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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1355-1362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This phase II, open-label, multicenter study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a rituximab intensification for the 1st cycle with every 21-day of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP-21) among patients with previously untreated advanced-stage or bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). @*Materials and Methods@#Ninety-two patients with stage III/IV or bulky DLBCL from 21 institutions were administered 8 cycles of R-CHOP-21 with an additional one dose of rituximab intensification on day 0 of the 1st cycle (RR-CHOP). The primary endpoint was a complete response (CR) rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy. @*Results@#Among the 92 DLBCL patients assessed herein, the response rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy was 88.0% (38.0% CR+50.0% partial response [PR]). After the completion of 8 cycles of chemotherapy, the overall response rate was observed for 68.4% (58.7% CR+9.8% PR). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 64.0%, and the 3-year overall survival rate was 70.4%. Febrile neutropenia was one of the most frequent grade 3 adverse events (40.0%) and 5 treatment-related deaths occurred. Compared with the clinical outcomes of patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy as a historical control, the interim CR rate was higher in male patients with RR-CHOP (20.5% vs. 48.8%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Rituximab intensification on days 0 to the 1st cycle of the standard 8 cycles R-CHOP-21 for advanced DLBCL yielded favorable response rates after the 3 cycles of chemotherapy and acceptable toxicities, especially for male patients. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01054781.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1031-1047, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999776

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We intend to evaluate the efficacy of salvage treatments for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL) through meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#R/R DLBCL trials were divided into two groups based on eligibility for autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), and meta-analysis of each group was performed. Random effects models were used to estimate the 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy was used as reference treatment. @*Results@#Twenty-six ASCT-eligible cohorts from 17 studies comprising 2,924 patients and 59 ASCT-ineligible cohorts from 53 studies comprising 3,617 patients were included in the pooled analysis. In the ASCT-eligible group, the pooled 1-year PFS rate was 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.65) for the CAR T-cell group and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.37) for the group with chemotherapy followed by ASCT intention. The two treatments were not significantly different in meta-regression analysis. In the ASCT-ineligible group, the pooled 1-year PFS was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.46) for CAR T-cell, and the highest primary outcome was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.57) for the tafasitamab group. CAR T-cell therapy showed significantly better outcomes than chemotherapy and therapies based on ibrutinib, lenalidomide, and selinexor. However, loncastuximab, polatuzumab plus bendamustine and rituximab, and the tafasitamab group showed no different efficacy than CAR T-cell therapy after adjusting for median number of previous lines of treatment. @*Conclusion@#Although several regimens were crudely grouped for classification, CAR T-cell therapy did not outperform chemotherapy followed by ASCT in the second-line setting or several recently developed agents in the ASCT-ineligible setting.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 684-692, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We conducted a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registry study for newly diagnosed patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to better define the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and the role of upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with PTCL receiving chemotherapy with curative intent were registered and prospectively monitored. All patients were pathologically diagnosed with PTCL. @*Results@#A total of 191 patients with PTCL were enrolled in this prospective registry study. PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most common pathologic subtype (n=80, 41.9%), followed by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (n=60, 31.4%). With a median follow-up duration of 3.9 years, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 39.5% and 60.4%, respectively. The role of upfront ASCT was evaluated in patients who were considered transplant-eligible (n=59). ASCT was performed as an upfront consolidative treatment in 32 (54.2%) of these patients. There were no significant differences in PFS and OS between the ASCT and non-ASCT groups for all patients (n=59) and for patients with PTCL-NOS (n=26). However, in patients with AITL, the ASCT group was associated with significantly better PFS than the non-ASCT group, although there was no significant difference in OS. @*Conclusion@#The current study demonstrated that the survival outcomes with the current treatment options remain poor for patients with PTCL-NOS. Upfront ASCT may provide a survival benefit for patients with AITL, but not PTCL-NOS.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 291-303, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966496

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could reflect the genetic alterations present in tumor tissues. However, there is little information about the clinical relevance of cell-free DNA genotyping in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). @*Materials and Methods@#After targeted sequencing plasma cell-free DNA of patients with various subtypes of PTCL (n=94), we analyzed the mutation profiles of plasma ctDNA samples and their predictive value of dynamic ctDNA monitoring for treatment outcomes. @*Results@#Plasma ctDNA mutations were detected in 53 patients (56%, 53/94), and the detection rate of somatic mutations was highest in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (24/31, 77%) and PTCL, not otherwise specified (18/29, 62.1%). Somatic mutations were detected in 51 of 66 genes that were sequenced, including the following top 10 ranked genes: RHOA, CREBBP, KMT2D, TP53, IDH2, ALK, MEF2B, SOCS1, CARD11, and KRAS. In the longitudinal assessment of ctDNA mutation, the difference in ctDNA mutation volume after treatment showed a significant correlation with disease relapse or progression. Thus, a ≥ 1.5-log decrease in genome equivalent (GE) between baseline and the end of treatment showed a significant association with better survival outcomes than a < 1.5-log decrease in GE. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest the clinical relevance of plasma ctDNA analysis in patients with PTCL. However, our findings should be validated by a subsequent study with a larger study population and using a broader gene panel.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 304-313, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966487

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard management for relapsed or high-risk non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). We reported the busulfan, melphalan, and etoposide (BuME) conditioning regimen was effective in patients with relapsed or high-risk NHL. Moreover, the busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (BuCE) conditioning regimen has been used widely in ASCT for NHL. Therefore, based on these encouraging results, this randomized phase II multicenter trial compared the outcomes of BuME and BuCE as conditioning therapies for ASCT in patients with NHL. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were randomly assigned to receive either BuME (n=36) or BuCE (n=39). The BuME regimen was comprised of busulfan (3.2 mg/kg/day, intravenously) administered on days –7, –6, and –5, etoposide (400 mg/m2 intravenously) on days –5 and –4, and melphalan (50 mg/m2/day intravenously) on days –3 and –2. The BuCE regimen was comprised of busulfan (3.2 mg/kg/day intravenously) on days –7, –6, and –5, etoposide (400 mg/m2/day intravenously) on days –5 and –4, and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg/day intravenously) on days –3 and –2. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). @*Results@#Seventy-five patients were enrolled. Eleven patients (30.5%) in the BuME group and 13 patients (33.3%) in the BuCE group had disease progression or died. The 2-year PFS rate was 65.4% in the BuME group and 60.6% in the BuCE group (p=0.746). There were no non-relapse mortalities within 100 days after transplantation. @*Conclusion@#There were no significant differences in PFS between the two groups. Therefore, busulfan-based conditioning regimens, BuME and BuCE, may be important treatment substitutes for the BCNU-containing regimens.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 314-324, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966486

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Prognostic Index for Natural Killer Lymphoma (PINK) is the most widely accepted prognostic model for patients withextranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) treated with non-anthracycline–based therapy. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of serum β-2 microglobulin (β2M) in the context of PINK and proposed a new prognostic model. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 138 patients who were newly diagnosed with ENKTL and treated with non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy were identified. The cut-off value of high serum β2M was calculated by maximal-chi square methods (4.1 mg/L). A new prognostic model incorporating serum β2M into PINK was proposed and validated in an independent validation cohort (n=88). @*Results@#The patients’ median age was 53.5 years (range, 19 to 80 years). Patients with high serum β2M levels had significantly worse overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In multivariate analysis, high serum β2M was an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS. A new PINK-B (Prognostic Index for Natural Killer Lymphoma-serum β-2 microglobulin) model stratifiedpatients into three groups with distinct OS and PFS in the training cohort (3-year OS, 84.1% [95% confidence interval, 75.1 to 94.2], 46.8% [36.1 to 60.8] and 17.6% [6.3 to 49.2] for the low-, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively; 3-year PFS, 70.6% [59.4 to 83.8], 35.9% [25.9 to 49.8], and 7.35% [1.1 to 46.7] for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively). The PINK-B model was further validated in an independent cohort. @*Conclusion@#Serum β2M is an independent prognostic factor for ENKTL patients. The new serum β2M-based prognostic model may be useful for identifying ultra-high-risk patients, and it can easily be adopted into daily clinical practice.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 325-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966481

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Although substantial improvement has been achieved by the frontline rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy, up to 40%-50% of patients will eventually have relapsed or refractory disease, whose prognosis is extremely dismal. @*Materials and Methods@#We have carried out two prospective cohort studies that include over 1,500 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP (#NCT01202448 and #NCT02474550). In the current report, we describe the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients. Patients were defined to have refractory DLBCL if they met one of the followings, not achieving at least partial response after 4 or more cycles of R-CHOP; not achieving at least partial response after 2 or more cycles of salvage therapy; progressive disease within 12 months after autologous stem cell transplantation. @*Results@#Among 1,581 patients, a total of 260 patients met the criteria for the refractory disease after a median time to progression of 9.1 months. The objective response rate of salvage treatment was 26.4%, and the complete response rate was 9.6%. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.4 to 8.6), and the 2-year survival rate was 22.1%±2.8%. The median OS for each refractory category was not significantly different (p=0.529). @*Conclusion@#In line with the previous studies, the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients were extremely poor, which necessitates novel approaches for this population.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 597-612, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925679

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in blood could allow noninvasive genetic analysis of primary tumors. Although there have been unmet needs for noninvasive methods in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), it is still not determined whether plasma ctDNA analysis could be useful for patients with PCNSL. @*Materials and Methods@#Targeted deep sequencing of 54 genes was performed in cell-free DNA isolated from plasma samples collected pretreatment, during treatment, and at the end of treatment in 42 consecutively diagnosed PCNSL patients between January 2017 and December 2018. @*Results@#Targeted sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA detected somatic mutations representing ctDNA in 11 cases (11/41, 27%). The detection of ctDNA was not related to the concentration of cell-free DNA or tumor volume. The mutation profiles of these 11 cases varied between patients. The most frequently mutated gene was PIM1 (4/11, 36.4%), whereas KMT2D, PIK3CA, and MYD88 were each observed in three patients (3/11, 27%). The mutations of 13 genes were concordantly found in primary tumor tissue and plasma ctDNA, giving a detection sensitivity of 45%. During the serial tracking of seven patients with complete response, the disappearance of ctDNA mutations was found in four patients, whereas three patients had detected ctDNA mutation at the end of treatment. @*Conclusion@#The plasma ctDNA mutation analysis still has limited value for surveillance and predicting treatment outcomes of PCNSL because the detection efficiency was lower than other systemic lymphomas. Thus, analytical platforms should be improved to overcome anatomical hurdles associated with PCNSL.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 847-856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897461

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum β2-microglobulin for patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and to propose a risk-stratifying classification system. @*Materials and Methods@#A prospective registry-based cohort study of BL patients treated with dose-intensive or effective dose-adjusted chemotherapies (n=81) was conducted. Survival outcomes were compared based on previously reported risk groups and/or serum β2-microglobulin levels. A risk-stratifying classification system incorporating serum β2-microglobulin levels was proposed and validated in an independent validation cohort (n=60). @*Results@#The median age was 47 years, and 57 patients (70.4%) were male. Patients with high serum β2-microglobulin levels (> 2 mg/L) had significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p 2 mg/L) was independently associated with a shorter PFS (hazards ratio [HR], 3.56; p=0.047) and OS (HR, 4.66; p=0.043). The new classification system incorporating the serum β2-microglobulin level allowed the stratification of patients into three distinct risk subgroups with 5-year OS rates of 100%, 89.5%, and 62.5%. In an independent cohort of BL, the system was validated by stratifying patients with different survival outcomes. @*Conclusion@#Serum β2-microglobulin level is an independent prognostic factor for BL patients. The proposed β2-microglobulin–based classification system could stratify patients with distinct survival outcomes, which may help define appropriate treatment approaches for individual patients.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 668-678, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903705

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 668-678, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896001

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 847-856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889757

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum β2-microglobulin for patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and to propose a risk-stratifying classification system. @*Materials and Methods@#A prospective registry-based cohort study of BL patients treated with dose-intensive or effective dose-adjusted chemotherapies (n=81) was conducted. Survival outcomes were compared based on previously reported risk groups and/or serum β2-microglobulin levels. A risk-stratifying classification system incorporating serum β2-microglobulin levels was proposed and validated in an independent validation cohort (n=60). @*Results@#The median age was 47 years, and 57 patients (70.4%) were male. Patients with high serum β2-microglobulin levels (> 2 mg/L) had significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p 2 mg/L) was independently associated with a shorter PFS (hazards ratio [HR], 3.56; p=0.047) and OS (HR, 4.66; p=0.043). The new classification system incorporating the serum β2-microglobulin level allowed the stratification of patients into three distinct risk subgroups with 5-year OS rates of 100%, 89.5%, and 62.5%. In an independent cohort of BL, the system was validated by stratifying patients with different survival outcomes. @*Conclusion@#Serum β2-microglobulin level is an independent prognostic factor for BL patients. The proposed β2-microglobulin–based classification system could stratify patients with distinct survival outcomes, which may help define appropriate treatment approaches for individual patients.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 946-956, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831802

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are limited data about the influence of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement on the prognosis for patients with the Asian variant of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). @*Methods@#We analyzed 46 patients who were diagnosed with IVLBCL between 2001 and 2018. All patients were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). @*Results@#CNS involvement was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis (n = 6) and brain imaging (n = 5) in 11 patients at diagnosis, and four cases with CNS relapse were found. Thus, 15 patients had CNS involvement (15/46, 33%). The clinical characteristics were not different between patients with and without CNS involvement, but all patients with CNS involvement belonged to the high-risk group of CNS-International Prognostic Index (IPI). Thirty-one patients achieved a complete response (67%, 31/46) whereas eight patients showed disease progression and six patients died after the first or second cycle of R-CHOP. CNS-directed therapy such as high-dose methotrexate was combined with R-CHOP for patients with CNS involvement, and five patients were alive without relapse. The median overall survival of all patients was 45.0 months, and overall survival was not different according to the involvement of CNS. @*Conclusions@#The treatment outcome of patients with the Asian variant of IVLBCL is still not satisfactory. The prediction of CNS involvement based on the clinical features including CNS-IPI score might not serve to identify patients at high risk of CNS involvement, either. Thus, more effective strategies for diagnosis and treatment should be developed.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 194-204, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831768

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world data about the treatment outcomes of patients receiving rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance are required to understand better the treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). @*Methods@#A cross-sectional study analyzed FL patients who were treated with R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and rituximab maintenance. @*Results@#Of 139 patients, 85 patients received R-CVP and 54 received R-CHOP. The characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. Only grade 3 of FL was more common in R-CHOP. The complete response rate did not differ significantly between R-CHOP (50/54, 92.6%) and R-CVP (77/85, 90.6%). The number of disease relapses during rituximab maintenance did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.798). Therefore, the comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) showed no significant difference: the 3-year PFS rates for R-CVP and R-CHOP were 77% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.567). Although five of 56 hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients experienced HBV reactivation, all cases of HBV reactivation were identified during regular monitoring for HBV DNA in blood, and were successfully managed with antiviral treatment. @*Conclusions@#The survival outcomes of FL patients on rituximab maintenance after responding to R-CVP or R-CHOP were similar. Rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance can be safely used for anti-HBc-positive patients if HBV DNA titer in blood can be regularly monitored.

15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 374-387, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831060

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcome of brentuximab vedotin (BV) has not been related with CD30 expressionin previous studies enrolling patients with a wide range of CD30 expression level.Thus, this study explored the efficacy of BV in high-CD30–expressing non-Hodgkin lymphoma(NHL) patients most likely to benefit. @*Materials and Methods@#This phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02280785) enrolled relapsed or refractory high-CD30–expressing NHL, with BV administered intravenously at 1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks.The primary endpoint was > 40% disease control rate, consisting of complete response(CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease. We defined high CD30 expression as ! 30%tumor cells positive for CD30 by immunohistochemistry. @*Results@#High-CD30-expressing NHL patients (n=33) were enrolled except anaplastic large cell lymphoma.The disease control rate was 48.5% (16/33) including six CR and six PR; six patients(4CR, 2PR) maintained their response over 16 completed cycles. Response to BV and survivalwere not associated with CD30 expression levels. Over a median of 29.2 months offollow-up, the median progression-free and overall survival rates were 1.9 months and 6.1months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fever (39%), neutropenia(30%), fatigue (24%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (27%). In a post-hoc analysis forthe association of multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) on treatment outcome, MUM1-negative patients showed a higher response (55.6%, 5/9) than MUM1-positive patients(13.3%, 2/15). @*Conclusion@#BV performance as a single agent was acceptable in terms of disease control rates and toxicityprofiles, especially MUM1-negative patients.

16.
Blood Research ; : 85-90, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830998

ABSTRACT

Background@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cHL). We analyzed the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab or nivolumab in patients with pretreated cHL. @*Methods@#Clinical data from the cancer chemotherapy registry of Samsung Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed to study patients with cHL treated with pembrolizumab or nivolumab between Oct 2015 and Dec 2018. @*Results@#Of the 20 patients, seven (35%) were enrolled in the study after a relapse following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and 12 (60%) after a relapse following receipt of brentuximab vedotin (BV). Sixteen (80%) patients received pembrolizumab, and four (20%) patients received nivolumab. The complete remission rate was 45% (9/20), and 30% (6/20) of patients achieved partial remission, for an overall response rate (RR) of 75% [15/20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 34.7‒93.3]. With a median follow-up duration of 14 months, the median PFS was 18 months (95% CI, 2.4‒33.5 mo), and the median OS was 36 months [95% CI, 36-not applicable (NA) mo]. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab were generally well tolerated. @*Conclusion@#In this study, pembrolizumab and nivolumab both demonstrated clinical efficacy and tolerability in patients with cHL who failed previous chemotherapy or ASCT.

17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1302-1312, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763229

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a type of body cavity–based lymphoma (BCBL). Most patients with PEL are severely immunocompromised and seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated the distinctive clinicopathologic characteristics of BCBL in a country with low HIV burden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of 17 consecutive patients with BCBL at nine institutions in Korea. RESULTS: Latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) immunostaining indicated that six patients had PEL, six patients had human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-unrelated BCBL, and five patients had HHV8-unknown BCBL. The patients with PEL exhibited no evidence of immunodeficiency except for one who was HIV positive. One (20%) and four (80%) patients with PEL and six (100%) and zero (0%) patients with HHV8-unrelated BCBL were positive for CD20 and CD30 expression, respectively. The two patients with PEL (one HIV-positive and one HIV-negative patient) with the lowest proliferation activity as assessed by the Ki-67 labeling index survived for > 1 and > 4 years without chemotherapy, respectively, in contrast to the PEL cases in the literature, which mostly showed a high proliferation index and poor survival. CONCLUSION: PEL mostly occurred in ostensibly immunocompetent individuals and had a favorable outcome in Korea. A watchful waiting approach may be applicable for managing HIV-seronegative patients with PEL with a low Ki-67 labeling index. A possible trend was detected among LANA1, CD20, and CD30 expression in BCBL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Therapy , Herpesvirus 8, Human , HIV , Korea , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Primary Effusion , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Watchful Waiting
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 547-555, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763139

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Duodenal-type follicular lymphoma (FL) is a rare variant of FL. There is still no consensus on the initial treatment, and clinical features including endoscopic findings are not familiar to most physicians. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients who were initially treated with radiation therapy for duodenal-type FL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients who were consecutively diagnosed with duodenal-type FL between 2008 and 2017. All patients received radiation therapywith curative intent. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 52 years (range, 26 to 66 years), and females were predominant. Most patients (n=18, 90%) had stage I disease, and were diagnosed by a regular health examination in an asymptomatic state. The histological grade was one in 19 patients (95%), and the endoscopic findings were diffuse nodular (n=8), whitish granular (n=8), and mixed pattern (n=4). Radiation therapy was delivered to 17 patients with 24 Gy in 12 fractions, and to three patients with 30.6-36 Gy in 18 fractions. All patients were evaluated with endoscopy for response to radiation therapy, and complete response was achieved in 19 patients (95%). At the time of analysis, all patients survived without any evidence of late toxicities related with radiation therapy. CONCLUSION: Taken together, radiation therapy alone could be effective in controlling duodenal lesion. A further study with longer follow-up duration is warranted to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Asymptomatic Diseases , Consensus , Duodenum , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphoma, Follicular , Retrospective Studies
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 611-622, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763133

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor inhibits the interplay between PD1 of T-cell and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) on tumor cells. Although pembrolizumab has been tried to various subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), real-world data about the efficacy of pembrolizumab in NHL patients are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the outcome of 30 relapsed or refractory NHL patients treated with pembrolizumab, and compared the outcome between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)‒positive and negative subtypes because EBV infection of tumor cells can upregulate PDL1 expression. RESULTS: Seven patients with EBV-positive NHL showed a response including NK/T-cell lymphoma (6/14, 44%) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (1/4, 25%) whereas EBV-negative subtypes did not respond such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. We also evaluated PDL1 expression using tumor tissue of 76 patients. High PDL1 expression (positive staining of > 50% of tumor cells) was more frequent in NK/T-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma than other subtypes. Thus, PDL1 expression was significantly higher in EBV-positive (18/32, 56%) than EBV-negative NHL (4/38, 11%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, NK/T-cell lymphoma patients with high PDL1 expression showed a higher response (4/6, 67%) than those with low PDL1 expression (1/5, 20%). CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab could be useful as a salvage treatment for relapsed or refractory EBV-positive NHL, especially NK/T-cell lymphoma. However, its efficacy in EBV-negative NHL with low or absent PDL1 expression is still not clear although pembrolizumab could be a potential treatment option for relapsed or refractory NHL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Death , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Salvage Therapy , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 575-581, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714216

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the long-term outcomes of primary conjunctival marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) patients who were treated with radiation therapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data of 79 patients with 121 primary conjunctival MZBCL lesions were collected from January 1, 2001 till June 30, 2014. All lesions were treated by local RT (26 Gy) with patient-specific customized lens-shielding device. RESULTS: The current Korean patients' cohort showed younger median age at diagnosis (38 years), great female preponderance (78.5%) and more frequent bilateral involvement (53.2%) than the previous studies. Following 26 Gy's RT, excellent clinical outcomes were achieved: 5-year rates of overall survival, local relapse-free survival, and contralateral relapse-free survival were 100%, 98.1%, and 91.5%, respectively. Two patients (2.5%) developed local relapse and five (6.3%) developed relapse at initially uninvolved contralateral conjunctiva with median interval of 52.9 months, and late adverse events of grade 2 and 3 occurred in seven (8.8%) and two (2.5%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: 26 Gy's RT was highly effective and safe, with the use of lens-shielding device, in treating patients with primary conjunctival MZBCL.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Conjunctiva , Diagnosis , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
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