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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926084

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients does not halt disease progression, as these patients will progress and develop disabling non-levodopa responsive symptoms. These features may act as milestones that represent the overall functionality of patients after DBS. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of clinical milestones in advanced PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. @*Methods@#The study evaluated PD patients who underwent STN-DBS at baseline up to their last follow-up using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. The symptoms of hallucinations, dysarthria, dysphagia, frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive impairment and the loss of autonomy were chosen as the clinical milestones. @*Results@#A total of 106 patients with a mean age of 47.21 ± 10.52 years at disease onset, a mean age of 58.72 ± 8.74 years at surgery and a mean disease duration of 11.51 ± 4.4 years before surgery were included. Initial improvement of motor symptoms was seen after the surgery with the appearance of clinical milestones over time. Using the moderately disabling criteria, 81 patients (76.41%) developed at least one clinical milestone, while 48 patients (45.28%) developed a milestone when using the severely disabling criteria. @*Conclusion@#STN-DBS has a limited effect on axial and nonmotor symptoms of the PD patients, in contrast to the effect on motor symptoms. These symptoms may serve as clinical milestones that can convey the status of PD patients and its impact on the patients and their caregivers. Therefore, advanced PD patients, even those treated with bilateral STN-DBS, will still require assistance and cannot live independently in the long run.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892147

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899851

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898352

ABSTRACT

Central neurocytoma (CN) has been known as a benign neuronal tumor. In rare cases, CN undergoes malignant transformation to glioblastomas (GBM). Here we examined its cellular origin by characterizing differentiation potential and gene expression of CN-spheroids. First, we demonstrate that both CN tissue and cultured primary cells recapitulate the hierarchal cellular composition of subventricular zone (SVZ), which is comprised of neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying progenitors (TAPs), and neuroblasts. We then derived spheroids from CN which displayed EGFR+/ MASH+ TAP and BLBP+ radial glial cell (RGC) characteristic, and mitotic neurogenesis and gliogenesis by single spheroids were observed with cycling multipotential cells. CN-spheroids expressed increased levels of pluripotency and tumor stem cell genes such as KLF4 and TPD5L1, when compared to their differentiated cells and human NSCs. Importantly, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that gene sets of GBM-Spheroids, EGFR Signaling, and Packaging of Telomere Ends are enriched in CN-spheroids in comparison with their differentiated cells. We speculate that CN tumor stem cells have TAP and RGC characteristics, and upregulation of EGFR signaling as well as downregulation of eph-ephrin signaling have critical roles in tumorigenesis of CN. And their ephemeral nature of TAPs destined to neuroblasts, might reflect benign nature of CN.

5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890648

ABSTRACT

Central neurocytoma (CN) has been known as a benign neuronal tumor. In rare cases, CN undergoes malignant transformation to glioblastomas (GBM). Here we examined its cellular origin by characterizing differentiation potential and gene expression of CN-spheroids. First, we demonstrate that both CN tissue and cultured primary cells recapitulate the hierarchal cellular composition of subventricular zone (SVZ), which is comprised of neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying progenitors (TAPs), and neuroblasts. We then derived spheroids from CN which displayed EGFR+/ MASH+ TAP and BLBP+ radial glial cell (RGC) characteristic, and mitotic neurogenesis and gliogenesis by single spheroids were observed with cycling multipotential cells. CN-spheroids expressed increased levels of pluripotency and tumor stem cell genes such as KLF4 and TPD5L1, when compared to their differentiated cells and human NSCs. Importantly, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that gene sets of GBM-Spheroids, EGFR Signaling, and Packaging of Telomere Ends are enriched in CN-spheroids in comparison with their differentiated cells. We speculate that CN tumor stem cells have TAP and RGC characteristics, and upregulation of EGFR signaling as well as downregulation of eph-ephrin signaling have critical roles in tumorigenesis of CN. And their ephemeral nature of TAPs destined to neuroblasts, might reflect benign nature of CN.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, a new generation of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) equipped with a frameless immobilization system has encouraged the use of fractionated GKRS as an increasingly favorable treatment option. We investigated the preliminary outcome of efficacy and toxicity associated with frameless fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (FF GKRS) for the treatment of large metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Fifteen patients with 17 lesions were treated using FF GKRS and included in this study, because of the large tumor size of more than 10 cm3. FF GKRS was performed based on a thermoplastic mask system for 3 to 5 consecutive days. RESULTS: The mean duration of clinical follow-up was 12 months (range, 4–24), and the local control rate was 100%. Tumor volume decreased in 13 lesions (76.5%), and remained stable in 4 lesions (23.5%). One patient was classified as new lesion development because of the occurrence of leptomeningeal seeding regardless of the tumor volume change. Compared with the initial volume at the time of FF GKRS, tumor volume change at the last follow-up was 62.32% ± 29.80%. Cumulative survival rate at 12 months was 93.3% ± 6.4%. One patient died during the follow-up period because of the progression of the primary disease. No patient showed radiation necrosis on the follow-up images. CONCLUSION: Daily FF GKRS by gamma knife ICON™ revealed satisfactory tumor control rate and low morbidity, despite the short follow-up period. Further prospective studies and a longer follow-up of a large cohort of patients diagnosed with brain metastases are required to elucidate the effect of FF GKRS in brain metastases.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immobilization , Masks , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Radiosurgery , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infratemporal fossa (ITF) is an anatomical lateral skull base space composed by the zygoma, temporal, and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Due to its difficult approach, surgical intervention at the ITF has remained a heavy burden to surgeons. The aim of this article is to review basic skull base approaches and ITF structures and to avoid severe complications based on the accurate surgical knowledge. METHODS: A search of the recent literature using MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and other online tools was executed using the following keyword combinations: infratemporal fossa, subtemporal fossa, transzygomatic approach, orbitozygomatic approach, transmaxillary approach, facial translocation approach, midface degloving, zygomatico-transmandibular approach, and lateral skull base. Aside from our Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) trial, there have been very few randomized controlled trials. The search data for this review are summarized based on the authors’ diverse clinical experiences. RESULTS: We divided our results based on representative skull base approaches and the anatomy of the ITF. Basic approaches to the ITF include endoscopic endonasal, transzygomatic, orbitozygomatic, zygomatico-transmandibular, transmaxillary, facial translocation, and the midfacial degloving approach. The borders and inner structures of the ITF (with basic lateral skull base dissection schemes) are summarized, and the modified zygomatico-transmandibular approach (ZTMA) is described in detail. CONCLUSIONS: An anatomical basic knowledge would be required for the appropriate management of the ITF pathology for diverse specialized doctors, including maxillofacial, plastic, and vascular surgeons. The ITF approach, in conjunction with the application of microsurgical techniques and improved perioperative care, has permitted significant advances and successful curative outcomes for patients having malignancy in ITF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology , Perioperative Care , Plastics , Skull Base , Sphenoid Bone , Surgeons , Zygoma
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 245-255, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714903

ABSTRACT

We present our experience on the hypofractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (FGKS) for large skull base meningioma as an initial treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients with large skull base meningioma ≥10 cm³ who underwent FGKS as the initial treatment option. The mean volume of tumors prior to radiosurgery was 21.2±15.63 cm³ (range, 10.09~71.42). The median total margin dose and marginal dose per fraction were 18 Gy (range, 15~20) and 6 Gy (range, 5~6), respectively. Patients underwent three or four fractionations in consecutive days with the same Leksell® frame. The mean follow-up duration was 38 months (range, 17~78). There was no mortality. At the last follow-up, the tumor volume was stationary in 15 patients (65.2%) and had decreased in 8 patients (34.8%). Six patients who had cranial neuropathy at the time of FGKS showed improvement at the last clinical follow-up. Following FGKS, 4 patients (17%) had new cranial neuropathy. The trigeminal neuropathy was the most common and all were transient. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score at pre-FGKS and the last clinical follow-up was 97.0±10.4 points (median, 100) and 98.6±6.9 (median, 100) points, respectively. FGKS has showed satisfactory tumor control with functional preservation for large skull base meningiomas. Further prospective studies of large cohorts with long term follow-up are required to clarify the efficacy in the tumor control and functional outcome as well as radiation toxicity.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Prospective Studies , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base , Skull , Trigeminal Nerve Diseases , Tumor Burden
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104366

ABSTRACT

Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation. Four years later, she was pregnant and the obstetricians consulted us about the safety of the delivery. At 38-weeks into pregnancy, a scheduled caesarian section was carried out under general anesthesia. After induction using thiopental and succinylcholine, intubation was done quickly, followed by DBS turn off. For hemostasis, only bipolar electrocautery was used. Before awakening from the anesthesia, DBS was turned on as the same parameters previously adjusted. After delivery, she could feed her baby by herself, because the dystonia of left upper extremity and hand was improved. Until now, she has been showing continual improvement and being good at housework, carrying for children, with no trouble in daily life. This observation indicates that the patients who underwent DBS could safely be pregnant and deliver a baby.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Child , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia , Electrocoagulation , Female , Globus Pallidus , Hand , Hemostasis , Household Work , Humans , Intubation , Parturition , Pregnancy , Succinylcholine , Thiopental , Upper Extremity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30376

ABSTRACT

Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones. We observed notable motor dysfunction and a significant decrease in infarcted brain volume, as well as increases in neurons and vessels in both single and repeated hUCB-MSC treatments compared to the control group. Interestingly, repeated administration of hUCB-MSCs was not found to elicit additional or synergistic improvements over monotherapy. This study suggests that a clearer understanding of the therapeutic window after stroke will facilitate the development of more efficient treatment protocols in the clinical application of stem cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Clinical Protocols , Extremities , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Ischemia , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Rats , Stem Cells , Stroke , Umbilical Cord
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212089

ABSTRACT

Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant (2%) of glioblastoma (GBM) that poses clinical genomic challenges because of its poor prognosis and limited genomic information. To gain a comprehensive view of the genomic alterations in GS and to understand the molecular etiology of GS, we applied whole-exome sequencing analyses for 28 GS cases (6 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues for the discovery set, 22 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for the validation set) and copy-number variation microarrays for 5 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues. TP53 mutations were more prevalent in the GS cases (20/28, 70%) compared to the GBM cases (29/90, 32%), and the GS patients with TP53 mutations showed a significantly shorter survival (multivariate Cox analysis, hazard ratio=23.9, 95% confidence interval, 2.87–199.63, P=0.003). A pathway analysis showed recurrent alterations in MAPK signaling (EGFR, RASGRF2 and TP53), phosphatidylinositol/calcium signaling (CACNA1s, PLCs and ITPRs) and focal adhesion/tight junction (PTEN and PAK3) pathways. Genomic profiling of the matched recurrent GS cases detected the occurrence of TP53 mutations in two recurrent GS cases, which suggests that TP53 mutations play a role in treatment resistance. Functionally, we found that TP53 mutations are associated with the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of sarcomatous components of GS. We provide the first comprehensive genome-wide genetic alternation profiling of GS, which suggests novel prognostic subgroups in GS patients based on their TP53 mutation status and provides new insight in the pathogenesis and targeted treatment of GS.


Subject(s)
Glioblastoma , Gliosarcoma , Humans , Prevalence , Prognosis
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 295-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18843

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia. Under normoxia, the basal expressions of HIF1α and the glycolysis-associated genes, PDK1, PDK3, and GLUT1, were relatively low in U251 and GBM28, while their basal expressions were high in GBM37. Under hypoxia, the expressions of these genes were enhanced further in all three GBMs. Treatment with dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), induced cell death in GBM28 and GBM37 maintained under normoxia, whereas DCA effects disappeared under hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxic adaptation dominated DCA effects in these GBMs. In contrast, the inhibition of HIF1α with chrysin suppressed the expression of PDK1, PDK3, and GLUT1 and markedly promoted cell death of all GBMs under both normoxia and hypoxia. Interestingly, however, GBMs treated with chrysin under hypoxia still sustained higher viability than those under normoxia, and chrysin and DCA co-treatment was unable to eliminate this hypoxia-dependent resistance. Together, these results suggest that hypoxic adaptation is critical for maintaining viability of GBMs, and targeting hypoxic adaptation can be an important treatment option for GBMs.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , Dichloroacetic Acid , Glioblastoma , Glucose , Glycolysis , Metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidoreductases , Phosphotransferases , Pyruvic Acid
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169714

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a deficit in social behaviors and nonverbal interactions such as reduced eye contact, facial expression, and body gestures in the first 3 years of life. It is not a single disorder, and it is broadly considered to be a multi-factorial disorder resulting from genetic and non-genetic risk factors and their interaction. Genetic studies of ASD have identified mutations that interfere with typical neurodevelopment in utero through childhood. These complexes of genes have been involved in synaptogenesis and axon motility. Recent developments in neuroimaging studies have provided many important insights into the pathological changes that occur in the brain of patients with ASD in vivo. Especially, the role of amygdala, a major component of the limbic system and the affective loop of the cortico-striatothalamo-cortical circuit, in cognition and ASD has been proved in numerous neuropathological and neuroimaging studies. Besides the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens is also considered as the key structure which is related with the social reward response in ASD. Although educational and behavioral treatments have been the mainstay of the management of ASD, pharmacological and interventional treatments have also shown some benefit in subjects with ASD. Also, there have been reports about few patients who experienced improvement after deep brain stimulation, one of the interventional treatments. The key architecture of ASD development which could be a target for treatment is still an uncharted territory. Further work is needed to broaden the horizons on the understanding of ASD.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Autistic Disorder , Axons , Brain , Child , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Cognition , Deep Brain Stimulation , Facial Expression , Gestures , Humans , Limbic System , Neurobiology , Neuroimaging , Nucleus Accumbens , Reward , Risk Factors , Social Behavior
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 191-196, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78636

ABSTRACT

Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Arteriovenous Malformations , Brain Edema , Brain , Drainage , Edema , Female , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiosurgery , Thrombosis , Veins , Venous Thrombosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-654650

ABSTRACT

Stem cell technologies are particularly attractive in Parkinson's disease (PD) research although they occasionally need long-term treatment for anti-parkinsonian activity. Unfortunately, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) widely used as a model for PD has several limitations, including the risk of dose-dependent mortality and the difficulty of maintenance of PD symptoms during the whole experiment period. Therefore, we tested if our novel MPTP regimen protocol (2 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days and 1 mg/kg for next 3 consecutive days) can be maintained stable parkinsonism without mortality for long-term stem cell therapy. For this, we used small-bodied common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) among several nonhuman primates showing high anatomical, functional, and behavioral similarities to humans. Along with no mortality, the behavioral changes involved in PD symptoms were maintained for 32 weeks. Also, the loss of jumping ability of the MPTP-treated marmosets in the Tower test was not recovered by 32 weeks. Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis revealed that remarkable decreases of bindings of ¹⁸F-FP-CIT were observed at the striatum of the brains of the marmosets received MPTP during the full period of the experiment for 32 weeks. In the substantia nigra of the marmosets, the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was also observed at 32 weeks following the MPTP treatment. In conclusion, our low-dose MPTP regimen protocol was found to be stable parkinsonism without mortality as evidenced by behavior, PET, and TH immunohistochemistry. This result will be useful for evaluation of possible long-term stem cell therapy for anti-parkinsonian activity.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Brain , Callithrix , Haplorhini , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Mortality , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Positron-Emission Tomography , Primates , Stem Cells , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The term solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is preferred over meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC), because NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has been observed in both intracranial and extracranial HPCs. HPCs are now considered cellular variants of SFTs. METHODS: This study analyzes 19 patients with STAT6-confirmed SFTs, who were followed for over 11 years in a single institution. Ten patients (10/19, 56.2%) had extracranial metastases (metastatic group), while the remainder (9/19) did not (non-metastatic group). These two groups were compared clinicopathologically. RESULTS: In the metastatic group, the primary metastatic sites were the lungs (n = 6), bone (n = 4), and liver (n = 3). There was a mean lag time of 14.2 years between the diagnosis of the initial meningeal tumor to that of systemic metastasis. The median age at initial tumor onset was 37.1 years in the metastatic group and 52.5 in the non-metastatic group. The 10-year survival rates of the metastatic- and non-metastatic groups were 100% and 33%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for poor outcomes on univariate analysis included advanced age (≥45 years) and large initial tumor size (≥5 cm). In contrast, the patients with higher tumor grade, high mitotic rate (≥5/10 high-power fields), high Ki-67 index (≥5%), and the presence of necrosis or CD34 positivity showed tendency of poor prognosis but these parameters were not statistically significant poor prognostic markers. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with SFTs, younger patients (<45 years) experienced longer survival times and paradoxically had more frequent extracranial metastases after long latent periods than did older patients. Therefore, young patients with SFTs require careful surveillance and follow-up for early detection of systemic metastases.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Fusion , Hemangiopericytoma , Humans , Liver , Lung , Meningeal Neoplasms , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Solitary Fibrous Tumors , Survival Rate
18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 93-101, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137232

ABSTRACT

An 18-year-old left-handed male harbored intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) underwent fractionated gamma knife surgery (GKS) instead of open surgery, considering the mental retardation and diffuse cerebral dysfunction. GKS treatment parameters were: target volume, 8.8 cm3; total marginal dose, 24 Gy in 3 fractionations at the 50% isodose line. The patient has been free from seizures since 9 months after GKS, with notable improvement in cognitive outcome. Fractionated GKS could be considered as a safe tool for seizure control and neuropsychological improvement in patients with MTLE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , Radiosurgery , Seizures , Stereotaxic Techniques , Temporal Lobe
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 93-101, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137229

ABSTRACT

An 18-year-old left-handed male harbored intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) underwent fractionated gamma knife surgery (GKS) instead of open surgery, considering the mental retardation and diffuse cerebral dysfunction. GKS treatment parameters were: target volume, 8.8 cm3; total marginal dose, 24 Gy in 3 fractionations at the 50% isodose line. The patient has been free from seizures since 9 months after GKS, with notable improvement in cognitive outcome. Fractionated GKS could be considered as a safe tool for seizure control and neuropsychological improvement in patients with MTLE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , Radiosurgery , Seizures , Stereotaxic Techniques , Temporal Lobe
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45406

ABSTRACT

Meningiomas are typically diagnosed by their characteristic appearance on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, detailed image findings regarding peri- and intra-tumoral anatomical structures, tumor consistency and vascularity are very important in pre-surgical planning and surgical outcomes. At the 7.0 T MRI achieving ultra-high resolution, it could be possible to obtain more useful information in surgical strategy. Four patients who were radiologically diagnosed with intracranial meningioma in 1.5 T MRI underwent a 7.0 T MRI. Three of them underwent surgery afterwards, and one received gamma knife radiosurgery. In our study, the advantages of 7.0 T MRI over 1.5 T MRI were a more detailed depiction of the peri- and intra-tumoral vasculature and a clear delineation of tumor-brain interface. In the safety issues, all patients received 7.0 T MRI without any adverse event. One disadvantage of 7.0 T MRI was the reduced image quality of skull base lesions. 7.0 T MRI in patients with meningiomas could provide useful information in surgical strategy, such as the peri-tumoral vasculature and the tumor-brain interface.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Radiosurgery , Skull Base
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