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Arq. gastroenterol ; 60(4): 525-535, Oct.-Nov. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527866


ABSTRACT This is a narrative review that aims to discuss the importance of elastographic methods in the evaluation of clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) in cirrhotic patients, where the authors propose an algorithm for evaluating these patients. In compensated advanced chronic liver disease, the goal is to prevent the development of CSPH and, in those already with CSPH, prevent the appearance of gastroesophageal varices (GEV) and other complications of portal hypertension. In compensated cirrhosis, the prevalence of GEV is 30-40%, of which 10-20% are at risk of bleeding. Therefore, using non-invasive methods would exempt the patient from the need of an endoscopy. Hepatic Elastography is a non-invasive, safe, reproducible method, available through many techniques: Vibration-Controlled Transient Elastography (VCTE), Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) and Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). The Baveno VII presented the "rule of 5" for VCTE: liver stiffness measurement (LSM) ≤15 kPa and platelets >150.000/mm3 exclude CSPH, while an LSM ≥25 kPa is highly suggestive of CSPH. Also, the "rule of 4" for SWE has been proposed: patients with ≥17 kPa could be considered as having CSPH. At last, spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) has been proposed as a more specific technique to predict the presence of CSPH. In conclusion, elastography has gained prestige in the non-invasive evaluation of patients with advanced chronic liver disease by allowing prophylactic measures to be taken when suggesting the presence of CSPH.

RESUMO Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa que visa discutir a importância dos métodos elastográficos na avaliação da hipertensão portal clinicamente significativa (HPCS) em pacientes cirróticos, onde os autores propõem um algoritmo para avaliação desses pacientes. Na doença hepática crônica avançada compensada, o objetivo é prevenir o desenvolvimento de HPCS, e naqueles já com HPCS prevenir o aparecimento de varizes gastroesofágicas (VGE) e outras complicações da hipertensão portal. Na cirrose compensada, a prevalência de VGE é de 30-40% e 10-20% são varizes com risco de sangramento, portanto o uso de métodos não invasivos dispensaria o paciente de endoscopia. A elastografia hepática é um método não invasivo, seguro e reprodutível, disponível através de várias técnicas: elastografia transitória (VCTE), onda de cisalhamento (SWE) e elastografia por ressonância magnética. O Baveno VII apresentou a "regra dos 5" para VCTE: medida da rigidez hepática (LSM) ≤15 kPa e plaquetas >150.000/mm3 excluem HPCS enquanto um LSM ≥25 kPa é altamente sugestivo de HPCS. Além disso, foi proposta a "regra dos 4" para SWE: pacientes com ≥17 kPa podem ser considerados como portadores de HPCS. Por fim, a medição da rigidez do baço (SSM) foi proposta como uma técnica mais específica para prever a presença de HPCS. Em conclusão, a elastografia ganhou prestígio na avaliação não invasiva de pacientes com doença hepática crônica avançada, ao permitir a adoção de medidas profiláticas ao sugerir a presença de HPCS.

Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529453


ABSTRACT Direct-acting antivirals are the gold-standard treatment for chronic HCV infections, but few studies have investigated their use on kidney and liver transplant recipients. We conducted a real-world study to evaluate the rates of sustained virological response with direct-acting antivirals in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Moreover, it also aimed to evaluate direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) interference with immunosuppressant levels and to describe the frequency of adverse events. As part of this retrospective observational cohort, we included adult patients that had undergone a kidney transplant (KT) or liver transplant (LT) at our center, had a chronic HCV infection, and were treated with DAAs from June 2016 to December 2021. A total of 165 patients were included in the analysis, divided in 108 KT and 57 LT recipients. HCV genotype 1 was more frequent in KT (58.4%), and genotype 3 was more prevalent in LT (57.9%) patients. Sustained virological response was achieved in 89.6% of patients. Adverse effects were reported by 36% of patients. There were significant interactions with immunosuppressants requiring dose adjustments. A total of three episodes of rejection were reported in KT recipients. In conclusion, DAA treatment resulted in high rates of SVR and was well tolerated in both kidney and liver transplant patients. Adverse events were frequent but not severe in most patients, with low treatment drop-out rates. Interactions with immunosuppressants need monitoring since dose adjustments may be required. Reporting real-life experiences is important to help build evidence for patient management in non-controlled environments.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(4): e20220944, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431227


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of cirrhotic patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal observational study was carried out evaluating 38 cirrhotic patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. The outcomes were evaluated in an outpatient follow-up period of 3 months. The assumed significance level was 5%. RESULTS: The indications for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt were refractory ascites in 21 (55.3%), variceal hemorrhage in 13 (34.2%), and hydrothorax in 4 (10.5%) patients. There was development of hepatic encephalopathy in 10 (35.7%) patients after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. From the 21 patients with refractory ascites, resolution was observed in 1 (3.1%) patient, and in 16 (50.0%) patients, there was ascites control. Regarding transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt after variceal bleeding, 10 (76.9%) patients remained without new bleeding or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. The global survival in the follow-up period in patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy was 60 vs. 82%, respectively (p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt can be considered in decompensated cirrhotic patients; however, the development of hepatic encephalopathy which can shorten survival should be focused.

Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(10): 5961-5973, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513159


Objective: To demonstrate the correlations of the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia and the levels of Non-alcoholic Fat Liver Disease (NAFLD) assessed by liver biopsy in a physically active population. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Individuals aged >18 years, with NAFLD confirmed by liver biopsy, physically active. Sarcopenia assessment followed EWGSOP2: muscle strength by handgrip, Skeletal Muscle Mass by Bioimpedance, and physical performance by usual gait speed. Statistical Analysis: To test differences between groups in continuous variables, Student's T or Mann-Whitney U Test for independent samples. Pearson and Spearman tests were used for correlations. A 5% significance was considered (p<0.05). Results: 52 patients with NAFLD included, consisting of 35 women and 15 men. There was no difference in age or anthropometric variables. Were found difference statically significant in platelets (higher in women), basal insulin, HOMA-IR and Quick (higher in men). In sarcopenia, the handgrip strength showed difference in favors of men. There was no statistically significant correlation between the sarcopenia and NAFLD levels. Discussion: sarcopenia has been reported as an independent risk factor for NAFLD and its progressions. The physical exercise is one of the most recommended and more effective treatment for both conditions, so is expected that a non-sedentary individual can reduce both indicators. However, there is no consensus about the best method. Also, the both conditions share heterogeneity in diagnosis, prognosis, reason for develop and risk factors across the literature. Conclusion: For populations where most individuals are physically active, it is not possible to find correlation between sarcopenia diagnostic criteria and the stages of NAFLD.

Objetivo: Demonstrar as correlações dos critérios diagnósticos de sarcopenia e dos níveis de doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) avaliados por biópsia hepática em uma população fisicamente ativa. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Indivíduos com idade >18 anos, com DHGNA confirmada por biópsia hepática, fisicamente ativos. A avaliação da sarcopenia seguiu o EWGSOP2: força muscular por preensão manual, massa muscular esquelética por bioimpedância e performance física por velocidade usual de marcha. Análise Estatística: Para testar diferenças entre grupos nas variáveis contínuas, teste T de Student ou Teste U de Mann-Whitney para amostras independentes. Os testes de Pearson e Spearman foram utilizados para correlações. Foi considerada significância de 5% (p<0,05). Resultados: Foram incluídos 52 pacientes com DHGNA, sendo 35 mulheres e 15 homens. Não houve diferença na idade ou nas variáveis antropométricas. Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas em plaquetas (maior em mulheres), insulina basal, HOMA-IR e Quick (maior em homens). Na sarcopenia, a força de preensão manual apresentou diferença em favor dos homens. Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa entre os níveis de sarcopenia e DHGNA. Discussão: a sarcopenia tem sido relatada como fator de risco independente para DHGNA e suas progressões. O exercício físico é um dos tratamentos mais recomendados e mais eficazes para ambas as condições, pelo que se espera que um indivíduo não sedentário consiga reduzir ambos os indicadores. No entanto, não há consenso sobre o melhor método. Além disso, ambas as condições compartilham heterogeneidade no diagnóstico, prognóstico, razão de desenvolvimento e fatores de risco em toda a literatura. Conclusão: Para populações onde a maioria dos indivíduos é fisicamente ativo, não é possível encontrar correlação entre os critérios diagnósticos de sarcopenia e os estágios da DHGNA.

Objetivo: demostrar las correlaciones de los criterios diagnósticos de sarcopenia y los niveles de enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) evaluados mediante biopsia hepática en una población físicamente activa. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Individuos mayores de 18 años, con EHGNA confirmada mediante biopsia hepática, físicamente activos. La evaluación de la sarcopenia siguió el EWGSOP2: fuerza muscular mediante agarre manual, masa muscular esquelética mediante bioimpedancia y rendimiento físico mediante velocidad de marcha habitual. Análisis estadístico: Para probar diferencias entre grupos en variables continuas, prueba T de Student o U de Mann-Whitney para muestras independientes. Para las correlaciones se utilizaron las pruebas de Pearson y Spearman. Se consideró una significancia del 5% (p<0,05). Resultados: Se incluyeron 52 pacientes con EHGNA, 35 mujeres y 15 hombres. No hubo diferencia en la edad ni en variables antropométricas. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en plaquetas (mayor en mujeres), insulina basal, HOMA- IR y Quick (mayor en hombres). En la sarcopenia, la fuerza de prensión manual mostró diferencia a favor de los hombres. No hubo correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la sarcopenia y los niveles de NAFLD. Discusión: la sarcopenia ha sido reportada como un factor de riesgo independiente para NAFLD y sus progresiones. El ejercicio físico es uno de los tratamientos más recomendados y efectivos para ambas afecciones, por lo que se espera que una persona no sedentaria pueda reducir ambos indicadores. Sin embargo, no hay consenso sobre cuál es el mejor método. Además, ambas afecciones comparten heterogeneidad en el diagnóstico, pronóstico, motivo de desarrollo y factores de riesgo en la literatura. Conclusión: Para poblaciones donde la mayoría de las personas son físicamente activas, no es posible encontrar correlación entre los criterios de diagnóstico de sarcopenia y las etapas de NAFLD.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1394-1399, Oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406548


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiac abnormalities. METHODS: Patients with Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who attended an outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil were prospectively evaluated. Patients should be older than 18 years and have steatosis. RESULTS: A total of 174 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 63±12 years, 65% were women, 71% white, 82.2% hypertensive, 52.3% diabetic, 56.3% obese, and 30% dyslipidemic. There was no association between Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiac abnormalities, even after adjusting for age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not show a direct correlation between Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiac abnormalities, regardless of metabolic syndrome.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 157-163, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285317


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered a global public health problem, with changes in lifestyle being the effective way to treat the disease. To date, there is no recommended standard of assessment to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with NAFLD, so that dietary therapy can be properly guided. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the REE of patients with NAFLD through indirect calorimetry and compare with different predictive formulas of REE and with REE by electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Assess body composition through BIA, with NAFLD staging and the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: They were evaluated in patients with NAFLD over 18 years of age treated at the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a tertiary level hospital in southern Brazil. NAFLD staging was performed using liver biopsy or a non-invasive method. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in all patients. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Comorbidities as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were evaluated. To estimate energy expenditure at rest, Harris-Benedict, Jeor Mifflin-St, World Health Organization and Schofield formulas were used. BIA was used to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body mass, and to measure RMR, indirect calorimetry was also used. Associations between categorical variables were tested with Pearson's χ2 test and between groups with McNemar's test. The level of significance assumed was 5%. The degree of agreement between the REE measurement methods was assessed using the Blan-Altman test. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients were evaluated, 70.5% male, with a mean age of 59 years and a mean BMI of 33.08 kg/m2 ±5.13. The average RMR per CI was 1,753 kcal ±614.58. When comparing the RMR estimate by different formulas with indirect calorimetry, only the Jeor Mifflin-St formula showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001), with a difference of +318.49 kcal. BIA and Harris Benedict's formula presented values closer to CI, 1,658 and 1,845 kcal respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the Jeor Mifflin-St formula should not be used to estimate the RMR in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of indirect calorimetry, some alternatives can be used safely in this population, such as BIA and the predictive formulas of Harris Benedict, Schofield and the World Health Organization.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é considerada, atualmente, um problema de saúde pública global, sendo a mudança no estilo de vida a forma efetiva de tratar a doença. Até o momento não há um padrão de avaliação recomendado para determinar o gasto energético de repouso (GER) de pacientes com DHGNA, para que se possa nortear adequadamente a conduta dietoterápica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o GER de pacientes com DHGNA através da calorimetria indireta (CI) e comparar com diferentes fórmulas preditivas do GER e com GER através da bioimpedância elétrica (BIA). Avaliar a composição corporal através da BIA, com o estadiamento da DHGNA e com a presença de comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em pacientes com DHGNA maiores de 18 anos de idade atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia de um Hospital de nível terciário do Sul do Brasil. O estadiamento da DHGNA foi realizado através de biópsia hepática ou método não invasivo. Peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC) foram determinados em todos os pacientes. Para avaliação da atividade física foi utilizada a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Foram avaliadas as comorbidades hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e dislipidemia. Para a estimativa do gasto energético de repouso utilizou-se as fórmulas de Harris-Benedict, de Jeor Mifflin-St, da Organização Mundial de Saúde e de Schofield. A BIA foi utilizada para avaliação do GER e da massa corporal, e para aferição do GER também se utilizou a CI. Associações entre variáveis categóricas foram testadas com teste χ2 de Pearson e entre grupos com teste de McNemar. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. O grau de concordância entre os métodos de mensuração do GER foi aferido pelo teste de Blan-Altman. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes, sendo 70,5% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 anos e média de IMC 33,08 kg/m2 ±5,13. O GER médio por CI foi de 1.753 kcal ±614,58. Ao comparar a estimativa do GER por diferentes fórmulas com a calorimetria indireta, apenas a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (P=0,0001), com uma diferença de +318,49 kcal. A BIA e a fórmula de Harris Benedict apresentaram valores mais próximos à CI, 1.658 e 1.845 kcal respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos que a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St não deva ser utilizada para estimativa do GER em pacientes com DHGNA. Na ausência da CI algumas alternativas podem ser utilizadas com segurança nesta população, como a BIA e as fórmulas preditivas de Harris Benedict, de Schofield e da Organização Mundial de Saúde.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Basal Metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Energy Metabolism , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.

Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
São Paulo med. j ; 138(2): 152-157, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139679


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with disease severity scores, among patients with cirrhosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational and retrospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary-care hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted among patients with chronic liver disease who were followed up at the gastroenterology and hepatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary-care hospital in southern Brazil and who underwent computed tomography scans of the abdomen through any indication. RESULTS: We included 83 patients in the study. In the population evaluated, there was a predominance of males (57.80%) and the mean age was 56 years. Hepatitis B or C virus was present in the genesis of the disease in 34.9% of the cases, followed by an etiology of alcohol abuse (30.1%). Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 41 (49.4%) of the patients when the cutoff point for cirrhotic patients was used. There was no significant correlation between the Child-Pugh and MELD severity scores and the occurrence of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia presents high prevalence among patients with chronic liver disease, without any association with predictors of severity.

Humans , Male , Child , Middle Aged , Sarcopenia , Liver Cirrhosis , Prognosis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 25-29, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089328


ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the effectiveness and the safety of Sofosbuvir-based regimens to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A retrospective, observational study in patients with chronic HCV infection and CKD treated with Sofosbuvir-based regimens was performed. Liver fibrosis, comorbidities, HCV genotype and sustained virological resposnse (SVR) at 12th week post-treatment were evaluated. Kidney function was accessed by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The assumed level of significance was 5 %. Results: Thirty-five patients were treated. The mean age was 52.1 ± 10.9 years, 19 (54.3 %) were women, 32 (91.4 %) were already kidney transplanted and 3 (8.6 %) were on hemodialysis. The SVR by intention to treat was 88.6 %. The mean GFR was 65.8 ± 28.6 and 63.7 ± 28.3 ml/min pre- and post-treatment respectively (p > 0.05). Treatment was interrupted in 1 (2.85 %) patient due to anemia and in 2 (5.7 %) due to loss of kidney function. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based regimens are effective to treat HCV in patients with CKD. In patients with mild CKD this type of therapy seems to be safe.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 403-406, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983852


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) can progress to cirrhosis and its complications as hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to morbidity and mortality. To know the profile of patients with CHC virus is fundamental to optimize management. OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of patients with CHC in a public health program in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in patients with CHC who underwent treatment against hepatitis C virus in a dispensation and pharmaceutical assistance center of the Public Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. All medical records of patients attended between December/2015 and December/2016 were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1,431 records of patients with CHC were evaluated. Males were the most prevalent (802; 56%) patients. The mean age was 58.6±9.9 years, ranging from 18 to 89 years. Genotype 1 was the most frequent (866;60.5%) of the patients. Ninety (6.3%) patients were transplanted from a solid organ, and of these, 73 (5.1%) were transplanted from the liver. The fibrosis evaluation was performed in 1,300 (90.8%) patients. Of these, 566 (39.6%) were evaluated through liver biopsy. Regarding the degree of fibrosis, 779 (54.4%) presented fibrosis grade 4 (cirrhosis). The genotype 3 was the most associated with fibrosis grade 4, and genotype 1 was associated with high viral load. CONCLUSION: The present study made possible the evaluation of the characteristics of patients with CHC in a public health program in South Brazil. There was a predominance of CHC in males, and the mean age was 59 years. They presented a predominance of genotype 1, higher viral load in patients with genotype 1 and greater degree of fibrosis in patients with genotype 3.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite crônica C (HCC) pode evoluir para cirrose e suas complicações como carcinoma hepatocelular, acarretando morbimortalidade. Conhecer o perfil dos pacientes portadores do vírus da HCC é fundamental para o melhor manejo do tratamento. OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil dos pacientes portadores de HCC em um programa de saúde pública do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo onde foram incluídos os pacientes com HCC que realizaram o tratamento contra o vírus C em um polo de dispensação e assistência farmacêutica da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram avaliados todos os prontuários dos pacientes tratados entre dezembro/2015 e dezembro/2016. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 1.431 registros de pacientes portadores de HCC. O sexo masculino foi o mais prevalente (802; 56%) pacientes. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 58,6±9,9 anos, com variação de 18 a 89 anos. O genótipo 1 foi o mais frequente, em 866 (60,5%) dos pacientes. Noventa (6,3%) pacientes eram transplantados de órgão sólido, sendo que 73 (5,1%) eram transplantados de fígado. A avaliação de fibrose foi realizada em 1.300 (90,8%) pacientes. Dentre estes, 566 (39,6%) foram avaliados através de biópsia hepática. Em relação ao grau de fibrose, 779 (54,4%) apresentavam fibrose grau 4 (cirrose). Os genótipos foram analisados em relação aos diferentes graus de fibrose, sendo observado que o genótipo 3 está associado com o grau 4 de fibrose. O genótipo 1 está associado com alta carga viral. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo possibilitou a avaliação do perfil dos pacientes portadores de HCC em um programa de saúde pública do Brasil. Houve uma predominância de HCC no sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 59 anos. Apresentam um predomínio do genótipo 1, maior carga viral nos pacientes portadores do genótipo 1 e maior grau de fibrose nos portadores de genótipo 3.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Genotype , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 23-27, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888233


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil. Three periods were ramdomly evaluated: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 and 2014-2015. The most frequent infecting organisms and the sensitivity in vitro to antibiotics were registered. RESULTS: In the first period (1997-1998) there were 33 cases, the most common were: E. coli in 13 (36.11%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative in 6 (16.66%), K. pneumoniae in 5 (13.88%), S. aureus in 4 (11.11%) and S. faecalis in 3 (8.33%). In the second period (2002-2003), there were 43 cases, the most frequent were: Staphylococus coagulase-negative in 16 (35.55%), S. aureus in 8 (17.77%), E. coli in 7 (15.55%) and K. pneumoniae in 3 (6.66%). In the third period (2014-2015) there were 58 cases (seven with two bacteria), the most frequent were: E. coli in 15 (23.1%), S. viridans in 12 (18.5%), K. pneumoniae in 10 (15.4%) and E. faecium 5 (7.7%). No one was using antibiotic prophylaxis. Considering all staphylococci, the prevalence increased to rates of the order of 50% in the second period, with a reduction in the third period evaluated. Likewise, the prevalence of resistant E. coli increased, reaching 14%. CONCLUSION: There was a modification of the bacterial population causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with high frequency of gram-positive organisms, as well as an increase in the resistance to the traditionally recommended antibiotics. This study suggests a probable imminent inclusion of a drug against gram-positive organisms in the empiric treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A peritonite bacteriana espontânea é uma complicação séria em pacientes cirróticos e as alterações nas características microbiológicas relatadas nos últimos anos podem afetar a escolha do antibiótico utilizado no tratamento. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente estudo são avaliar as mudanças na epidemiologia e perfil de resistência bacteriana dos germes causadores de peritonite bacteriana espontânea em três períodos diferentes ao longo de 17 anos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes cirróticos com peritonite bacteriana espontânea e cultura positiva de fluido ascítico foram estudados retrospectivamente em um hospital de referência no Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados três diferentes períodos selecionados de forma randômica: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 e 2014-2015. Os organismos infecciosos mais frequentes e a sensibilidade in vitro a antibióticos foram registados. RESULTADOS: No primeiro período (1997-1998) houve 33 casos; os mais comuns foram: E. coli em 13 (36,1%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo em 6 (16,7%), K. pneumoniae em 5 (13,9%), S. aureus em 4 (11,1%) e S. faecalis em 3 (8,3%). No segundo período (2002-2003), houve 43 casos, os mais frequentes foram: Staphylococus coagulase-negativo em 16 (35,5%), S. aureus em 8 (17,8%), E. coli em 7 (15,5%) e K. pneumoniae em 3 (6,7%). No terceiro período (2014-2015), houve 58 casos (sete com duas bactérias), os mais frequentes foram: E. coli em 15 (23,1%), S. viridans em 12 (18,5%), K. pneumoniae em 10 (15,4%) e E. faecium 5 (7,7%). Nenhum paciente estava usando profilaxia antibiótica. Quando considerados todos os estafilococos, a prevalência aumentou para taxas da ordem de 50% no segundo período, apresentando redução no terceiro período avaliado. Do mesmo modo, a prevalência de E coli resistente aumentou, chegando a 14%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve modificação da população bacteriana causadora de peritonite bacteriana espontânea, com alta frequência de organismos gram-positivos, bem como aumento da resistência aos antibióticos tradicionalmente recomendados. Este estudo sugere uma provável inclusão iminente de um medicamento contra organismos gram-positivos no tratamento empírico da peritonite bacteriana espontânea.

Humans , Peritonitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 525-529, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888904


Abstract Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic HBV infection with high viral replication may lead to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutant HBV strains, such as the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant, have been associated with poor prognosis and higher risk of the patient for developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. This study analyzed the presence of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant in patients with chronic HBV and its association with clinical parameters such as viral load, aminotransferases, and HBV antigens. A total of 49 patients with chronic hepatitis B were included in the study, and the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain was detected in four samples (8.16%) by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length analysis (PCR-RFLP). The viral load was not significantly different between patients with or without the double mutant strain (p = 0.43). On the other hand, carriers of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant had higher levels of ALT (p = 0.0028), while AST levels did not differ between groups (p = 0.051). In this study, 75% of the samples with the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutation were HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive, reflecting seroconversion even though they still displayed high viral loads. Our study has shown that the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain circulates in Brazilian patients, and is associated with elevated levels of ALT and HBeAg seroconversion.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Mutation/genetics , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genotype
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(1): 57-59, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838817


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Vitamin D is known for its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties, which are quite relevant in the pathogenesis and treatment of many causes of chronic liver disease. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum vitamin D levels and the histopathological findings in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. METHODS Cross-sectional study composed of patients with chronic hepatitis C. All patients underwent vitamin D 25 dosage and anthropometric data analysis. Liver biopsy was performed in a maximum 36-month period before inclusion in the study. RESULTS Of the 74 patients included in the study, 45 (60.8%) were women, mean age was 57.03±9.24 years, and 63 (85.1%) were white. No association was observed between the serum levels of vitamin D and inflammatory activity (P=0.699) nor with the degree of liver fibrosis (P=0.269). CONCLUSION In this study, no association was observed between vitamin D and inflammatory activity, as well as the degree of liver fibrosis, in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

RESUMO CONTEXTO A vitamina D é conhecida por possuir propriedades imunomoduladoras, anti-inflamatórias e antifibróticas, relevantes na patogênese e tratamento de muitas causas de doença hepática crônica. OBJETIVO Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a associação entre os níveis séricos de vitamina D e os achados histopatológicos em pacientes com infecção crônica do vírus da hepatite C. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, composto por pacientes com hepatite C crônica. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à dosagem de vitamina D 25 e análise de dados antropométricos. A biópsia hepática foi realizada em um período máximo de 36 meses antes da inclusão no estudo. RESULTADOS Dos 74 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 45 (60,8%) eram mulheres, média de idade de 57,03±9,24 anos e 63 (85,1%) eram brancos. Não foi observada associação entre os níveis séricos de vitamina D e atividade inflamatória (P=0,699), nem com o grau de fibrose hepática (P=0,269). CONCLUSÃO No presente estudo, não foi observada associação entre a vitamina D e a atividade inflamatória, bem como com o grau de fibrose hepática, em pacientes com hepatite C crônica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Vitamin D/blood , Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 117-120, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041393


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) is recommended for accurate measurement of habitual food consumption. We assessed the relative validity of a FFQ in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: Each patient responded to a FFQ and three 24-hour food recalls. Pearson's correlation and weighted Kappa index analyses were performed to identify the FFQ relative validity and concordance. RESULTS: De-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.35 (vitamin B1) to 0.81 (selenium). The concordance index ranged from 0.07 (vitamin C) to 0.51 (calcium). CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ showed satisfactory relative validity for most nutrients.

Humans , Male , Female , Energy Intake , Diet Records , HIV Infections/complications , Diet Surveys , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Feeding Behavior , Nutrition Assessment , Reproducibility of Results , Coinfection , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(4): 246-249, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794596


ABSTRACT Background Due to the high prevalence of co-infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the severity of these infections, the understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in these processes, including viral behavior and host genetic profile, is of great importance for patient treatment and for public health policies.Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome, such as the SNP rs1045642 (C3435T) in the MDR1 gene, have been reported to be associated to the sustained virological response (SVR) to HCV treatment in HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Objective The present study analyzes the MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism in HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Methods A total of 99 HCV-HIV patients were included in the study. The DNA was extracted from blood samples, and the SNP rs1045642 was assessed by Real Time PCR (qPCR). Risk factors for acquiring the virus and the SVR after HCV treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin were also analyzed. Results Among the patients, 54 (54.5%) were male and 45 (45.5%) were female. The average age was 46.1±9.8 years. The SVR after HCV treatment was 40%. The frequencies of MDR1 genotypes CC, CT and TT were 28.3%, 47.5% and 24.2%, respectively. Allele frequencies were 52% for the C allele and 48% for the T allele. No association was found for SNP rs1045642 (C3435T) regarding response to treatment (P=0.308). Conclusion - In this study, the C3435T polymorphism in the MDR1 gene appears not to be associated with SVR in HCV-HIV co-infected individuals.

RESUMO Contexto Em virtude da elevada prevalência da coinfecção pelos vírus da hepatite C (HCV) e da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) e às inúmeras complicações que esses vírus acarretam, é fundamental o maior entendimento do comportamento biológico dos mesmos. O polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único rs1045642 C3435T do gene de resistência a múltiplas drogas MDR1, no qual ocorre modificação do códon ATC para ATT, parece estar relacionado à resposta virológica sustentada ao tratamento do HCV em coinfectados HCV-HIV. Objetivo Mapear o polimorfismo C3435T do gene MDR1 em pacientes coinfectados HCV-HIV e correlacionar com dados clínicos e laboratoriais. Métodos Foram analisados 99 pacientes coinfectados HCV-HIV. A identificação molecular do polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único rs1045642 do gene MDR1 foi realizada pela técnica de PCR em tempo real (qPCR) alelo-específico com primers e sondas específicos para a identificação desse polimorfismo. Fatores de risco para a aquisição do HCV e a resposta virológica sustentada ao tratamento do HCV com interferon-alfa peguilado e ribavirina foram analisados. Resultados Dentre os pacientes avaliados, 54 (54,5%) eram do gênero masculino e 45 (45,5%) do gênero feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,1 anos (±9,8). As frequências dos genótipos CC, CT e TT foram 28,3%, 47,5% e 24,2% respectivamente, e as frequências alélicas foram 52% para alelo C e 48% para alelo T. Não houve associação entre o gene MDR1 e a resposta virológica sustentada (P=0,308). Conclusão Neste estudo, o polimorfismo C3435T no gene MDR1 não apresentou associação com a resposta virológica sustentada ao tratamento em indivíduos coinfectados HCV-HIV.

Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/genetics , Genes, MDR , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Coinfection/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(3): 180-184, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787349


ABSTRACT Background - The increase in the survival following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has seen the emergence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, renal and cardiovascular diseases as important morbidity and mortality causes together with HIV. Objective - The present study aimed to investigate the differences between HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected and HIV-monoinfected regarding demographic and clinical aspects from a HIV/AIDS clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods - Review of medical records of 1,030 HIV infected individuals aged 18 years or more in an urban HIV/AIDS clinic based in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Clinical and demographical Data were collected from the records of the patients attended between March 2008 and December 2012. Results - The present study is a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected patients attended at a public HIV/AIDS clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus in the present study cohort was 11.8% (CI 95%: 9.9%-13.8%). Hypertension and pathological proteinuria were more common in the coinfected compared to monoinfected group. By the other hand, dyslipidemia were more common among monoinfected patients. There was no difference between the groups regarding CD4+ count or HIV-RNA. Variables significant in the univariate analysis with P<0.05 were further analyzed using a Poisson regression model with robust variance. Coinfected were likely to be older, with lower lipid levels and higher prevalence of pathological proteinuria compared to HIV-monoinfected patients. Although coinfected patients had higher prevalence of tenofovir-based regimen, there was a strong association between hepatitis C virus individuals to pathological proteinuria and dyslipidemia. Conclusion - Clinicians should recognize that coinfected and monoinfected individuals are different groups regarding the traditional and HIV-related risk factors and should be managed and screened individually in order to prevent cardiovascular and renal complications.

RESUMO Contexto - O aumento da sobrevida após a introdução da terapia antirretroviral nos pacientes vivendo com HIV tem como consequência o aparecimento de doenças emergentes nestes pacientes, como a hepatite pelo vírus C, doenças renais e cardiovasculares. Objetivo - O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar as diferenças entre monoinfectados por HIV e coinfectados por HIV/virus da hepatite C, considerando aspectos demográficos e clínicos de pacientes atendidos em uma clínica de HIV/AIDS em Porto Alegre, Brasil. Métodos - Revisão de prontuários médicos de 1.030 indivíduos vivendo com HIV em uma clínica especializada em Porto Alegre, Brasil. Dados clínicos e demográficos foram coletados a partir dos registros dos pacientes atendidos entre março de 2008 e dezembro de 2012 na referida clínica. Resultados - O presente estudo é um estudo transversal com indivíduos vivendo com HIV, atendidos em um serviço municipal de HIV/AIDS em Porto Alegre, Brasil. A prevalência de hepatite pelo vírus C na presente coorte de estudo foi 11,8% (IC 95%: 9,9%-13,8%). Hipertensão e proteinúria patológica eram ocorrências mais comuns em coinfectados do que monoinfectados. Por outro lado, dislipidemia foi mais comuns entre monoinfectados. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto contagem de linfócitos CD4 totais ou HIV-RNA. Variáveis significativas na análise univariada com P<0,05 foram ainda analisadas usando um modelo de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Coinfectados eram mais velhos, com os níveis de lipídios mais baixos e maior prevalência de proteinúria patológica em comparação com indivíduos monoinfectados. Apesar de os coinfectados apresentarem maior prevalência de estarem em uso de regime contendo tenofovir, houve uma forte associação dos indivíduos infectados pelo vírus da hepatite C com proteinúria patológica e ausência de dislipidemia. Conclusão - Clínicos devem reconhecer que coinfectados e monoinfectados pertencem a grupos diferentes quanto aos fatores de risco tradicionais e aqueles associados ao HIV, devendo estes serem manejados e rastreados de forma individual, para prevenir complicações cardiovasculares e renais.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Proteinuria/urine , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Alcoholism/complications , Dyslipidemias/blood , Middle Aged
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(4): 252-257, Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778998


There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Public Health , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 519-522, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770122


Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main risk factors for the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in non-cirrhotic HCV patients, especially after sustained virological response (SVR) is an unusual event. Recently, it has been suggested that HCV genotype 3 may have a particular oncogenic mechanism, but the factors involved in these cases as well as the profile of these patients are still not fully understood. Thus, we present the case of a non-cirrhotic fifty-year-old male with HCV infection, genotype 3a, who developed HCC two years after treatment with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin, with SVR, in Brazil.

A infecção crônica pelo vírus da hepatite C é um dos principais fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de cirrose hepática e carcinoma hepatocelular. Entretanto, o surgimento do carcinoma hepatocelular em pacientes portadores de hepatite C na ausência de cirrose, especialmente após o tratamento e a obtenção de resposta virológica sustentada, é um evento incomum. Recentemente tem sido sugerido que o genótipo 3 do vírus da hepatite C possa ter um mecanismo oncogênico particular, mas todos os fatores envolvidos nestes casos, assim como o perfil destes pacientes, ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Deste modo, apresentamos o caso de um paciente masculino de 50 anos de idade, com infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C genótipo 3a, não cirrótico, que desenvolveu carcinoma hepatocelular dois anos após ter atingido resposta virológica sustentada com o tratamento com interferon peguilado e ribavirina.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hepacivirus/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
Clinics ; 70(10): 691-695, Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762957


OBJECTIVES:HIV-related renal diseases are the leading causes of chronic kidney diseases worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pathological proteinuria and its risk factors among HIV patients.METHODS:A review of the medical records of 666 HIV-infected individuals aged 18 years or older in an urban HIV/AIDS clinic based in Porto Alegre in southern Brazil. Overt proteinuria was defined as a protein-to-creatinine ratio greater than 150 mg/g according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes.RESULTS:The prevalence of pathological proteinuria in the present study cohort was 20%. Characteristics associated with pathological proteinuria after univariate analysis included alcohol abuse, hepatitis C virus coinfection, the occurrence of diabetes and therapy including tenofovir. Adjusted residuals analysis indicated an association between pathological proteinuria and both a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3 and a viral load higher than 1000 copies/mL. Additionally, an absence of pathological proteinuria was associated with a CD4 lymphocyte count higher than 500 cells/mm3. After adjustment for variables with p<0.2 in the univariate analysis using a Poisson regression model, tenofovir-containing regimens and a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3 were significantly associated with pathological proteinuria.CONCLUSION:The risk of chronic kidney diseases in this large contemporary cohort of HIV-infected individuals appeared to be attributable to a combination of HIV-related risk factors. In addition to the traditional risk factors cited in the literature, both regimens containing tenofovir and HIV disease severity seem to be associated with chronic kidney diseases in patients with HIV. Assessment of proteinuria constitutes a novel method for chronic kidney disease staging in HIV-infected individuals and may be effectively used to stratify the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Proteinuria/etiology , Risk Factors , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(1): 4-8, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746483


Background Caffeine consumption has been associated to decreased levels of liver enzymes and lower risk of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the association between caffeine consumption and inflammatory activity or degree of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated in an outpatient Gastroenterology Unit of Santa Casa Hospital (Porto Alegre - Brasil). Patients were interviewed regarding the consumption of caffeine and anthropometric assessment was performed. Liver biopsy was performed in a maximum period of 36 months before inclusion in the study Results There were 113 patients, 67 (59.3%) females, 48 (42.5%) were aged between 52 and 62 years, and 101 (89.4%) were white. The average caffeine consumption was 251.41 ± 232.32 mg/day, and 70 (62%) patients consumed up to 250 mg/day of caffeine. There was no association between caffeine consumption and inflammatory activity on liver biopsy. On the other hand, when evaluating the caffeine consumption liver fibrosis an inverse association was observed. Conclusions The greater consumption of caffeine was associated with lower liver fibrosis. There was no association between caffeine consumption and inflammatory activity. .

Contexto O consumo de cafeína tem sido relacionado à diminuição dos níveis de enzimas hepáticas e menor risco de fibrose em pacientes portadores do vírus da hepatite C. Objetivo O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a associação do consumo da cafeína com a atividade inflamatória e o grau de fibrose hepática em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C. Métodos Estudo transversal, constituído por pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia do Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa (Porto Alegre - Brasil). Os pacientes foram entrevistados e avaliados individualmente quanto ao consumo de cafeína e antropometria. A biópsia hepática foi realizada em um período de no máximo 36 meses antes da inclusão no estudo. Resultados Foram avaliados 113 pacientes, sendo 67 (59,3%) do sexo feminino, 48 (42,5%) apresentavam idade entre 52 e 62 anos, e 101 (89,4%) eram de cor branca. O consumo médio de cafeína foi de 251,41 ± 232,32 mg/dia, sendo que 70 (62%) pacientes consumiam até 250 mg/dia de cafeína. Não houve associação entre o consumo de cafeína e a atividade inflamatória na biópsia hepática. Por outro lado, quando avaliada a associação entre o consumo de cafeína e fibrose hepática observou-se relação inversa. Conclusões O maior consumo de cafeína apresentou associação com menor grau de fibrose hepática. Não houve associação entre o consumo de cafeína e a atividade inflamatória. .

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index