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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918220

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the clinical and radiologic findings between perforated and non-perforated choledochal cysts in children. @*Materials and Methods@#Fourteen patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 1.2 years) with perforated choledochal cysts (perforated group) and 204 patients (3.6 ± 3.8 years) with non-perforated choledochal cysts (non-perforated group) were included between 2000 and 2019. All patients underwent choledochal cyst excision after ultrasound, CT, or MR cholangiopancreatography. Relevant data including demographics, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging findings, and outcomes were analyzed. Statistical differences were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test. @*Results@#Choledochal cyst perforation occurred only in children under the age of 4 years. Acute symptoms, including fever (p < 0.001), were more common in the perforated group than in the non-perforated group. High levels of white blood cells (p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), and serum amylase (p = 0.002), and low levels of albumin (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the perforated group. All 14 patients with perforated choledochal cysts had ascites, whereas only 16% (33/204) of patients in the non-perforated group had ascites (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients who had ascites, a large amount of ascites (p = 0.001), increase in the amount of ascites in a short time (p < 0.001), complex ascites (p < 0.001), and perihepatic pseudocysts (p < 0.001) were more common in the perforated group than in the non-perforated group. @*Conclusion@#Children with perforated choledochal cysts have characteristic clinical and radiologic findings compared to those with non-perforated choledochal cysts. In young children with choledochal cysts, perforation should be differentiated in cases with acute symptoms, laboratory abnormalities, and characteristic ascites findings.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 190-196, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926914

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele to the incidence of dementia and cognitive decline in a cohort of a Korean community. @*Methods@#From a community-based dementia-free cohort, 357 participants were genotyped. Participants underwent 2 cognitive assessments separated by a hiatus between 6 to 7 years and were diagnosed as healthy control (n=297), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (n=44), and other dementia (n=16) at the second assessment. Incidence risk and onset age of disease according to APOE ε4 presence were analyzed in AD and other dementia. Differences in cognitive decline rate depending on APOE ε4 were also examined across all groups. @*Results@#The relative risks and onset age of dementia were not different by the presence of the APOE ε4 allele. Cognitive decline was more prominent in the presence of APOE ε4 allele (score change=7.4) than non-presence (score change=3.1), and this interaction was significant only in the AD group (F=10.51, p=0.003). @*Conclusion@#The APOE ε4 alleles can be a critical factor in predicting cognitive change for AD in the Korean community population but not in predicting AD incidence. This finding suggest that clinicians consider the presence of APOE ε4 allele examining patients with rapid declining dementia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875114

ABSTRACT

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) is a rare B-cell type angiocentric lymphoproliferative disease that can progress to extranodal lymphoma with high mortality. It most commonly affects the lungs, although extrapulmonary systems, including the brain and skin, can also be involved. LG in pediatric patients has been very rarely reported in the literature with limited imaging features. Herein, we report a pediatric case of LG involving the lung and brain with characteristic imaging findings.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903140

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients with cancer given high morbidity and mortality. We present an 18-year-old male with precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia who developed Pancoast syndrome, presented with paresthesia and numbness in the right shoulder and arm during a neutropenic fever period. He was diagnosed with pneumonia in the right upper lung field. He was later found to have an invasive pulmonary fungal infection caused by multiple fungi species, including Rhizomucor, confirmed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (proven infection), Penicillium decumbens diagnosed by PCR, and Aspergillus suspected from galactomannan assay (probable infection). Unfortunately, the patient's condition further worsened owing to the aggravation of leukemia, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and bacterial coinfection, leading to multiorgan failure and death. Here, we report a case of IFI caused by multiple fungal species that presented as Pancoast syndrome.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901905

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we introduced that mangosteen extract complex (MEC; ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana L. peel and propolis) had inhibitory effects on inflammation and alveolar bone loss in silk-ligature applied and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced periodontitis model in rats. This study was conducted to evaluate whether MEC had inhibitory effect of alveolar bone loss when a higher inflammatory state was induced by increasing the injection amount of P. gingivalis LPS by 20 times and increasing the treatment dose of MEC by twice the amount or maintaining MEC dose that used in the previous study. The data showed that alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced in the Lig+L+MEC 1:34 group (treated with mixture of 16 µg mangosteen peel extract powder and 544 µg propolis extract powder) and in the Lig+L+MEC 2:68 group (treated with mixture of 32 µg mangosteen peel extract powder and 1,088 µg propolis extract powder) by 24.3% and 28.9%, respectively. This result reveals that the mixture of MEC 1:34 could be useful in improving periodontal tissue health and may be able to be used as a therapeutic adjuvant for periodontitis.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895436

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients with cancer given high morbidity and mortality. We present an 18-year-old male with precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia who developed Pancoast syndrome, presented with paresthesia and numbness in the right shoulder and arm during a neutropenic fever period. He was diagnosed with pneumonia in the right upper lung field. He was later found to have an invasive pulmonary fungal infection caused by multiple fungi species, including Rhizomucor, confirmed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (proven infection), Penicillium decumbens diagnosed by PCR, and Aspergillus suspected from galactomannan assay (probable infection). Unfortunately, the patient's condition further worsened owing to the aggravation of leukemia, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and bacterial coinfection, leading to multiorgan failure and death. Here, we report a case of IFI caused by multiple fungal species that presented as Pancoast syndrome.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894201

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we introduced that mangosteen extract complex (MEC; ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana L. peel and propolis) had inhibitory effects on inflammation and alveolar bone loss in silk-ligature applied and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced periodontitis model in rats. This study was conducted to evaluate whether MEC had inhibitory effect of alveolar bone loss when a higher inflammatory state was induced by increasing the injection amount of P. gingivalis LPS by 20 times and increasing the treatment dose of MEC by twice the amount or maintaining MEC dose that used in the previous study. The data showed that alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced in the Lig+L+MEC 1:34 group (treated with mixture of 16 µg mangosteen peel extract powder and 544 µg propolis extract powder) and in the Lig+L+MEC 2:68 group (treated with mixture of 32 µg mangosteen peel extract powder and 1,088 µg propolis extract powder) by 24.3% and 28.9%, respectively. This result reveals that the mixture of MEC 1:34 could be useful in improving periodontal tissue health and may be able to be used as a therapeutic adjuvant for periodontitis.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810979

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography (US) is usually the first imaging examination performed to evaluate palpable or visible superficial soft tissue lesions that are common in children. Although clinical assessments, such as age at presentation, clinical course, and overlying skin discoloration, are important for the differentiation of pediatric soft tissue lesions, US allows a specific diagnosis of some typical benign lesions and helps in guiding further investigation since it provides detailed information about the lesion location, characterization including solid versus cystic, vascularity, and compressibility. Therefore, sufficient knowledge of the normal anatomy, proper ultrasonographic techniques, and the imaging findings of common and uncommon soft tissue lesions in children are crucial for accurate assessment and management of patients. In this article, we review the techniques and imaging findings focusing on the ultrasonographic features of a variety of superficial soft tissue lesions detected in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Skin , Ultrasonography
10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834135

ABSTRACT

The musculoskeletal system can be involved as an extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. Among these, myositis in ulcerative colitis (UC) is very rare. A 14-year-old girl was admitted due to severe shoulder tenderness. She had complained of left jaw pain and swelling for the past 10 days. Inflammatory markers were elevated with no evidence of infectious etiology. Myositis was suspected by shoulder magnetic resonance imaging. Three days after admission, she developed hematochezia. Muscle biopsy and colonoscopy was performed due to worsening left mandibular area pain and persistent hematochezia. Colonoscopy showed consistent findings with UC. She was finally diagnosed with UC with myositis as an extra-intestinal manifestation. She showed a dramatic response to UC treatment. Gastrointestinal symptoms were well-controlled. After 14 months, UC symptoms and muscle pain were aggravated, which were relieved after steroid and cyclosporin treatment. We report a unique case of UC initially presented with myositis, preceding gastrointestinal symptoms.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832867

ABSTRACT

Botryoid Wilms tumor, a very rare variant of Wilms tumor, arises from the pelvocalyceal system, and its occurrence in the fetal or neonatal period has never been reported in the literature. Herein, we report an exceedingly rare and challenging case of botryoid Wilms tumor in a neonate who initially presented with fetal hydronephrosis. Postnatal ultrasonography revealed multiple lobulating hypoechoic masses with varying degrees of intralesional vascularity within the dilated pelvocalyceal system. To our knowedge, this is a case report of botryoid Wilms tumor of the youngest child in English literature.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832832

ABSTRACT

Physical abuse is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Young children, particularly in the first year of life, are most vulnerable to physical abuse. To evaluate suspected physical abuse, radiologists play a vital role by detecting radiological findings suggestive of physical abuse and differentiating them from other pathologies. This review focuses on radiologic findings, including those for fractures, abusive head trauma, spinal injury, and thoracoabdominal injury, commonly discovered in physically abused children, with special emphasis on biomechanical forces that produce injuries.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 674-680, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832530

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced significant stress during the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the factors associated with this stress remain unknown. Thus, the present study assessed burnout among HCWs during the MERS outbreak to identify the influential factors involved in this process. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective chart review of the psychological tests and questionnaires completed by 171 hospital employees from two general hospitals that treated MERS patients. The tests included the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, Positive Resources Test, the questionnaires assessed exposure to the MERS outbreak event and perceptions about MERS. @*Results@#Of the 171 HCWs, 112 (65.5%) experienced disengagement and 136 (79.5%) suffered from exhaustion. Disengagement was associated with lower levels of purpose and hope, a higher perception of job risk, and exposure to the media. Exhaustion was associated with lower levels of purpose and hope, a higher perception of little control of the infection, a higher perception of job risk, prior experience related to infections, and being female. @*Conclusion@#Our results revealed the risk and protective factors associated with burnout among HCWs during an outbreak of MERS. These findings should be considered when determining interventional strategies aimed at ameliorating burnout among HCWs.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831666

ABSTRACT

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have greatly advanced and become a reality in many areas of our daily lives. In the health care field, numerous efforts are being made to implement the AI technology for practical medical treatments. With the rapid developments in machine learning algorithms and improvements in hardware performances, the AI technology is expected to play an important role in effectively analyzing and utilizing extensive amounts of health and medical data. However, the AI technology has various unique characteristics that are different from the existing health care technologies. Subsequently, there are a number of areas that need to be supplemented within the current health care system for the AI to be utilized more effectively and frequently in health care. In addition, the number of medical practitioners and public that accept AI in the health care is still low;moreover, there are various concerns regarding the safety and reliability of AI technologyimplementations. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce the current research and application status of AI technology in health care and discuss the issues that need to be resolved.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764044

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) against Cutibacterium acnes (6 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus (6 strains). The antimicrobial activity of the mangosteen extract was evaluated based on its minimal bactericidal concentration. Cytotoxicity of the mangosteen extract against human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells was determined using the cell counting method. The data showed that the mangosteen extract was not toxic to HEK 293 cells at a concentration of up to 16 µg/mL and killed 87.0% and 99.9% of C. acnes and S. aureus after 10 minutes and 1 hour of treatment, respectively. These results suggest that ethanol extract of mangosteen can be used as an anti-acne agent.


Subject(s)
Cell Count , Ethanol , Garcinia mangostana , Garcinia , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney , Methods , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764037

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen extract complex (MEC; Garcinia mangostana L. and propolis extracts) on the inhibition of inflammation and prevention of alveolar bone loss using a ligature-induced periodontitis model. Rat molars were ligatured with silk, and 1 µg/mL of lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis was injected into the buccal and palatal gingivae of the teeth with or without treatment with the MEC. Changes in the expression levels of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, and COX-2 in gingival tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Alveolar bone loss around the ligated molars was examined using micro-computed tomography. The expression levels of PGE₂, IL-8, iNOS, MMP-8, COX-1, and COX-2 in gingival tissues were significantly reduced in the group treated with a mixture of 16 µg of mangosteen extract powder and 544 µg of propolis extract powder (ligation [Lig] + lipopolysaccharide extracted from P. gingivalis KCOM 2804 [L] + MEC 1:34). Additionally, alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced in the Lig + L + MEC 1:34 group compared with that in other groups. These results indicate that the MEC could be useful in preventing and treating periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss , Animals , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Garcinia mangostana , Garcinia , Gingiva , Inflammation , Interleukin-8 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 , Molar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Propolis , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Rats , Silk , Tooth
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914628

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of Australia propolis against cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity was determined by evaluating the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Cell cytotoxicity of propolis extract on normal human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells was observed using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. The data indicated that, with the exception of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (KCOM 1306), the MBC values of the propolis strains were 0.25–1% without HGF-1 cell cytotoxicity. These results suggest that propolis can be used to develop oral hygiene products for the prevention of oral infectious disease.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718234

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity in young children. Data on TB transmission from an infected child are limited. Herein, we report a case of disseminated TB in a child and conducted a contact investigation among exposed individuals. METHODS: A 4-year-old child without Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination was diagnosed as having culture-proven disseminated TB. The child initially presented with symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, and nosocomial and kindergarten exposures were reported. The exposed individuals to the index case were divided into 3 groups, namely household, nosocomial, or kindergarten contacts. Evaluation was performed following the Korean guidelines for TB. Kindergarten contacts were further divided into close or casual contacts. Chest radiography and tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma-releasing assay were performed for the contacts. RESULTS: We examined 327 individuals (3 household, 10 nosocomial, and 314 kindergarten contacts), of whom 18 (5.5%), the brother of the index patient, and 17 kindergarten children were diagnosed as having latent TB infection (LTBI). LTBI diagnosis was more frequent in the children who had close kindergarten contact with the index case (17.1% vs. 4.4%, P=0.007). None of the cases had active TB. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of TB transmission among young children from a pediatric patient with disseminated TB in Korea. TB should be emphasized as a possible cause of chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive in children. A national TB control policy has been actively applied to identify Korean children with LTBI.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Failure to Thrive , Family Characteristics , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Korea , Mortality , Radiography , Siblings , Skin Tests , Thorax , Tuberculin , Tuberculosis , Vaccination
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 355-360, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the psychiatric complications or risk factors for depression in suspected or confirmed Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) patients quarantined in hospital. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all the patients admitted to the acute MERS inpatient unit at the NMC during the 2015 outbreak. RESULTS: 30 (75%) were confirmed to be MERS-CoV positive among 40 admitted cases. Among the 24 MERS survivors, 17 (70.8%) exhibited psychiatric symptoms and 10 (41.7%) received a psychiatric diagnosis and medication during their hospital stay. Suspected MERS patients did not exhibit psychiatric symptoms or receive a psychiatric diagnosis. 27 suspected or confirmed MERS patients (age 41.15±18.64, male 37.0%) completed psychological assessments. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-Short form and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised scores were significantly positively correlated with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the acute treatment of MERS-CoV infections in quarantine had a significant impact on the patients’ mental health. Furthermore, assessment of the risk factors for depression may identify vulnerable patients who require psychiatric care and attention during hospital quarantine.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Linear Models , Male , Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survivors
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