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Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 25: e93577, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529712


Abstract High physical overload during the workday and some conditions present in the workplace can generate several losses in the worker's health. The use of tools capable of identifying physical load (PL), such as heart rate (HR) analysis, is essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the physical load and heart rate behavior of workers in the slaughterhouse. The cardiovascular load reached by two individuals was 12% and 24%. In relation to the PL rating, they fit as moderately heavy to heavy work. The HR, was higher at the end of the work when compared to the beginning. Furthermore, it was pointed out that the temperature, noise, and body mass index were above normality values. The physical workload was classified as moderately heavy to heavy. The limit HR was reached in some moments of the work by one of the workers and two of them reached higher HR values at the end of the work.

Resumo A elevada sobrecarga física durante a jornada de trabalho e algumas condições presentes no ambiente de trabalho podem gerar diversos prejuízos na saúde do trabalhador. A utilização de ferramentas capazes de identificar a carga física (CF), como a análise da frequência cardíaca (FC), é fundamental. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o comportamento da carga física e da frequência cardíaca dos trabalhadores de frigorífico. A carga cardiovascular alcançada por dois indivíduos foi de 12% e 24%. Em relação à classificação da CF, enquadram-se como trabalhos moderadamente pesados ​​a pesados. A FC, foi maior no final do trabalho quando comparado ao início. Além disso, apontou-se que a temperatura, o ruído e o índice de massa corporal estavam acima dos valores da normalidade. A CF de trabalho foi classificada como moderadamente pesada a pesada. A FC limite foi atingida em alguns momentos do trabalho por um dos trabalhadores e dois deles atingiram valores maiores de FC ao final do trabalho.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 38(2): 235-243, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431516


ABSTRACT Introduction: Participants in cardiac rehabilitation programs have low adherence to their sessions, which makes extremely important to recognize the barriers that cause non-adherence, identifying whether the type of service and level of adherence influence these barriers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study, in which 220 individuals (66.80±11.59 years) of both genders who are members of public and private exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programs participated. The volunteers were divided according to the level of adherence, considering patients with low adherence (PLA) those with < 70% of attendance and high adherence (PHA) those with > 70%. Then, initial evaluation, Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale, analysis of socioeconomic level, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination were applied. Results: Higher total barriers were found in PLA in the public service compared to PHA in the private service (P=0.023). In the subscale "perceived need", PHA in the public service showed higher values than PLA and PHA in the private service (P≤0.001). The "access" barrier was higher for PHA in the public service when compared to PHA in the private service (P=0.024). PHA in the public service exhibited a higher barrier regarding questions about distance, transportation problems, cost, and time constraints. Conclusion: The public program presents higher barriers in the questions and categories compared to the private program, mainly the PHA. Furthermore, there are differences in the profile of the participants regarding socioeconomic and anxiety levels, treatment time, ethnicity, and city where they live.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(7): 689-698, July 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403511


Abstract Background The Parkinson disease (PD) is frequently associated with autonomic dysfunctions. However, data regarding the influence of PD on the autonomic responses to postural changes is limited. Objective To analyze and compare the autonomic responses, evaluated through linear and non-linear methods of heart rate variability, and cardiorespiratory parameters in two groups: Parkinson disease (PDG) and control (CG), at rest and during the active tilt test. Methods A total of 48 participants were analyzed (PDG: n = 25;73.40 ± 7.01 years / CG: n = 23;70.17 ± 8.20 years). The autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory parameters were evaluated at rest and during the active tilt test. To assess the autonomic modulation the linear indices, at the time (rMSSD, SDNN) and frequency (LF, HF, LF/HF) domains, and the non-linear indices, obtained through the Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2), were calculated. The cardiorespiratory parameters evaluated were heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and respiratory rate. Results At rest, the PDG presented significantly lower values of rMSSD, SDNN, LF, HF, SD1, SD2, and DBP, and higher values of SpO2. During test, in the PD group, modifications were observed in HR, and SBP, besides a reduced parasympathetic response, and an increased global modulation. The qualitative analysis of the Poincaré plot showed that the PDG has a lower dispersion of the RR intervals during rest and the active tilt test. Conclusion Individuals with PD present reduced global variability and parasympathetic modulation at rest, and reduced parasympathetic response and damage in HR regulation when performing the active tilt test, compared with controls.

Resumo Antecedentes A doença de Parkinson (DP) está frequentemente associada a disfunções autonômicas. Porém, dados sobre a influência da DP nas respostas autonômicas às mudanças posturais são limitados. Objetivos Analisar e comparar as respostas autonômicas, avaliadas por métodos lineares e não lineares de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios em dois grupos: DP (GDP) e controle (CG), em repouso e durante o tilt test ativo. Métodos Foram analisados 48 participantes (GDP: n = 25;73,40 ± 7,01 anos/GC: n = 23; 70,17 ± 8,20 anos). A modulação autonômica e os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios foram avaliados em repouso e durante o tilt test ativo. Para avaliar a modulação autonômica foram calculados os índices lineares, nos domínios do tempo (rMSSD, SDNN) e frequência (LF, HF, LF/HF), e os índices não lineares, obtidos através do plot de Poincaré (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2). Os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios avaliados foram frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD), saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2) e frequência respiratória. Resultados Em repouso, o GDP apresentou valores menores de rMSSD, SDNN, LF, HF, SD1, SD2 e PAD, e maiores valores de SpO2. No teste, foram observadas modificações na FC e na PAS, redução da resposta parassimpática e aumento da modulação global no GDP. A análise qualitativa do plot de Poincaré mostrou que o GDP apresentou menor dispersão dos intervalos RR no repouso e no tilt test ativo. Conclusão Indivíduos com DP apresentam redução da variabilidade global e modulação parassimpática em repouso, redução da resposta parassimpática e prejuízo na regulação da FC ao realizar o tilt test ativo, em comparação aos controles.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(6): 593-600, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393971


ABSTRACT Background: Intrinsic changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) affect the autonomic nervous system, and the disease course can aggravate the initial condition. Although the impact of time since disease onset on autonomic modulation has already been studied in other populations, this has not yet been investigated in PD. Objective: To investigate the impact of the length of time since diagnosis on the cardiac autonomic modulation of individuals with PD and compare with healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty participants were divided into three groups: a control group (CG; n = 24) and two groups with PD, divided according to the median length of time since diagnosis (median = 5.5 years): below the median (PG1; n = 13) and above the median (PG2; n = 13). To evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation, heart rate was obtained beat-to-beat in the supine position over a 30-min period, and heart rate variability (HRV) indices were calculated using linear methods in the time and frequency domains. Results: There were no significant differences in HRV indices between the PG groups, or between the three groups regarding Mean RR, LFun, HFun and LF/HF ratio. Significant reductions in the RMSSD, SDNN, pNN50, LFms2 and HFms2 indices were observed in PG1 and PG2, compared with CG. Conclusions: The cardiac autonomic modulation of individuals with PD was not influenced by the time since diagnosis. However, reduced parasympathetic and global modulation were observed in these individuals, compared with controls. These results emphasize the importance of aerobic exercise for improving autonomic modulation among individuals with PD.

RESUMO Antecedentes: As alterações intrínsecas da doença de Parkinson (DP) afetam o sistema nervoso autônomo, e a evolução da doença pode agravar o quadro inicial. Em outras populações, o impacto do tempo desde o início da doença na modulação autonômica já foi estudado, mas na DP isso ainda não foi investigado. Objetivo: Investigar o impacto do tempo de diagnóstico na modulação autonômica cardíaca de indivíduos com DP e comparar os valores aos de indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Cinquenta participantes foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (GC; n=24) e dois grupos com DP, divididos de acordo com a mediana do tempo de diagnóstico (5,5 anos): abaixo (GP1; n=13) e acima da mediana (GP2; n=13). Para a avaliação da modulação autonômica cardíaca, a frequência cardíaca foi captada batimento a batimento em posição supina durante 30 minutos, e os índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) foram calculados utilizando métodos lineares nos domínios do tempo e frequência. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas para os índices de VFC entre os grupos GP, ou entre os três grupos para Mean RR, LFun, HFun e relação LF/HF. Foram observadas reduções significativas em RMSSD, SDNN, pNN50, LFms2 e HFms2, para GP1 e GP2 em comparação ao GC. Conclusões: A modulação autonômica cardíaca de indivíduos com DP não foi influenciada pelo tempo de diagnóstico, contudo, foi observada redução da modulação parassimpática e global nesses indivíduos em relação aos controles. Esses resultados reforçam a importância do exercício aeróbio para a melhora da modulação autonômica de indivíduos com DP.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 853-859, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387148


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare heart rate variability indices in early and late postmenopausal women and assess their correlation and prognostic value to predict late postmenopausal. METHODS: An observational and retrospective study was performed with the medical records of patients from Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between 2018 and 2019. We selected medical records of women with menopause, over 40 years old, which were divided into two groups, according to postmenopausal time, i.e., early and late postmenopausal. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 women (55 in the early and 68 in the late postmenopausal group). RRtri (triangular index) was lower in the late postmenopausal group (8.68 vs. 7.15, p=0.040). There was a significant weak negative correlation in SDNN, RRtri, and SD2 and postmenopausal time. RRtri presented the potential to predict late postmenopausal. CONCLUSION: The increase in postmenopausal time decreases global heart rate variability indices. The geometric index RRtri was significantly lower in late postmenopausal women and presented the potential to predict late postmenopausal.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(4): 450-455, Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376166


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a relationship between the number of comorbidities, autonomic modulation, and quality of life in patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient rehabilitation center in Presidente Prudente-SP, Brazil. A total of 27 participants (65.33±9.23 years) diagnosed with coronary artery disease were assessed, from a cardiac rehabilitation program, independent of sex or age. The number of comorbidities was evaluated using the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire, and quality of life was evaluated using the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (eight domains: functional capacity, physical aspects, pain, general health status, vitality, social aspects, emotional aspects, and mental health). To evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation, the heart rate was registered beat to beat using an heart rate monitor in the supine position during rest for 30 min. A total of 1000 RR intervals were considered to calculate linear (time domain: RMSSD, SDNN; frequency domain: LF, HF, LF/HF) and nonlinear indices (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2) of heart rate variability. RESULTS: A negative correlation was observed between the aggregation of comorbidities and the pain domain of the SF-36 (r=-0.427; p=0.03). No significant correlations were observed between other variables (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The number of comorbidities is inversely related to the pain domain of the SF-36, suggesting that a higher pain level is related to a higher number of comorbidities in coronary artery disease patients.

São Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 108-114, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357455


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) barriers are well-understood in high-resource settings. However, they are under-studied in low-resource settings, where access is even poorer and the context is significantly different, including two-tiered healthcare systems and greater socioeconomic challenges. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in characteristics of patients attending publicly versus privately funded CR and their barriers to adherence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, cross-sectional study in public and private CR programs offered in Brazil. METHODS: Patients who had been attending CR for ≥ 3 months were recruited from one publicly and one privately funded CR program. They completed assessments regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the CR Barriers Scale. RESULTS: From the public program, 74 patients were recruited, and from the private, 100. Participants in the public program had significantly lower educational attainment (P < 0.001) and lower socioeconomic status (P < 0.001). Participants in the private program had more cognitive impairment (P = 0.015), and in the public program more anxiety (P = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.008) than their counterparts. Total barriers among public CR participants were significantly higher than those among private CR participants (1.34 ± 0.26 versus 1.23 ± 0.15/5]; P = 0.003), as were scores on 3 out of 5 subscales, namely: comorbidities/functional status (P = 0.027), perceived need (P < 0.001) and access (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Publicly funded programs need to be tailored to meet their patients' requirements, through consideration of educational and psychosocial matters, and be amenable to mitigation of patient barriers relating to presence of comorbidities and poorer health status.

Humans , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35141, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404790


Abstract Introduction The International Physical Activity Ques-tionnaire (IPAQ) and Baecke inventory are commonly used in cardiovascular rehabilitation routines. Thus, it is understood that investigations on the equivalence of outcomes between these two tools may be relevant to measure the magnitude of possible reproducibility and correlations between them. Objective To compare in cardiac patients the level of physical activity obtained through the IPAQ and Baecke inventory and correlate outcomes obtained with a 6-minute walk test. Methods In total, 65 heart disease patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program (40 male and 25 female) were included, with a mean age of 65.8 ± 10.5 years. The data were obtained from the application of a standardized form, containing the proposed study objects, which were the IPAQ and Baecke inventory. In addition, data regarding anthropometric measurements (body mass, height, and body mass index - BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, and performance in the 6-minute walk test were measured. Results The main outcomes refer to the weak association between the instruments evaluated, which showed a strong relationship only between free time physical activity (r = 1), while in the other categories and when compared to the 6-minute walk test, the verified agreement was not significant. Conclusion The questionnaires are strongly equivalent only for free time physical activity, in the other categories and when compared to the 6-minute walk test, the agreement was not significant. Thus, based on the results, implementation in clinical practice considering the use of these tools with equivalence is not recommended.

Resumo Introdução O Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ) e o inventário de Baecke são comumente utilizados em rotinas de reabilitação cardiovascular. Assim, entende-se que investigações sobre a equiva-lência de desfechos entre essas duas ferramentas possam ser relevantes para mensurar a magnitude da possível reprodutibilidade e correlação entre tais métodos. Objetivo Comparar em cardiopatas o nível de atividade física obtido por meio do IPAQ e do Baecke e correlacionar desfechos obtidos com o teste de cami-nhada de 6 minutos (TC6). Métodos Foram incluídos no estudo 65 cardiopatias inseridos em um programa de reabilitação cardiovascular, sendo 40 do sexo masculino e 25 do sexo feminino, com idade média correspondente a 65,8 ± 10,5 anos. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de um formulário padronizado, contendo os objetos de estudo propostos (IPAQ e Baecke). Além disso, dados referentes a medidas antropométricas (massa corporal, estatura e índice de massa corpórea), relação de cintura quadril, pressão arterial e TC6 foram avaliados. Resultados Os principais desfechos se referem à fraca associação entre os instrumentos avaliados, que demonstraram relação forte somente entre atividade física de tempo livre (r = 1), sendo que nas demais categorias e quando comparadas ao TC6 a concordância verificada não apresentou significância estatística. Conclusão Os questionários se equivalem fortemente somente quando diz respeito à atividade física de tempo livre. Desta forma, não faz sentido a implementação de prática clínica que considere a utilização das ferramentas IPAQ e Baecke com equivalência, o que verificou-se não existir.

Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220014122, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406005


Abstract Aim: The objective of this study is to 1. Investigate in women with cardiac risk factors the acute responses of cardiac autonomic modulation and hemodynamic parameters during and after a dance-based cardiac rehabilitation session and II. Compare these responses with a conventional exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation session. Methods: This will be a crossover-clinical trial that will enroll women with at least one cardiac risk factor. The interventions consist of one dance-based (DB) and one traditional exercise-based (EB) session of cardiac rehabilitation, both composed of initial rest, warm-up, moderate-intensity physical exercise, fast recovery evaluation in orthostatic position, and slow recovery evaluation. The main outcomes are 1. Autonomic modulation, evaluated through heart rate variability linear and non-linear methods, and II. Hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate). All measures will be evaluated in specific moments during the initial rest, physical exercise, and recovery. Conclusion: The results will allow the safe inclusion of dance-based sessions in cardiac rehabilitation programs opening an important field of research to investigate the long-term effects on physical fitness and cardiac risk factors, as well as adherence and motivation to attend cardiac rehabilitation in the women population.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(9): 766-773, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345329


ABSTRACT Background: Analysis of autonomic modulation after postural change may inform the prognosis and guide treatment in different populations. However, this has been insufficiently explored among adolescents with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Objective: To investigate autonomic modulation at rest and in response to an active sitting test (AST) among adolescents with DMD. Methods: Fifty-nine adolescents were included in the study and divided into two groups: 1) DMD group: adolescents diagnosed with DMD; 2) control group (CG): healthy adolescents. Participants' weight and height were assessed. Lower limb function, motor limitations and functional abilities of the participants in the DMD group were classified using the Vignos scale, Egen classification and motor function measurement, respectively. The following variables were assessed before, during and after AST: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respiratory rate (f), oxygen saturation and heart rate (HR). To analyze the autonomic modulation, the HR was recorded beat-by-beat. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. Results: Differences in relation to groups were observed for all HRV indices, except LF/HF, oxygen saturation, HR and f (p < 0.05). Differences in relation to time and the interaction effect between group and time were observed for RMSSD, SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, LFms2 and LFnu, HFun, SBP and DBP (p < 0.05). Differences in relation to time were also observed for the indice SDNN, FC and f (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Performing the AST promoted reduced autonomic modulation and increased SBP, DBP and HR in adolescents with DMD.

Resumo Antecedentes: A análise da modulação autonômica após mudanças posturais pode gerar informações prognósticas e orientar o tratamento em diferentes populações. Porém, isso não foi suficientemente explorado em adolescentes com DMD. Objetivo: Investigar a modulação autonômica em repouso e em resposta ao teste ativo sentado (TAS) em adolescentes com DMD. Métodos: 59 adolescentes foram incluídos no estudo e divididos em dois grupos: 1) Grupo DMD: adolescentes com diagnóstico de DMD; 2) Grupo controle: adolescentes saudáveis. O peso e a altura dos participantes foram avaliados. No grupo DMD, a funcionalidade de membros superiores, limitações motoras, e habilidades funcionais foram classificadas pela escala de Vignos, Egen Klassification, e motor function measure respectivamente. Pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD), frequência respiratória (f), saturação de oxigênio, e frequência cardíaca (FC) foram avaliadas em repouso, durante e após o TAS. Para analisar a modulação autonômica, a FC foi registrada batimento a batimento. Os índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) foram calculados nos domínios do tempo e da frequência. Resultados: Diferenças entre os grupos foram observadas para todos os índices da VFC, exceto LF/HF, saturação de oxigênio, FC e f (p<0,05). Diferenças em relação ao tempo e interação entre grupo e tempo foram observadas para RMSSD, SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, LFms2, LFun, HFnu, SBP e DBP (p<0,05). Diferenças em relação ao tempo foram também observadas para o índice SDNN, FC e f (p<0,05). Conclusões: A realização do TAS promoveu redução da modulação autonômica e aumento da PAS, PAD e FC em adolescentes com DMD.

Humans , Adolescent , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Autonomic Nervous System , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Rate
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 149-156, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154545


Abstract Background Resistance training is effective in cardiac rehabilitation; however, it is conventionally performed using free weights or machines, which can pose logistic challenges to patients with restricted mobility. For its ease of access and cost-effectiveness, elastic tubing is a particularly appealing alternative, but it remains underutilized for this purpose. Objective To evaluate muscle strength, functional capacity, aerobic capacity, and quality of life in patients with heart disease in phase II of cardiovascular rehabilitation after a resistance training intervention based solely on elastic tubing. Methods Thirteen patients with heart disease (age 63.33±10.80 years) trained with elastic tubing twice weekly for 6 weeks, with progressive load increase every 15 days. The following muscle groups were evaluated and trained: shoulder abductors and flexors, elbow flexors, and knee flexors and extensors. Muscle strength was evaluated using a dynamometer; functional capacity, with a 6-minute walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise test; and quality of life, using the SF-36 questionnaire. Data normality was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The paired Student's t-test was used for comparisons before and after training, at a significance level of <5%. Results There were significant differences in muscle strength (except for elbow flexion) and functional capacity (485.5 ± 123.3 vs 578.7 ± 110.5; p=0.0399) after the intervention. No statistical differences were found in cardiorespiratory fitness or quality of life. Conclusions Short-term resistance training with elastic tubing improved peripheral muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with heart disease, and should be encouraged for this population. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; xx(x):xxx-xxx)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Resistance Training/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Exercise , Functional Residual Capacity , Muscle Strength , Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(2): 114-121, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153162


ABSTRACT Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) produces autonomic changes, indicating lower parasympathetic modulation and global variability, but these changes need further studying regarding geometric methods. Objective: To investigate the autonomic modulation in individuals with PD using heart rate variability (HRV) indices obtained through geometric methods. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that assessed 50 individuals, split into two groups: PD group (PDG; n=26; 75.36±5.21 years) and control group (CG; n=24; 75.36±5.21 years). We evaluated the autonomic modulation by measuring the heart rate beat-to-beat for 30 min with the individual in supine rest using a heart rate monitor and assessed geometric indices (RRtri, TINN, SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2 ratio, and qualitative analysis of the Poincaré plot). Results: Significant reductions were found in RRtri, TINN, SD1, and SD2 indices among PDG compared to CG. Regarding the SD1/SD2 ratio, no significant changes were detected between the groups. The Poincaré plot demonstrated that individuals with PD had lower beat-to-beat dispersion in RR intervals, in addition to greater long-term dispersion of RR intervals compared to CG. Conclusions: The results suggest a reduction in the parasympathetic autonomic modulation and global variability in individuals with PD compared to controls, regardless of sex, age, and body mass index.

RESUMO Introdução: A doença de Parkinson (DP) produz alterações autonômicas, que indicam menor modulação parassimpática e variabilidade global, mas que devem ser investigadas quanto aos métodos geométricos. Objetivo: Investigar a modulação autonômica em indivíduos com DP, por meio de índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) obtidos pelos métodos geométricos. Métodos: Estudo transversal, no qualforam avaliados 50 voluntários, divididos em dois grupos: o grupo doença de Parkinson (GDP; n=26; 75,36±5,21 anos) e o grupo controle (GC; n=24; 75,36±5,21 anos). Para a avaliação da modulação autonômica a frequência cardíaca foi captada batimento a batimento por meio de um cardiofrequencímetro com os indivíduos em decúbito dorsal por 30 min e índices geométricos da VFC foram avaliados (RRtri, TINN, SD1, SD2 e plot de Poincaré). Resultados: Houve reduções nos índices RRtri, TINN, SD1 e SD2 para o GDP em comparação ao GC. Para a relação SD1/SD2, diferenças significantes não foram observadas entre os grupos. O plot de Poincaré mostrou que indivíduos com DP têm menor dispersão batimento a batimento dos intervalos RR, bem como maior dispersão dos intervalos RR a longo prazo em relação ao GC. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem haver diminuição da modulação autonômica parassimpática e da variabilidade global em indivíduos com DP em relação a indivíduos sem a doença, as quais são independentes de sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal.

Humans , Parkinson Disease , Autonomic Nervous System , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Rate
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 26-35, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152974


Resumo Fundamento Poucos estudos já examinaram a relação do nível habitual de atividade física e a modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo (SNA) na qualidade do sono de fumantes. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar alterações na qualidade do sono de fumantes e sua relação com nível habitual de atividade física e modulação do SNA. Métodos Um total de 42 fumantes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o 50º percentil de atividade física de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV). A qualidade do sono foi avaliada utilizando-se o Mini-Sleep Questionnaire (mini questionário do sono), e a modulação do SNA foi avaliada por índices de variabilidade de frequência cardíaca (VFC). Para a análise de possíveis diferenças de média, foi utilizada a análise de covariância (ANCOVA) para ajuste de idade, gênero, composição corporal, maços-ano, betabloqueadores, ansiedade, e depressão, em log base 10, exceto por dados qualitativos, tais como gênero e betabloqueadores. Foram estabelecidas correlações utilizando-se a correlação de postos de Spearman. A significância estatística foi definida em 5%. Resultados Os fumantes que eram menos ativos demonstraram pior qualidade do sono (p=0,048) e insônia (p=0,045). Além disso, o grupo menos ativo apresentou redução na modulação parassimpática [HF (un; p=0,049); RMSSD (ms; p=0,047) e SD1 (ms; p=0,047)] e aumento do índice de LF (un) index (p=0,033) e razão LF/HF (p=0,040). Houve correlação positiva entre a pontuação total no Mini-sleep com o índice de LF (un) (r=0,317, p=0,041) e razão LF/HF (r=0,318, p=0,040) e correlação negativa com o índice de HF (un) (r= -0,322, p=0,038). Conclusões Fumantes com baixo nível de atividade física habitual apresentaram baixa qualidade do sono e alterações na modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Abstract Background Few studies have examined the relationship of one's habitual physical activity level and autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation on sleep quality in smokers. Objective The aim of this study was to identify changes in the sleep quality of smokers and its relation with their habitual physical activity level and ANS modulation. Methods Forty-two smokers were divided into two groups according to the 50th percentile of the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sleep quality was assessed using the Mini-sleep Questionnaire, and ANS modulation was assessed by indices of heart rate variability (HRV). To examine the possible mean differences, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used, adjusted for age, sex, body composition, pack-years, beta-blockers, anxiety, and depression in log base 10, not including qualitative data, such as sex and beta-blockers. Correlations were made by using the Spearman rank correlation. The statistical significance was set at 5% Results The smokers who were less active showed poor sleep quality (p=0.048) and insomnia (p=0.045). Furthermore, the less active group presented decreased parasympathetic modulation [HF (un; p=0.049); RMSSD (ms; p=0.047) and SD1 (ms; p=0.047)] and an increased LF (un) index (p=0.033) and LF/HF ratio (p=0.040). A positive correlation between the total Mini-sleep score with LF (un) index (r=0.317, p=0.041) and LF/HF ratio (r=0.318, p=0.040) and negative correlation with HF (un) index (r= -0.322, p=0.038). Conclusions Smokers with lower levels of habitual physical activity showed poor sleep quality and alterations in autonomic nervous system modulation; (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Autonomic Nervous System , Smokers , Sleep , Exercise , Heart Rate
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(3): 326-334, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154237


RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar e correlacionar o comportamento da depuração mucociliar e do sistema nervoso autônomo de fumantes após sessões de exercício aeróbico submáximo e máximo. Foram avaliados 25 fumantes e 15 não fumantes, entre 30 e 50 anos. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos ao teste do tempo de trânsito de sacarina (TTS) e variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) antes e após uma sessão de exercício submáximo (teste de caminhada de seis minutos) e máximo (teste de exercício cardiopulmonar). Teste t pareado ou Wilcoxon foi utilizado para análise intragrupos e o teste t não pareado ou Mann-Whitney para a análise intergrupos. A correlação foi realizada utilizando os coeficientes de Pearson ou Spearman (p <0,05). Houve redução significativa do TTS após exercícios submáximo e máximo em ambos os grupos. Após o exercício submáximo, ambos grupos apresentaram redução significativa do intervalo RR e aumento da FC em comparação ao repouso, no grupo de não fumantes houve reduções significativas nos índices RMSSD, HFms² e SD1. Após o exercício máximo, ambos grupos apresentaram reduções significativas no SDNN, RMSSD, intervalo RR, LF e HF, em ms² e un, SD1 e SD2, além do aumento da FC, LFun e da razão LF/HF. Houve correlação positiva entre TTS e LFms² (r = 0,520, p = 0,008) após o exercício máximo para o grupo de fumantes. Conclui-se que independentemente da intensidade do exercício aeróbio, houve um aumento na depuração mucociliar em fumantes, mas essa alteração parece ser influenciada pelo sistema nervoso autônomo apenas frente o exercício máximo.

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar y correlacionar el comportamiento de la depuración mucociliar y del sistema nervioso autónomo de fumadores después de sesiones de ejercicio aeróbico submáximo y máximo. Se evaluaron a 25 fumadores y a 15 no fumadores de entre 30 y 50 años de edad. Ambos grupos se sometieron a la prueba de tiempo de tránsito de sacarina (TTS) y la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC) antes y después de una sesión de ejercicio submáximo (prueba de caminata de seis minutos) y de ejercicio máximo (prueba de esfuerzo cardiopulmonar). Para el análisis intragrupo se utilizó la prueba t pareada o Wilcoxon, y para el análisis intergrupal, la prueba t no pareada o Mann-Whitney. Para realizar la correlación se utilizaron los coeficientes de Pearson o Spearman (p<0,05). Hubo una reducción significativa en TTS después de ejercicios submáximo y máximo en ambos grupos. Después del ejercicio submáximo, ambos grupos mostraron una reducción significativa en el intervalo RR y un aumento en la FC en comparación con el reposo; en el grupo de no fumadores hubo reducciones significativas en los índices RMSSD, HFms² y SD1. Después del ejercicio máximo, ambos grupos mostraron reducciones significativas en SDNN, RMSSD, intervalo RR, LF y HF, en ms² y un, SD1 y SD2, además de un aumento de FC, LFun y la relación LF/HF. Hubo una correlación positiva entre TTS y LFms² (r=0,520, p=0,008) después del ejercicio máximo para el grupo de fumadores. Se concluye que, de manera independiente a la intensidad del ejercicio aeróbico, hubo un aumento de la depuración mucociliar en los fumadores, pero este cambio parece haber sido influido por el sistema nervioso autónomo solamente en el ejercicio máximo.

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate and to correlate the behavior of mucociliary clearance and the autonomic nervous system of smokers after submaximal and maximal aerobic exercise sessions. We evaluated 25 smokers and 15 nonsmokers aged between 30 and 50 years. Both groups were submitted to the saccharin transit time (STT) test and heart rate variability (HRV) before and after a submaximal (six-minute walk test) and maximal (cardiopulmonary test) exercise. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon were used for intragroup analysis and the unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney for intergroup analysis. The correlation was performed using Pearson or Spearman coefficients (p<0.05). Saccharine transit time reduced significantly after submaximal and maximal exercises in both groups. After the submaximal exercise, both groups presented significant reduction of the RR interval and increased heart rate (HR). In the nonsmoker group there were significant reductions in the RMSSD, HFms² and SD1 indexes. After maximal exercise, both groups showed significant reductions in SDNN, RMSSD, RR, LF and HF interval, in ms² and normalized units, SD1 and SD2, in addition to the increase in HR, LFun, and LF/HF ratio. STT positively correlated with LFms² (r = 0.520, p = 0.008) after the maximal exercise for the smoker group. We concluded, that regardless of the intensity of aerobic exercise, mucociliary clearance increases in smokers, but this alteration seems to be influenced by the autonomic nervous system only during maximum exercise.

Motriz (Online) ; 26(1): e10200022, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135295


Abstract Aims: The influence of fluid replacement, realized during and after the exercise on individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains poorly understood. To investigate the influence of hydration on cardiac autonomic modulation, cardiorespiratory parameters and perceived exertion and discommodity, of coronary heart patients submitted to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) session. Methods: This cross-over clinical trial, will recruit 31 adults with more than 45 years old, participants of a cardiovascular rehabilitation program, with CAD diagnosis. The participants will be submitted to an experimental protocol composed of three phases: I) Maximal stress test; II) Control protocol (CP); and III) Hydration protocol (HP). The CP and HP will consist of 10 min of rest in a supine position, 15 min of warming, 40 min of treadmill exercise, 5 min of cooling down and 60 min of rest in a supine position. In the HP, the participants will be hydrated with mineral water, based on the bodyweight reduction of the CP. The water intake will be divided into eight equal portions, offered during the treadmill exercise and recovery period. On CP and HP will be evaluated linear and nonlinear indices of heart rate variability, the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen partial saturation, perceived exertion and discommodity on specifics moments. Conclusion: The results of this study will allow us to identify if the proposed protocol will be able to positively influence the outcomes and, consequently, if could be implement in the clinical practice.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Cardiac Rehabilitation/instrumentation , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Exercise Test/instrumentation
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 17(4): 530-536, 20-12-2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104021


Introdução: A saúde do trabalhador ganha destaque em âmbito científico, sendo tema de pesquisas e debates internacionais, apresentando o estresse laboral como potencial agente estressor. Objetivo: Caracterizar a incidência de sintomatologia referente à ansiedade e à depressão correlacionada aos níveis socioeconômicos em servidores técnico-administrativos de uma universidade estadual do estado de São Paulo. Métodos: A amostra foi composta de 89 participantes. Os dados foram obtidos por meio do inventário de sintomas de estresse para adultos de Lipp, para detectar o nível de estresse; da escala hospitalar de ansiedade e depressão, para análise de ansiedade e depressão; e de um questionário informativo para detectar o nível educacional e sociodemográfico. Resultados: Verificou-se que 47% dos participantes apresentaram sintomas de ansiedade e 39% de depressão, não havendo relação direta com o nível socioeconômico. Além disso, observou-se que, entre os indivíduos que apresentavam ansiedade, 50% eram docentes, e, do total de indivíduos com depressão, 38,4% eram do setor administrativo. O estresse encontra-se em maior escala nas categorias ensino superior (29,6%) e pós-graduados (33,3%). Conclusões: Os achados demonstraram elevada prevalência de ansiedade e depressão em todas as classes socioeconômicas investigadas. Ademais, indivíduos de nível educacional elevado são mais estressados que os de nível educacional inferior.

Background: Occupational health is increasing in visibility within the scientific community and has become a field of international research and discussions in which occupational stress is described as a possible stressor. Objective: To analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms and socioeconomic level among technical-administrative employees of a public university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The sample comprised 89 participants. Data were obtained through Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms for adults to identify levels of stress and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. An additional questionnaire was administered to gather information on educational and socioeconomic levels. Results: About 45% of the participants exhibited symptoms of anxiety and 39% of depression, however, without direct relationship with their socioeconomic level. Among the participants with depression 50% were professors, and among those with depression 38.4% were administrative employees. Stress was more frequent among the participants who had attended higher education (29.6%) and graduate studies (33.3%). Conclusion: The study results indicate a high prevalence of anxiety and depression regardless of the socioeconomic level of the participants. Stress was more frequent among the participants with higher educational level.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 555-563, May 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011184


Abstract Background: The use of autonomic modulation as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in women with breast cancer is important. Objective: To evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation of postmenopausal women using aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer treatment, as well as its relation with the following biochemical variables. Methods: Postmenopausal women who did not have breast cancer (n = 33) and postmenopausal women with breast cancer (n = 15). For evaluation of the autonomic modulation the heart rate was recorded beat-to-beat for 30 minutes and the series of RR intervals obtained were used to calculate the following heart rate variability indices: Mean RR ms, SDNN (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals, expressed in milliseconds) ms, Mean HR, RMSSD (square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR interval) ms, NN50 (number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by more than 50 ms) count, pNN50% (proportion of NN50 divided by total number of NNs), RRtri (RR triangular), TINN (triangular interpolation of NN interval) ms, SD1 ms, SD2 ms, LF ms2, HF ms2, LH/HF ms2. The values of biochemical variables (fasting glycemia, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein) were analyzed by blood sample. Results: Lower values of heart rate variability indices were observed in postmenopausal women with breast cancer in relation to postmenopausal women who did not have breast cancer: Mean RR (p = 0.03); SDNN (p = 0.03); RMSSD (p = 0.03); NN50 count (p = 0.03); pNN50 % (p = 0.03); RRtri (p = 0.02); SD1 (p = 0.01); SD2 (p = 0.02); LF ms2 (p = 0.01); HF ms2 (p = 0.03).There was an inversely proportional correlation between the indices SDNN, SD2, and HFms2 with triglycerides (SDNN p = 0.04; SD2 p = 0.04; HF ms2 p = 0.04). No statistically significant correlations were found between heart rate variability indices and others variables. Statistical significance was set at 5% for all analyses. Conclusion: Women with breast cancer present reduced autonomic modulation and in these women of heart rate variability indices are inversely correlated with triglyceride values.

Resumo Fundamentos: A modulação autonômica como um preditor de risco cardiovascular em mulheres com câncer de mama é importante. Objetivos: Avaliar a modulação autonômica em mulheres pós-menopausa em uso de inibidores de aromatase como tratamento de câncer de mama, e sua relação com algumas variáveis bioquímicas. Métodos: Foram avaliadas mulheres pós-menopausa sem câncer de mama (n = 33) e mulheres pós-menopausa com câncer de mama (n = 15). Para avaliação da modulação autonômica, a frequência cardíaca (FC) foi registrada batimento a batimento por 30 minutos, e as séries de intervalos RR obtidas foram usadas para o cálculo dos seguintes índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca: média de RR ms, SDNN (desvio padrão de todos os intervalos RR normais) ms, FC, RMSSD (raiz quadrada da média das diferenças ao quadrado entre os intervalos RR normais adjacentes) ms, contagem NN50 (número de pares de NNs sucessivos que se diferem em mais de 50 ms), pNN50% (proporção de NN50 dividida pelo número total de NNs), RRtri (RR triangular), TINN (interpolação triangular do intervalo NN) ms, DP1 ms, DP2 ms, LF (baixa frequência) ms2, HF (alta frequência) ms2, LH/HF ms2. Os valores das variáveis bioquímicas (glicemia de jejum, triglicerídeos, HDL-colesterol, e proteína C reativa) foram analisadas das amostras de sangue. O nível de significância adotado nas análises estatísticas foi de 5%. Resultados: As mulheres pós-menopausa com câncer de mama apresentaram menores índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em comparação àquelas sem câncer de mama: média de RR (p = 0,03); SDNN (p = 0,03); RMSSD (p = 0,03); contagem NN50 (p = 0,03); pNN50% (p = 0,03); RRtri (p = 0,02), DP1 (p = 0,01), DP2 (p = 0,02); LF ms2 (p = 0,01); HF ms2 (p = -0,03). Observou-se uma correlação inversamente proporcional dos índices SDNN, DP2 e HF ms2 com triglicerídeos (SDNN p = 0,04, DP2 p = 0,04; HF ms2 0,04). Não houve correlação significativa entre os índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e as demais variáveis. Conclusão: Mulheres com câncer de mama apresentam modulação autonômica diminuída e índices de variabilidade da FC inversamente correlacionados com valores de triglicerídeos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology , Postmenopause/physiology , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heart Rate/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Triglycerides , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Glycemic Index , Cholesterol, HDL
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 148-156, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001218


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of 16 weeks of periodized aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiac autonomic modulation and cardiovascular parameters of metabolic syndrome (Mets) individuals. Subjects and methods: The sample was composed of 52 subjects with a diagnosis of Mets, allocated into two groups: AIT (AITG; n = 26) and control (CG; n = 26). The AITG was submitted to a periodized AIT program, over 16 weeks, while CG was not submitted to any training program. To evaluate the autonomic modulation and cardiovascular parameters in both groups, heart rate variability (HRV) indices, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured at the beginning and end of the training. Results: Statistically significant differences were not observed in HFms2 (high frequency in milisseconds), LFnu (low frequency in normality unit), HFnu (high frequency in normality unit), and LF/HF ratio indices, or in the cardiovascular parameters BP and HR when comparing the AITG with the CG. However, significant increases in rMSSD (root-means square differences of successive R-R intervals), LFms2 (low frequency in milliseconds), and SDNN (standard deviation of normal to normal intervals) were observed in the AITG. Conclusion: Periodized AIT promoted positive effects on autonomic modulation of Mets subjects, characterized by an increase in the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and global modulation of this population. Additionally, cardiovascular parameter alterations were not observed in Mets subjects submitted to periodized AIT.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Heart Rate/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(1): 94-101, July 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950196


Abstract Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus can cause autonomic changes, which can be assessed by heart rate variability. Among the heart rate variability assessment methods, the symbolic analysis and Shannon entropy, based on the Chaotic dynamics, have gained prominence. Objective: To compare heart rate variability indexes, obtained through symbolic analysis and Shannon entropy, in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy young individuals, associated with the analysis of linear indexes; and to verify if there are associations between the indexes obtained by the symbolic analysis and by Shannon entropy and linear indexes in diabetic individuals. Methods: Heart rate variability data from 39 young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 43 healthy young individuals were analyzed, using a cardio-frequency meter. Linear indexes (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval expressed in milliseconds; square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval expressed in milliseconds; low and high frequency components in millisecond squared; and normalized units and ratio between low and high frequency components) and nonlinear ones (Shannon entropy and symbolic analysis - standard without variation; with one or two variations; and with two different variations) of the heart rate variability were calculated. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the confidence interval was 95%. Results: Significantly lower values were observed in the DM1 group compared to healthy young adults for the standard deviation indexes of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval [37.30 (29.90) vs. 64.50 (36.20); p = 0.0001], square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval [32.73 (17.43) vs. 55.59 (21.60); p = 0.0001], low frequency component [402.00 (531.00) vs. 1,203.00 (1,148.00); p = 0.0001], high frequency component [386.00 (583.00) vs. 963.00 (866.00); p = 0.0001] and the pattern with two different variations [15,33 (9,22) vs. 20.24 (12.73); p = 0.0114], with the effect of this difference being considered large (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval, square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval and low frequency component), medium (high frequency component) and small (standard with two different variations). The agreement of the associations between the linear and non-linear indexes was considered elevated for the high frequency component index - normalized units (r = -0.776), with the standard index without variation, and moderate for the indexes square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval (r = 0.550), standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval (r = 0.522), high frequency component - normalized units (r = 0.638) with the index standard with two similar variations, as well as for the indexes square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval (r = 0.627) and high frequency component - normalized units (r = 0.601) with the index standard with two different variations. Conclusion: Type 1 diabetes mellitus influenced linear indexes and symbolic analysis, but not yet in the complexity of heart rate variability. Additionally, heart rate variability indexes correlated with the symbolic dynamics.

Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes melito tipo 1 pode promover alterações autonômicas, que podem ser avaliadas pela variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Dentre os métodos da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca, têm ganhado destaque a análise simbólica e a entropia de Shannon, baseadas na dinâmica do caos. Objetivo: Comparar índices da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca obtidos por meio da análise simbólica e da entropia de Shannon, entre jovens com diabetes melito tipo 1 e jovens saudáveis, associados à análise de índices lineares; e verificar se há associações entre os índices obtidos pela análise simbólica e pela entropia de Shannon e índices lineares em indivíduos diabéticos. Métodos: Foram analisados dados da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca de 39 jovens com diabetes melito tipo 1 e 43 jovens saudáveis, obtidos por meio de um cardiofrequencímetro. Foram calculados os índices lineares (desvio padrão de todos os intervalos RR normais gravados em um intervalo de tempo expresso em milissegundo; raiz quadrada da média do quadrado das diferenças entre intervalos RR normais adjacentes em um intervalo de tempo expresso em milissegundo; componentes de baixa e alta frequência, em milissegundo ao quadrado; e unidades normalizadas e razão entre componente de baixa e alta frequência) e não lineares (entropia de Shannon e análise simbólica - padrão sem variação; com uma ou duas variações; e com duas variações diferentes) da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. A significância estatística adotada foi fixada em 5%, e o intervalo de confiança em 95%. Resultados: Foram observados valores significativamente menores no Grupo DM1 em comparação aos jovens saudáveis para os índices desvio padrão de todos os intervalos RR normais gravados em um intervalo de tempo [37,30 (29,90) vs. 64,50 (36,20); p = 0,0001], raiz quadrada da média do quadrado das diferenças entre intervalos RR normais adjacentes em um intervalo de tempo [32,73 (17,43) vs. 55,59 (21,60); p = 0,0001], componente de baixa frequência [402,00 (531,00) vs. 1.203,00 (1.148,00); p = 0,0001], componente de alta frequência [386,00 (583,00) vs. 963,00 (866,00); p = 0,0001] e padrão com duas variações diferentes [15,33 (9,22) vs. 20,24 (12,73); p = 0,0114], sendo o efeito desta diferença considerado grande (desvio padrão de todos os intervalos RR normais gravados em um intervalo de tempo, raiz quadrada da média do quadrado das diferenças entre intervalos RR normais adjacentes em um intervalo de tempo e componente de baixa frequência), médio (componente de alta frequência) e pequeno (padrão com duas variações diferentes). A concordância das associações entre os índices lineares e não lineares foi considerada elevada para o índice componente de alta frequência - unidades normalizadas (r = -0,776), com o índice padrão sem variação, e moderada para os índices raiz quadrada da média do quadrado das diferenças entre intervalos RR normais adjacentes em um intervalo de tempo (r = 0,550), desvio padrão de todos os intervalos RR normais gravados em um intervalo de tempo (r = 0,522), componente de alta frequência - unidades normalizadas (r = 0,638) com o índice padrão com duas variações similares, assim como para os índices raiz quadrada da média do quadrado das diferenças entre intervalos RR normais adjacentes em um intervalo de tempo (r = 0,627) e componente de alta frequência - unidades normalizadas (r = 0,601) com o índice padrão com duas variações diferentes. Conclusão: O diabetes melito tipo 1 influenciou nos índices lineares e na análise simbólica, mas ainda não na complexidade da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Além disso, índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca apresentaram correlação com a dinâmica simbólica.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Time Factors , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Entropy