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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 344-348, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977441

ABSTRACT

The role that children play in the transmission of the omicron variant is unclear. Here we report an outbreak that started in young children attending various pediatric facilities, leading to extensive household transmission that affected 75 families with 88 confirmed case-patients in 3 weeks. Tailored social and public health measures directed towards children and pediatric facilities are warranted with the emergence of highly transmissible omicron variant to mitigate the impact of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19).

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 790-793, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939372

ABSTRACT

There are few studies on the severity and prognosis of patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant. From January 11, 2022 to January 25, 2022, 181 patients were infected with the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant in a single hospital in Korea. The initial clinical characteristics were investigated through the COVID-19 basic investigation form. Outcomes were reviewed using medical records. The median age of the patients was 57 years (range 1–90), and 95 patients (52.5%) were male. None were re-infected with SARS-CoV-2, and 127 (70.2%) were fully vaccinated (boosted or within 6 months after second vaccination). Forty-two patients (23.2%) were asymptomatic. Among symptomatic patients, the frequency of symptoms was as follows: cough (37.0%), sore throat (33.7%), and fever (30.4%). In terms of disease severity, 168 (92.8%) patients did not require supplemental oxygen, 6 (3.3%) required low-flow oxygen, 5 (2.8%) required high-flow oxygen, and 2 (1.1%) died. Four of the five individuals who required high-flow oxygen and the two who died were not vaccinated. Most of the patients who contracted the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant exhibited mild clinical features; however, severe clinical features including mortality were encountered among individuals who were not vaccinated.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e49-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915500

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing, heavy workload of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern. This study investigated the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. @*Methods@#A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 16 to October 15, 2020, involving 16 healthcare facilities (4 public medical centers, 12 tertiary-care hospitals) that provide treatment for COVID-19 patients. @*Results@#Public medical centers provided the majority (69.4%) of total hospital beds for COVID-19 patients (n = 611), on the other hand, tertiary care hospitals provided the majority (78.9%) of critical care beds (n = 57). The number of beds per doctor (median [IQR]) in public medical centers was higher than in tertiary care hospitals (20.2 [13.0, 29.4] versus 3.0 [1.3, 6.6], P = 0.006). Infectious Diseases physicians are mostly (80%) involved among attending physicians. The number of nurses per patient (median [interquartile range, IQR]) in tertiarycare hospitals was higher than in public medical centers (4.6 [3.4–5] vs. 1.1 [0.8–2.1], P =0.089). The median number of nurses per patient for COVID-19 patients was higher than the highest national standard in South Korea (3.8 vs. 2 for critical care). All participating healthcare facilities were also operating screening centers, for which a median of 2 doctors, 5 nurses, and 2 administrating staff were necessary. @*Conclusion@#As the severity of COVID-19 patients increases, the number of HCWs required increases. Because the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak is much greater than other situations, a workforce management plan regarding this perspective is required to prevent burnout of HCWs.

4.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 195-205, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927094

ABSTRACT

Determining blood loss [100% – RBV (%)] is challenging in the management of haemorrhagic shock. We derived an equation estimating RBV (%) via serial haematocrits (Hct1 , Hct2 ) by fixing infused crystalloid fluid volume (N) as [0.015 × body weight (g)]. Then, we validated it in vivo. Mathematically, the following estimation equation was derived: RBV (%) = 24k / [(Hct1 / Hct2 ) – 1]. For validation, nonongoing haemorrhagic shock was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by withdrawing 20.0%–60.0% of their total blood volume (TBV) in 5.0% intervals (n = 9). Hct1 was checked after 10 min and normal saline N cc was infused over 10 min. Hct 2 was checked five minutes later. We applied a linear equation to explain RBV (%) with 1 / [(Hct1 / Hct2 ) – 1]. Seven rats losing 30.0%–60.0% of their TBV suffered shock persistently. For them, RBV (%) was updated as 5.67 / [(Hct1 / Hct2 ) – 1] + 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the slope: 3.14–8.21, p = 0.002, R2 = 0.87). On a Bland-Altman plot, the difference between the estimated and actual RBV was 0.00 ± 4.03%; the 95% CIs of the limits of agreements were included within the pre-determined criterion of validation (< 20%). For rats suffering from persistent, non-ongoing haemorrhagic shock, we derived and validated a simple equation estimating RBV (%). This enables the calculation of blood loss via information on serial haematocrits under a fixed N.Clinical validation is required before utilisation for emergency care of haemorrhagic shock.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1270-1278, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831878

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to collect information on the opinions of Korean infectious disease (ID) experts on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related issues in preparation for a future outbreak. @*Methods@#A survey was conducted over the course of 5 days (from April 21 to 25, 2020), targeting all adult ID specialists currently in the medical field in South Korea (n = 265). An online-based survey was forwarded via text message and e-mail. Only one response was accepted from each participant. @*Results@#Of these 265 ID specialists gotten to, 132 (49.8%) responded. The highest proportion of the respondents envisaged the current COVID-19 outbreak to end after December 2020 (47.7% for the domestic Korean outbreak and 70.5% for the global pandemic); moreover, 60.7% of them stated that a second nationwide wave is likely to occur between September and December 2020 in South Korea. N95 respirators were considered to be the most important item in hospitals in preparation for a second wave. The most important policy to be implemented at the national level was securing national hospitals designated for the treatment of ID (67.4%). @*Conclusions@#ID experts in South Korea believe that the COVID-19 pandemic may not be easily controlled and that a second nationwide wave is likely to occur in South Korea. Our results indicate that Korean ID specialists believe that a high level of preparation is needed in various aspects, including the procurement of personal protective equipment, to respond efficiently to a second outbreak.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 77-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality in East Asia. This study aimed to develop, for primary care providers, a prediction score using initial symptoms and basic laboratory blood tests to differentiate between SFTS and other endemic zoonoses in Korea.METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with endemic zoonoses during a 3-year period (between January 2015 and December 2017) were retrospectively enrolled from 4 tertiary university hospitals. A prediction score was built based on multivariate logistic regression analyses.RESULTS: Of 84 patients, 35 with SFTS and 49 with other endemic zoonoses were enrolled. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of SFTS included neurologic symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 12.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.173–76.747), diarrhea (OR, 10.306; 95% CI, 1.588–66.895), leukopenia (< 4,000/mm3) (OR, 19.400; 95% CI, 3.290–114.408), and normal C-reactive protein (< 0.5 mg/dL) (OR, 24.739; 95% CI, 1.812–337.742). We set up a prediction score by assigning one point to each of these four predictors. A score of ≥ 2 had 82.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 71.7%–87.5%) and 95.9% specificity (95% CI, 88.0%–99.2%). The area under the curve of the clinical prediction score was 0.950 (95% CI, 0.903–0.997).CONCLUSION: This study finding suggests a simple and useful scoring system to predict SFTS in patients with endemic zoonoses. We expect this strategic approach to facilitate early differentiation of SFTS from other endemic zoonoses, especially by primary care providers, and to improve the clinical outcomes.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality in East Asia. This study aimed to develop, for primary care providers, a prediction score using initial symptoms and basic laboratory blood tests to differentiate between SFTS and other endemic zoonoses in Korea.@*METHODS@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with endemic zoonoses during a 3-year period (between January 2015 and December 2017) were retrospectively enrolled from 4 tertiary university hospitals. A prediction score was built based on multivariate logistic regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#Of 84 patients, 35 with SFTS and 49 with other endemic zoonoses were enrolled. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of SFTS included neurologic symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 12.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.173–76.747), diarrhea (OR, 10.306; 95% CI, 1.588–66.895), leukopenia (< 4,000/mm3) (OR, 19.400; 95% CI, 3.290–114.408), and normal C-reactive protein (< 0.5 mg/dL) (OR, 24.739; 95% CI, 1.812–337.742). We set up a prediction score by assigning one point to each of these four predictors. A score of ≥ 2 had 82.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 71.7%–87.5%) and 95.9% specificity (95% CI, 88.0%–99.2%). The area under the curve of the clinical prediction score was 0.950 (95% CI, 0.903–0.997).@*CONCLUSION@#This study finding suggests a simple and useful scoring system to predict SFTS in patients with endemic zoonoses. We expect this strategic approach to facilitate early differentiation of SFTS from other endemic zoonoses, especially by primary care providers, and to improve the clinical outcomes.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality in East Asia. This study aimed to develop, for primary care providers, a prediction score using initial symptoms and basic laboratory blood tests to differentiate between SFTS and other endemic zoonoses in Korea.@*METHODS@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with endemic zoonoses during a 3-year period (between January 2015 and December 2017) were retrospectively enrolled from 4 tertiary university hospitals. A prediction score was built based on multivariate logistic regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#Of 84 patients, 35 with SFTS and 49 with other endemic zoonoses were enrolled. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of SFTS included neurologic symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 12.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.173–76.747), diarrhea (OR, 10.306; 95% CI, 1.588–66.895), leukopenia (< 4,000/mm3) (OR, 19.400; 95% CI, 3.290–114.408), and normal C-reactive protein (< 0.5 mg/dL) (OR, 24.739; 95% CI, 1.812–337.742). We set up a prediction score by assigning one point to each of these four predictors. A score of ≥ 2 had 82.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 71.7%–87.5%) and 95.9% specificity (95% CI, 88.0%–99.2%). The area under the curve of the clinical prediction score was 0.950 (95% CI, 0.903–0.997).@*CONCLUSION@#This study finding suggests a simple and useful scoring system to predict SFTS in patients with endemic zoonoses. We expect this strategic approach to facilitate early differentiation of SFTS from other endemic zoonoses, especially by primary care providers, and to improve the clinical outcomes.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 175-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787190

ABSTRACT

Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is a rare but critical disease with a high mortality rate. The diagnostic dilemma of PPP syndrome is the fact that symptoms occur unexpectedly. A 48-year-old man presented with fever and painful swelling of the left foot that was initially mistaken for cellulitis and gouty arthritis. The diagnosis of PPP syndrome was made based on the abdominal CT findings and elevated pancreatic enzyme levels, lobular panniculitis with ghost cells on a skin biopsy, and polyarthritis on a bone scan. The pancreatitis and panniculitis disappeared spontaneously over time, but the polyarthritis followed its own course despite the use of anti-inflammatory agents. In addition to this case, 30 cases of PPP syndrome in the English literature were reviewed. Most of the patients had initial symptoms other than abdominal pain, leading to misdiagnosis. About one-third of them were finally diagnosed with a pancreatic tumor, of which pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was the most dominant. They showed a mortality rate of 32.3%, associated mainly with the pancreatic malignancy. Therefore, PPP syndrome should be considered when cutaneous or osteoarticular manifestations occur in patients with pancreatitis. Active investigation and continued observations are needed for patients suspected of PPP syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Arthritis , Arthritis, Gouty , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Cellulitis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Fever , Foot , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Panniculitis , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 303-313, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a traditional assumption that to maximize stroke volume, the point beneath which the left ventricle (LV) is at its maximum diameter (P_max.LV) should be compressed. Thus, we aimed to derive and validate rules to estimate P_max.LV using anteroposterior chest radiography (chest_AP), which is performed for critically ill patients urgently needing determination of their personalized P_max.LV.METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with non-cardiac arrest adults who underwent chest_AP within 1 hour of computed tomography (derivation:validation=3:2). On chest_AP, we defined cardiac diameter (CD), distance from right cardiac border to midline (RB), and cardiac height (CH) from the carina to the uppermost point of left hemi-diaphragm. Setting point zero (0, 0) at the midpoint of the xiphisternal joint and designating leftward and upward directions as positive on x- and y-axes, we located P_max.LV (x_max.LV, y_max.LV). The coefficients of the following mathematically inferred rules were sought: x_max.LV=α₀*CD-RB; y_max.LV=β₀*CH+γ₀ (α₀: mean of [x_max.LV+RB]/CD; β₀, γ₀: representative coefficient and constant of linear regression model, respectively).RESULTS: Among 360 cases (52.0±18.3 years, 102 females), we derived: x_max.LV=0.643*CD-RB and y_max.LV=55-0.390*CH. This estimated P_max.LV (19±11 mm) was as close as the averaged P_max.LV (19±11 mm, P=0.13) and closer than the three equidistant points representing the current guidelines (67±13, 56±10, and 77±17 mm; all P<0.001) to the reference identified on computed tomography. Thus, our findings were validated.CONCLUSION: Personalized P_max.LV can be estimated using chest_AP. Further studies with actual cardiac arrest victims are needed to verify the safety and effectiveness of the rule.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Arrest , Heart Ventricles , Intensive Care Units , Joints , Linear Models , Radiography , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 175-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761542

ABSTRACT

Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is a rare but critical disease with a high mortality rate. The diagnostic dilemma of PPP syndrome is the fact that symptoms occur unexpectedly. A 48-year-old man presented with fever and painful swelling of the left foot that was initially mistaken for cellulitis and gouty arthritis. The diagnosis of PPP syndrome was made based on the abdominal CT findings and elevated pancreatic enzyme levels, lobular panniculitis with ghost cells on a skin biopsy, and polyarthritis on a bone scan. The pancreatitis and panniculitis disappeared spontaneously over time, but the polyarthritis followed its own course despite the use of anti-inflammatory agents. In addition to this case, 30 cases of PPP syndrome in the English literature were reviewed. Most of the patients had initial symptoms other than abdominal pain, leading to misdiagnosis. About one-third of them were finally diagnosed with a pancreatic tumor, of which pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was the most dominant. They showed a mortality rate of 32.3%, associated mainly with the pancreatic malignancy. Therefore, PPP syndrome should be considered when cutaneous or osteoarticular manifestations occur in patients with pancreatitis. Active investigation and continued observations are needed for patients suspected of PPP syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Arthritis , Arthritis, Gouty , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Cellulitis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Fever , Foot , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Panniculitis , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 284-294, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a rare but serious condition, and a potentially significant cause of morbidity. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is the most common microorganism in native VO. Long-term administration of parenteral and oral antibiotics with good bioavailability and bone penetration is required for therapy. Use of oral β-lactams against staphylococcal bone and joint infections in adults is not generally recommended, but some experts recommend oral switching with β-lactams. This study aimed to describe the current status of antibiotic therapy and treatment outcomes of oral switching with β-lactams in patients with MSSA VO, and to assess risk factors for treatment failure.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#This retrospective study included adult patients with MSSA VO treated at nine university hospitals in Korea between 2005 and 2014. Treatment failure was defined as infection-related death, microbiological relapse, neurologic deficits, or unplanned surgical procedures. Clinical characteristics and antibiotic therapy in the treatment success and treatment failure groups were compared. Risk factors for treatment failure were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#A total of 100 patients with MSSA VO were included. All patients were treated, initially or during antibiotic therapy, with one or more parenteral antibiotics. Sixty-nine patients received one or more oral antibiotics. Antibiotic regimens were diverse and durations of parenteral and oral therapy differed, depending on the patient and the hospital. Forty-two patients were treated with parenteral and/or oral β-lactams for a total duration of more than 2 weeks. Compared with patients receiving parenteral β-lactams only, no significant difference in success rates was observed in patients who received oral β-lactams for a relatively long period. Sixteen patients had treatment failure. Old age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 5.600, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.402 – 22.372, P = 0.015) and failure to improve C-reactive protein levels at follow-up (adjusted HR 3.388, 95% CI 1.168 – 9.829, P = 0.025) were independent risk factors for treatment failure.@*CONCLUSION@#In the study hospitals, diverse combinations of antibiotics and differing durations of parenteral and oral therapy were used. Based on the findings of this study, we think that switching to oral β-lactams may be safe in certain adult patients with MSSA VO. Since limited data are available on the efficacy of oral antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal VO in adults, further evaluation of the role of oral switch therapy with β-lactams is needed.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 902-909, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a viral hemorrhagic fever with a high fatality rate. However, effective treatments for SFTS cases not responded to supportive therapy have not been established. Herein, we introduced the therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in SFTS patients in a tertiary hospital between 2013 and 2015.@*METHODS@#TPE was performed in patients with rapidly progressing SFTS. Clinical, laboratory, and virological parameters were compared before and after TPE.@*RESULTS@#Among 27 confirmed SFTS patients, two patients were treated with TPE and ribavirin combination in May 2013, then, 14 patients with rapidly progressing SFTS patients were treated with only TPE from June 2013 to September 2015: their median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50 to 70) and eight (57.1%) were male. Body temperature, pressure-adjusted heart rate, white blood cell and platelet counts, coagulation profile, serum creatinine, and multiple organ dysfunction score improved immediately after TPE. In addition, the mean cyclic threshold value of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SFTS virus after TPE (mean ± standard deviation, 31.3 ± 2.9) was significantly higher than that before TPE (26.5 ± 2.9; p < 0.001), indicating that serum viral loads decreased after TPE. Finally, 13 of 14 TPE-treated patients (92.8%) recovered from rapidly progressing SFTS without sequelae.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SFTS patients treated with TPE showed improvements in clinical, laboratory, and virological parameters. These results suggest that TPE would be a therapeutic modality as rescue therapy in patients with rapidly progressing SFTS.

15.
Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders ; : 83-86, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An infection known to be a major cause of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS). Rapidly progressive dementia is a neurological condition in which dementia progresses in a short period of time. CASE REPORT: We report on a 78-year-old woman presenting with a rapid decline in cognitive function resulting from a scrub typhus infection. Diffusion weighted images showed a signal intensity at the splenium, and subcortical white matter of both hemispheres suggesting MERS. On the neuropsychological test, the patient showed frontal executive dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that diagnosticians should consider the possibility that a MERS patient with a rapidly cognitive decline could have a scrub typhus infection because early diagnosis of scrub typhus is very important in this aspect of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Brain Diseases , Cognition , Dementia , Diffusion , Early Diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests , Scrub Typhus , White Matter
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 867-871, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81883

ABSTRACT

Despite a high mortality rate, no specific treatment for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has been established. This study compared the clinical outcomes of SFTS patients treated with plasma exchange (PE group) with those who were not treated (non-PE group) at nine Korean hospitals between May 2013 and August 2015. A total of 53 SFTS patients were included: 24 (45.3%) PE cases and 29 (54.7%) non-PE cases. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32.1% (17/53). The in-hospital mortality rate of the PE group did not differ from that of the non-PE group (29.3% vs. 34.5%, p=0.680). Of the 24 PE cases, 16 (66.7%) were treated with PE within 7 days of symptom onset (early PE group). The early PE group survived longer than the non-PE group (mean 28.4 days vs. 22.6 days, p=0.044). Multivariate analysis showed an inverse association between early PE implementation and 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.052, 95% confidence interval 0.004–0.678, p=0.024). The results of this study suggest that early PE implementation may have a beneficial effect on the clinical outcome of SFTS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fever , Hospital Mortality , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Phlebovirus , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , Thrombocytopenia
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 814-816, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11684

ABSTRACT

Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Volume , Hematocrit , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Models, Theoretical , Shock, Hemorrhagic/prevention & control
18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 118-126, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From May to July 2015, the Republic of Korea experienced the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outside the Arabian Peninsula. A total of 186 patients, including 36 deaths, had been diagnosed with MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection as of September 30th, 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained information of patients who were confirmed to have MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 16 to 86). A total of 55.4% of the patients had one or more coexisting medical conditions. The most common symptom was fever (95.2%). At admission, leukopenia (42.6%), thrombocytopenia (46.6%), and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (42.7%) were observed. Pneumonia was detected in 68.3% of patients at admission and developed in 80.8% during the disease course. Antiviral agents were used for 74.7% of patients. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and convalescent serum were employed for 24.5%, 7.1%, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Older age, presence of coexisting medical conditions including diabetes or chronic lung disease, presence of dyspnea, hypotension, and leukocytosis at admission, and the use of mechanical ventilation were revealed to be independent predictors of death. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of MERS-CoV infection in the Republic of Korea were similar to those of previous outbreaks in the Middle East. However, the overall mortality rate (20.4%) was lower than that in previous reports. Enhanced surveillance and active management of patients during the outbreak may have resulted in improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Fever , Hypotension , Leukocytosis , Leukopenia , Lung Diseases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Mortality , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Respiration, Artificial , Thrombocytopenia
19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 278-302, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92656

ABSTRACT

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measures should be implemented with rigor. The present guideline has been drafted on the basis of the experiences of infection control in the South Korean hospitals involved in the recent MERS outbreak and on domestic and international infection prevention and control guidelines. To ensure efficient MERS-CoV infection prevention and control, care should be taken to provide comprehensive infection control measures including contact control, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, disinfection, and environmental cleaning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Infection Control , Korea , Middle East , Mortality , Quarantine , Saudi Arabia
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 435-441, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19543

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the compliance with, and adequacy of, the Korean national guidelines which had been recommended until 2011 for isolation of patients with group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs), namely cholera, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, shigellosis, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of confirmed cases of group 1 NNIDs and compliance with the guidelines in 20 Korean hospitals nationwide in 2000-2010. We also compared the Korean guidelines with international guidelines. RESULTS: Among 528 confirmed cases (8 cases of cholera, 232 of typhoid fever, 81 of paratyphoid fever, 175 of shigellosis, and 32 EHEC infections), strict compliance with the Korean guideline was achieved in only 2.6% to 50.0%, depending on the disease. While the Korean guidelines recommend isolation of all patients with group 1 NNIDs, international guidelines recommend selective patient isolation and screening for fecal shedding, depending on the type of disease and patient status. CONCLUSION: Compliance with the previous national guidelines for group 1 NNIDs in Korea was generally very low. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether compliance was improved after implementation of the new guideline in 2012.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholera , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases , Compliance , Dysentery, Bacillary , Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli , Guideline Adherence , Korea , Mass Screening , Methods , Paratyphoid Fever , Patient Isolation , Typhoid Fever
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