by impacting distinct outside-in and inside-out signaling pathways. This review aims to integrate the up-to-date knowledge of the roles of FA proteins in the health and disease of skeletal system and focuses on the specific molecular mechanisms and underlying therapeutic targets for skeletal diseases.

16.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 215-222, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the prescription patterns of different dosage forms of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their effects on immune-inflammatory indices.@*METHODS@#Clinical data were collected from patients with RA in 4 hospitals (3 Class A comprehensive hospitals and 1 Class B comprehensive hospital) in Anhui Province, China, from August 2012 to June 2018 via the electronic medical record gathering system. Following extraction of prescription information, each prescribed herb was quantified and standardized according to the knowledge base to establish a database of RA treatment formulae. The medical records were divided into the granules group and decoction pieces group. Core herbs and their combination patterns were obtained from the two groups of cases using Liquorice software. Changes in immune-inflammatory and hepatic and renal function indices were compared between the two groups using SPSS 23.0 software. The Aprior module of SPSS Clementine 11.1 software was applied to analyse the correlation between CHMs and improvement in indices. Finally, the ORACLE 10 g tool was used to evaluate the random walk model of the immune-inflammatory indices between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#(1) We retrospectively analysed 35,898 prescriptions for 6,829 patients with RA who received CHM treatment. There were 3,816 patients in the granules group and 3,013 in the decoction pieces group. (2) The core herbs were Pi (Spleen)-strengthening and dampness-resolving drugs, blood-activating and stasis-resolving drugs, wind/dampness-dispelling drugs and heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs. (3) Both dosage forms could improve immune-inflammatory indices in RA patients, with similar efficacy and no influence on hepatic or renal function. (4) Herba Siegesbeckiae and Oldenlandia had a stronger association with immune-inflammatory indices in the two groups. (5) The immune-inflammatory indices showed obvious improvement after treatment with granules and decoction pieces of CHMs, and there were long range correlations between the comprehensive evaluation indices and interventions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The principal CHM treatment methods for RA in four hospitals in Anhui Province are strengthening Pi and resolving dampness, activating blood and resolving stasis, dispelling wind/dampness and clearing heat. Granules and decoction pieces of CHMs have similar efficacy in improving immune-inflammatory indices in RA patients and could be used as treatment options for RA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 99-103, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935188

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the epidemic characteristics of stomach cancer mortality in Qidong between 1972 and 2016. Methods: The cancer registry data of stomach cancer death and population during 1972-2016 in Qidong was collected. The mortality of crude rate (CR), China age-standardized rate (CASR), world age-standardized rate (WASR), 35-64 years truncated rate, 0-74 years cumulative rate, cumulative risk, percentage change (PC), annual percent change (APC) were calculated. Results: During 1972-2016, a total of 15 863 (male: 10 114, female: 5 749) deaths occurred attributed to stomach cancer, accounting for 16.04% of all cancers, with CR of 31.37/100 000 (CASR: 12.97/100 000, WASR: 21.39/100 000). The truncated rate of 35-64, cumulative rate of 0-74, and cumulative risk were 28.86/100 000, 2.54%, and 2.51%, respectively. For male, the CR, CASR, WASR were 40.53/100 000, 17.98/100 000, 30.13/100 000, respectively, and for female, the CR, CASR, WASR were 22.45/100 000, 8.52/100 000, 13.92/100 000, respectively. Age-specific mortality analysis showed that the mortality of each age group under 25-year-old group was less than 1/100 000. The CR increased with age. The 50-year-old group reached and exceeded the average mortality of the population, and more than 80-year-old group reached the peak of death. During 1972-2016 in Qidong, The PCs in CR, CASR, and WASR of stomach cancer were 55.43%, -52.02%, -43.60%. The APC were 0.54%, -2.30%, -2.08%, respectively. Period mortality analysis showed that except for the 75-year-old group, the mortality of stomach cancer decreased significantly. Conclusions: The crude mortality of stomach cancer increases slightly in Qidong, while the CASR and WASR decrease significantly. However, stomach cancer is still one of the malignant tumors that most affect health and seriously threat lives.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Registries , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 19-25, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929524

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study analyzed the correlation between genetic mutation and prognostic significance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) . Methods: Targeted exome by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was used to carry out molecular profiling of untreated 141 children with ALL in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital from November 2016 to December 2019. Correlation of genetic features and clinical features and outcomes was analyzed. Results: Among the 141 pediatric patients with ALL, 160 somatic mutations were detected in 83 patients (58.9% ) , including 37 grade Ⅰ mutations and 123 grade Ⅱ mutations. Single nucleotide variation was the most common type of mutation. KRAS was the most common mutant gene (12.5% ) , followed by NOTCH1 (11.9% ) , and NRAS (10.6% ) . RAS pathway (KRAS, FLT3, PTPN11) , PAX5 and TP53 mutations were only detected, and NRAS mutations was mainly found in B-ALL while FBXW7 and PTEN mutations were only found, and NOTCH1 mutation was mainly detected in T-ALL. The average number of mutations detected in each child with T-ALL was significantly higher than in children with B-ALL (4.16±1.33 vs 2.04±0.92, P=0.004) . The children were divided into mutation and non-mutation groups according to the presence or absence of genetic variation. There were no statistically significant differences in sex, age, newly diagnosed white blood cell count, minimal or measurable residual disease monitoring results, expected 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) between the two groups (P>0.05) . On the other hand, the proportion of T-ALL and fusion gene negative children in the mutant group was significantly higher than the non-mutation group (P=0.021 and 0.000, respectively) . Among the patients without fusion gene, the EFS of children with grade I mutation was significantly lower than children without grade I mutation (85.5% vs 100.0% , P=0.039) . Among children with B-ALL, the EFS of those with TP53 mutation was significantly lower than those without TP53 mutation (37.5% vs 91.2% , P<0.001) . Conclusion: Genetic variation is more common in childhood ALL and has a certain correlation with clinical phenotype and prognosis. Therefore, targeted exome by NGS can be used as an important supplement to the traditional morphology, immunology, cytogenetics, and molecular biology classification.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Prognosis , Technology
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2193-2205, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929408

ABSTRACT

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA, playing critical role in various bioprocesses. Like other epigenetic modifications, m6A modification can be catalyzed by the methyltransferase complex and erased dynamically to maintain cells homeostasis. Up to now, only two m6A demethylases have been reported, fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and alkylation protein AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5), involving in a wide range of mRNA biological progress, including mRNA shearing, export, metabolism and stability. Furthermore, they participate in many significantly biological signaling pathway, and contribute to the progress and development of cancer along with other diseases. In this review, we focus on the studies about structure, inhibitors development and biological function of FTO and ALKBH5.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2609-2618, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929400

ABSTRACT

Overexpression of ABCG2 transporter in cancer cells has been linked to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), an obstacle to cancer therapy. Our recent study uncovered that the MET inhibitor, tepotinib, is a potent reversal agent for ABCB1-mediated MDR. In the present study, we reported for the first time that the MET inhibitor tepotinib can also reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR in vitro and in vivo by directly binding to the drug-binding site of ABCG2 and reversibly inhibiting ABCG2 drug efflux activity, therefore enhancing the cytotoxicity of substrate drugs in drug-resistant cancer cells. Furthermore, the ABCB1/ABCG2 double-transfected cell model and ABCG2 gene knockout cell model demonstrated that tepotinib specifically inhibits the two MDR transporters. In mice bearing drug-resistant tumors, tepotinib increased the intratumoral accumulation of ABCG2 substrate drug topotecan and enhanced its antitumor effect. Therefore, our study provides a new potential of repositioning tepotinib as an ABCG2 inhibitor and combining tepotinib with substrate drugs to antagonize ABCG2-mediated MDR.

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