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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e332-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001192

ABSTRACT

Background@#Since the long-term outcomes of 162 patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) as an initial or adjuvant treatment for acoustic neuromas (ANs) with unilateral hearing loss were first reported in 1998, there has been no report of a comprehensive analysis of what has changed in GKS practice. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective study of the long-term outcomes of 106 patients with unilateral sporadic ANs who underwent GKS as an initial treatment. The mean patient age was 50 years, and the mean initial tumor volume was 3.68 cm 3 (range, 0.10–23.30 cm 3 ).The median marginal tumor dose was 12.5 Gy (range, 8.0–15.0 Gy) and the median follow-up duration was 153 months (range, 120–216 months). @*Results@#The tumor volume increased in 11 patients (10.4%), remained stationary in 27 (25.5%), and decreased in 68 patients (64.2%). The actuarial 3, 5, 10, and 15-year tumor control rates were 95.3 ± 2.1%, 94.3 ± 2.2%, 87.7 ± 3.2%, and 86.6 ± 3.3%, respectively.The 10-year actuarial tumor control rate was significantly lower in the patients with tumor volumes of ≥ 8 cm 3 (P = 0.010). The rate of maintaining the same Gardner-Robertson scale grade was 28.6%, and that of serviceable hearing was 46.4%. The rates of newly developed facial and trigeminal neuropathy were 2.8% and 4.7%, respectively. The patients who received marginal doses of less than 12 Gy revealed higher tumor control failure rates (P = 0.129) and newly occurred facial or trigeminal neuropathy rates (P = 0.040 and 0.313, respectively). @*Conclusion@#GKS as an initial treatment for ANs could be helpful in terms of tumor control, the preservation of serviceable hearing, and the prevention of cranial neuropathy. It is recommended to perform GKS as soon as possible not only for tumor control in unilateral ANs with hearing loss but also for hearing preservation in those without hearing loss.

2.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 254-265, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999765

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aims to elucidate clinical features, therapeutic strategies, and prognosis of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) by analyzing a 30-year dataset of a single institution. @*Methods@#We reviewed data from 43 patients diagnosed with PPT at Seoul National UniversityHospital between 1990 and 2020. We performed survival analyses and assessed prognostic factors. @*Results@#The cohort included 10 patients with pineocytoma (PC), 13 with pineal parenchymaltumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID), and 20 with pineoblastoma (PB). Most patients presented with hydrocephalus at diagnosis. Most patients underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy, with some undergoing additional resection after diagnosis confirmation. Radiotherapy was administered with a high prevalence of gamma knife radiosurgery for PC and PPTID, and craniospinal irradiation for PB. Chemotherapy was essential in the treatment of grade 3 PPTID and PB. The 5-year progression-free survival rates for PC, grade 2 PPTID, grade 3 PPTID, and PB were 100%, 83.3%, 0%, and 40%, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 100%, 40%, and 55%, respectively. High-grade tumor histology was associated with lower survival rates. Significant prognostic factors varied among tumor types, with World Health Organization (WHO) grade and leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) for PPTID, and the extent of resection and LMS for PB. Three patients experienced malignant transformations. @*Conclusion@#This study underscores the prognostic significance of WHO grades in PPT. It is nec-essary to provide specific treatment according to tumor grade. Grade 3 PPTID showed a poor prognosis. Potential LMS and malignant transformations necessitate aggressive multimodal treatment and close-interval screening.

3.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 124-131, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926084

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients does not halt disease progression, as these patients will progress and develop disabling non-levodopa responsive symptoms. These features may act as milestones that represent the overall functionality of patients after DBS. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of clinical milestones in advanced PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. @*Methods@#The study evaluated PD patients who underwent STN-DBS at baseline up to their last follow-up using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. The symptoms of hallucinations, dysarthria, dysphagia, frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive impairment and the loss of autonomy were chosen as the clinical milestones. @*Results@#A total of 106 patients with a mean age of 47.21 ± 10.52 years at disease onset, a mean age of 58.72 ± 8.74 years at surgery and a mean disease duration of 11.51 ± 4.4 years before surgery were included. Initial improvement of motor symptoms was seen after the surgery with the appearance of clinical milestones over time. Using the moderately disabling criteria, 81 patients (76.41%) developed at least one clinical milestone, while 48 patients (45.28%) developed a milestone when using the severely disabling criteria. @*Conclusion@#STN-DBS has a limited effect on axial and nonmotor symptoms of the PD patients, in contrast to the effect on motor symptoms. These symptoms may serve as clinical milestones that can convey the status of PD patients and its impact on the patients and their caregivers. Therefore, advanced PD patients, even those treated with bilateral STN-DBS, will still require assistance and cannot live independently in the long run.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e97-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899851

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898352

ABSTRACT

Central neurocytoma (CN) has been known as a benign neuronal tumor. In rare cases, CN undergoes malignant transformation to glioblastomas (GBM). Here we examined its cellular origin by characterizing differentiation potential and gene expression of CN-spheroids. First, we demonstrate that both CN tissue and cultured primary cells recapitulate the hierarchal cellular composition of subventricular zone (SVZ), which is comprised of neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying progenitors (TAPs), and neuroblasts. We then derived spheroids from CN which displayed EGFR+/ MASH+ TAP and BLBP+ radial glial cell (RGC) characteristic, and mitotic neurogenesis and gliogenesis by single spheroids were observed with cycling multipotential cells. CN-spheroids expressed increased levels of pluripotency and tumor stem cell genes such as KLF4 and TPD5L1, when compared to their differentiated cells and human NSCs. Importantly, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that gene sets of GBM-Spheroids, EGFR Signaling, and Packaging of Telomere Ends are enriched in CN-spheroids in comparison with their differentiated cells. We speculate that CN tumor stem cells have TAP and RGC characteristics, and upregulation of EGFR signaling as well as downregulation of eph-ephrin signaling have critical roles in tumorigenesis of CN. And their ephemeral nature of TAPs destined to neuroblasts, might reflect benign nature of CN.

6.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890648

ABSTRACT

Central neurocytoma (CN) has been known as a benign neuronal tumor. In rare cases, CN undergoes malignant transformation to glioblastomas (GBM). Here we examined its cellular origin by characterizing differentiation potential and gene expression of CN-spheroids. First, we demonstrate that both CN tissue and cultured primary cells recapitulate the hierarchal cellular composition of subventricular zone (SVZ), which is comprised of neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying progenitors (TAPs), and neuroblasts. We then derived spheroids from CN which displayed EGFR+/ MASH+ TAP and BLBP+ radial glial cell (RGC) characteristic, and mitotic neurogenesis and gliogenesis by single spheroids were observed with cycling multipotential cells. CN-spheroids expressed increased levels of pluripotency and tumor stem cell genes such as KLF4 and TPD5L1, when compared to their differentiated cells and human NSCs. Importantly, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that gene sets of GBM-Spheroids, EGFR Signaling, and Packaging of Telomere Ends are enriched in CN-spheroids in comparison with their differentiated cells. We speculate that CN tumor stem cells have TAP and RGC characteristics, and upregulation of EGFR signaling as well as downregulation of eph-ephrin signaling have critical roles in tumorigenesis of CN. And their ephemeral nature of TAPs destined to neuroblasts, might reflect benign nature of CN.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e97-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892147

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

8.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 3-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infratemporal fossa (ITF) is an anatomical lateral skull base space composed by the zygoma, temporal, and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Due to its difficult approach, surgical intervention at the ITF has remained a heavy burden to surgeons. The aim of this article is to review basic skull base approaches and ITF structures and to avoid severe complications based on the accurate surgical knowledge. METHODS: A search of the recent literature using MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and other online tools was executed using the following keyword combinations: infratemporal fossa, subtemporal fossa, transzygomatic approach, orbitozygomatic approach, transmaxillary approach, facial translocation approach, midface degloving, zygomatico-transmandibular approach, and lateral skull base. Aside from our Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) trial, there have been very few randomized controlled trials. The search data for this review are summarized based on the authors’ diverse clinical experiences. RESULTS: We divided our results based on representative skull base approaches and the anatomy of the ITF. Basic approaches to the ITF include endoscopic endonasal, transzygomatic, orbitozygomatic, zygomatico-transmandibular, transmaxillary, facial translocation, and the midfacial degloving approach. The borders and inner structures of the ITF (with basic lateral skull base dissection schemes) are summarized, and the modified zygomatico-transmandibular approach (ZTMA) is described in detail. CONCLUSIONS: An anatomical basic knowledge would be required for the appropriate management of the ITF pathology for diverse specialized doctors, including maxillofacial, plastic, and vascular surgeons. The ITF approach, in conjunction with the application of microsurgical techniques and improved perioperative care, has permitted significant advances and successful curative outcomes for patients having malignancy in ITF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology , Perioperative Care , Plastics , Skull Base , Sphenoid Bone , Surgeons , Zygoma
9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e57-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, a new generation of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) equipped with a frameless immobilization system has encouraged the use of fractionated GKRS as an increasingly favorable treatment option. We investigated the preliminary outcome of efficacy and toxicity associated with frameless fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (FF GKRS) for the treatment of large metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Fifteen patients with 17 lesions were treated using FF GKRS and included in this study, because of the large tumor size of more than 10 cm3. FF GKRS was performed based on a thermoplastic mask system for 3 to 5 consecutive days. RESULTS: The mean duration of clinical follow-up was 12 months (range, 4–24), and the local control rate was 100%. Tumor volume decreased in 13 lesions (76.5%), and remained stable in 4 lesions (23.5%). One patient was classified as new lesion development because of the occurrence of leptomeningeal seeding regardless of the tumor volume change. Compared with the initial volume at the time of FF GKRS, tumor volume change at the last follow-up was 62.32% ± 29.80%. Cumulative survival rate at 12 months was 93.3% ± 6.4%. One patient died during the follow-up period because of the progression of the primary disease. No patient showed radiation necrosis on the follow-up images. CONCLUSION: Daily FF GKRS by gamma knife ICON™ revealed satisfactory tumor control rate and low morbidity, despite the short follow-up period. Further prospective studies and a longer follow-up of a large cohort of patients diagnosed with brain metastases are required to elucidate the effect of FF GKRS in brain metastases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Immobilization , Masks , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Radiosurgery , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden
10.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 190-191, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765858

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia
11.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 245-255, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714903

ABSTRACT

We present our experience on the hypofractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (FGKS) for large skull base meningioma as an initial treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients with large skull base meningioma ≥10 cm³ who underwent FGKS as the initial treatment option. The mean volume of tumors prior to radiosurgery was 21.2±15.63 cm³ (range, 10.09~71.42). The median total margin dose and marginal dose per fraction were 18 Gy (range, 15~20) and 6 Gy (range, 5~6), respectively. Patients underwent three or four fractionations in consecutive days with the same Leksell® frame. The mean follow-up duration was 38 months (range, 17~78). There was no mortality. At the last follow-up, the tumor volume was stationary in 15 patients (65.2%) and had decreased in 8 patients (34.8%). Six patients who had cranial neuropathy at the time of FGKS showed improvement at the last clinical follow-up. Following FGKS, 4 patients (17%) had new cranial neuropathy. The trigeminal neuropathy was the most common and all were transient. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score at pre-FGKS and the last clinical follow-up was 97.0±10.4 points (median, 100) and 98.6±6.9 (median, 100) points, respectively. FGKS has showed satisfactory tumor control with functional preservation for large skull base meningiomas. Further prospective studies of large cohorts with long term follow-up are required to clarify the efficacy in the tumor control and functional outcome as well as radiation toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Follow-Up Studies , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Prospective Studies , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base , Skull , Trigeminal Nerve Diseases , Tumor Burden
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 155-159, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104366

ABSTRACT

Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation. Four years later, she was pregnant and the obstetricians consulted us about the safety of the delivery. At 38-weeks into pregnancy, a scheduled caesarian section was carried out under general anesthesia. After induction using thiopental and succinylcholine, intubation was done quickly, followed by DBS turn off. For hemostasis, only bipolar electrocautery was used. Before awakening from the anesthesia, DBS was turned on as the same parameters previously adjusted. After delivery, she could feed her baby by herself, because the dystonia of left upper extremity and hand was improved. Until now, she has been showing continual improvement and being good at housework, carrying for children, with no trouble in daily life. This observation indicates that the patients who underwent DBS could safely be pregnant and deliver a baby.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia , Electrocoagulation , Globus Pallidus , Hand , Hemostasis , Household Work , Intubation , Parturition , Succinylcholine , Thiopental , Upper Extremity
13.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e317-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212089

ABSTRACT

Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant (2%) of glioblastoma (GBM) that poses clinical genomic challenges because of its poor prognosis and limited genomic information. To gain a comprehensive view of the genomic alterations in GS and to understand the molecular etiology of GS, we applied whole-exome sequencing analyses for 28 GS cases (6 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues for the discovery set, 22 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for the validation set) and copy-number variation microarrays for 5 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues. TP53 mutations were more prevalent in the GS cases (20/28, 70%) compared to the GBM cases (29/90, 32%), and the GS patients with TP53 mutations showed a significantly shorter survival (multivariate Cox analysis, hazard ratio=23.9, 95% confidence interval, 2.87–199.63, P=0.003). A pathway analysis showed recurrent alterations in MAPK signaling (EGFR, RASGRF2 and TP53), phosphatidylinositol/calcium signaling (CACNA1s, PLCs and ITPRs) and focal adhesion/tight junction (PTEN and PAK3) pathways. Genomic profiling of the matched recurrent GS cases detected the occurrence of TP53 mutations in two recurrent GS cases, which suggests that TP53 mutations play a role in treatment resistance. Functionally, we found that TP53 mutations are associated with the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of sarcomatous components of GS. We provide the first comprehensive genome-wide genetic alternation profiling of GS, which suggests novel prognostic subgroups in GS patients based on their TP53 mutation status and provides new insight in the pathogenesis and targeted treatment of GS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma , Gliosarcoma , Prevalence , Prognosis
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 55-65, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30376

ABSTRACT

Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones. We observed notable motor dysfunction and a significant decrease in infarcted brain volume, as well as increases in neurons and vessels in both single and repeated hUCB-MSC treatments compared to the control group. Interestingly, repeated administration of hUCB-MSCs was not found to elicit additional or synergistic improvements over monotherapy. This study suggests that a clearer understanding of the therapeutic window after stroke will facilitate the development of more efficient treatment protocols in the clinical application of stem cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Clinical Protocols , Extremities , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Ischemia , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Stem Cells , Stroke , Umbilical Cord
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 295-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18843

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia. Under normoxia, the basal expressions of HIF1α and the glycolysis-associated genes, PDK1, PDK3, and GLUT1, were relatively low in U251 and GBM28, while their basal expressions were high in GBM37. Under hypoxia, the expressions of these genes were enhanced further in all three GBMs. Treatment with dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), induced cell death in GBM28 and GBM37 maintained under normoxia, whereas DCA effects disappeared under hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxic adaptation dominated DCA effects in these GBMs. In contrast, the inhibition of HIF1α with chrysin suppressed the expression of PDK1, PDK3, and GLUT1 and markedly promoted cell death of all GBMs under both normoxia and hypoxia. Interestingly, however, GBMs treated with chrysin under hypoxia still sustained higher viability than those under normoxia, and chrysin and DCA co-treatment was unable to eliminate this hypoxia-dependent resistance. Together, these results suggest that hypoxic adaptation is critical for maintaining viability of GBMs, and targeting hypoxic adaptation can be an important treatment option for GBMs.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , Dichloroacetic Acid , Glioblastoma , Glucose , Glycolysis , Metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidoreductases , Phosphotransferases , Pyruvic Acid
16.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 100-109, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-654650

ABSTRACT

Stem cell technologies are particularly attractive in Parkinson's disease (PD) research although they occasionally need long-term treatment for anti-parkinsonian activity. Unfortunately, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) widely used as a model for PD has several limitations, including the risk of dose-dependent mortality and the difficulty of maintenance of PD symptoms during the whole experiment period. Therefore, we tested if our novel MPTP regimen protocol (2 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days and 1 mg/kg for next 3 consecutive days) can be maintained stable parkinsonism without mortality for long-term stem cell therapy. For this, we used small-bodied common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) among several nonhuman primates showing high anatomical, functional, and behavioral similarities to humans. Along with no mortality, the behavioral changes involved in PD symptoms were maintained for 32 weeks. Also, the loss of jumping ability of the MPTP-treated marmosets in the Tower test was not recovered by 32 weeks. Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis revealed that remarkable decreases of bindings of ¹⁸F-FP-CIT were observed at the striatum of the brains of the marmosets received MPTP during the full period of the experiment for 32 weeks. In the substantia nigra of the marmosets, the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was also observed at 32 weeks following the MPTP treatment. In conclusion, our low-dose MPTP regimen protocol was found to be stable parkinsonism without mortality as evidenced by behavior, PET, and TH immunohistochemistry. This result will be useful for evaluation of possible long-term stem cell therapy for anti-parkinsonian activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Brain , Callithrix , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Mortality , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Positron-Emission Tomography , Primates , Stem Cells , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
17.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 34-38, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770921

ABSTRACT

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially lethal outcome caused by sudden discontinuation or dose reduction of dopaminergic agents. We report an extremely rare case of NMS after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in a cerebral palsy (CP) patient without the withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. A 19-year-old girl with CP was admitted for DBS due to medically refractory dystonia and rigidity. Dopaminergic agents were not stopped preoperatively. DBS was performed uneventfully under monitored anesthesia. Dopaminergic medication was continued during the postoperative period. She manifested spasticity and muscle rigidity, and was high fever resistant to anti-pyretic drugs at 2 h postoperative. At postoperative 20 h, she suffered cardiac arrest and expired, despite vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. NMS should be considered for hyperthermia and severe spasticity in CP patients after DBS surgery, irrespective of continued dopaminergic medication.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Anesthesia , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cerebral Palsy , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dopamine Agents , Dystonia , Fever , Globus Pallidus , Heart Arrest , Muscle Rigidity , Muscle Spasticity , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome , Postoperative Period
18.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 34-38, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79151

ABSTRACT

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially lethal outcome caused by sudden discontinuation or dose reduction of dopaminergic agents. We report an extremely rare case of NMS after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in a cerebral palsy (CP) patient without the withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. A 19-year-old girl with CP was admitted for DBS due to medically refractory dystonia and rigidity. Dopaminergic agents were not stopped preoperatively. DBS was performed uneventfully under monitored anesthesia. Dopaminergic medication was continued during the postoperative period. She manifested spasticity and muscle rigidity, and was high fever resistant to anti-pyretic drugs at 2 h postoperative. At postoperative 20 h, she suffered cardiac arrest and expired, despite vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. NMS should be considered for hyperthermia and severe spasticity in CP patients after DBS surgery, irrespective of continued dopaminergic medication.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Anesthesia , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cerebral Palsy , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dopamine Agents , Dystonia , Fever , Globus Pallidus , Heart Arrest , Muscle Rigidity , Muscle Spasticity , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome , Postoperative Period
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 93-101, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137232

ABSTRACT

An 18-year-old left-handed male harbored intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) underwent fractionated gamma knife surgery (GKS) instead of open surgery, considering the mental retardation and diffuse cerebral dysfunction. GKS treatment parameters were: target volume, 8.8 cm3; total marginal dose, 24 Gy in 3 fractionations at the 50% isodose line. The patient has been free from seizures since 9 months after GKS, with notable improvement in cognitive outcome. Fractionated GKS could be considered as a safe tool for seizure control and neuropsychological improvement in patients with MTLE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Intellectual Disability , Radiosurgery , Seizures , Stereotaxic Techniques , Temporal Lobe
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 93-101, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137229

ABSTRACT

An 18-year-old left-handed male harbored intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) underwent fractionated gamma knife surgery (GKS) instead of open surgery, considering the mental retardation and diffuse cerebral dysfunction. GKS treatment parameters were: target volume, 8.8 cm3; total marginal dose, 24 Gy in 3 fractionations at the 50% isodose line. The patient has been free from seizures since 9 months after GKS, with notable improvement in cognitive outcome. Fractionated GKS could be considered as a safe tool for seizure control and neuropsychological improvement in patients with MTLE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Intellectual Disability , Radiosurgery , Seizures , Stereotaxic Techniques , Temporal Lobe
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