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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900003

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was to assess the rate of radiotherapy (RT) utilization according to the modality in South Korea to identify the implications of contemporary RT patterns. @*Methods@#We collected information from claims and reimbursement records of the National Health Insurance Service from 2010 to 2019. We classified the location of each institution as capital (Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do) and non-capital areas. @*Results@#The rate of RT utilization in total cancer patients nationwide was 24.5% in 2010, which consistently has increased to 36.1% in 2019 (annual increase estimate [AIE], 4.5%). There was an abrupt increase in patients receiving intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), with an AIE of 33.5%, and a steady decline in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT), with an AIE of −7.1%. The commonest RT modality was IMRT (44.5%), followed by 3DCRT and stereotactic RT (SRT) (37.2% and 13.5%) in 2019. An increasing trend of advanced RT (such as IMRT and SRT) utilization was observed regardless of the region, although the AIE in the capital areas was slightly higher than that in non-capital areas. @*Conclusion@#The utilization of overall RT application and especially of advanced modalities remarkably increased from 2010 to 2019. We also found gaps in their AIEs between capital and non-capital areas. We should ensure that advanced RT is accessible to all cancer patients across South Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892299

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was to assess the rate of radiotherapy (RT) utilization according to the modality in South Korea to identify the implications of contemporary RT patterns. @*Methods@#We collected information from claims and reimbursement records of the National Health Insurance Service from 2010 to 2019. We classified the location of each institution as capital (Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do) and non-capital areas. @*Results@#The rate of RT utilization in total cancer patients nationwide was 24.5% in 2010, which consistently has increased to 36.1% in 2019 (annual increase estimate [AIE], 4.5%). There was an abrupt increase in patients receiving intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), with an AIE of 33.5%, and a steady decline in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT), with an AIE of −7.1%. The commonest RT modality was IMRT (44.5%), followed by 3DCRT and stereotactic RT (SRT) (37.2% and 13.5%) in 2019. An increasing trend of advanced RT (such as IMRT and SRT) utilization was observed regardless of the region, although the AIE in the capital areas was slightly higher than that in non-capital areas. @*Conclusion@#The utilization of overall RT application and especially of advanced modalities remarkably increased from 2010 to 2019. We also found gaps in their AIEs between capital and non-capital areas. We should ensure that advanced RT is accessible to all cancer patients across South Korea.

3.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903249

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms. @*Results@#Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.

4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms. @*Results@#Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831094

ABSTRACT

Government healthcare expenditure is rising in Korea, and the costs incurred by patients in Korea exceed those incurred by patients in other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Despite the increasing health expenditure, patient demand for services is increasing as well, so it is now becoming recognized that cancer care needs to be balanced. The most important measure in cancer care optimization is to provide high-quality care while keeping costs sustainable. The Korean Cancer Association considers the current situation of cancer therapy in Korea the foremost issue, which has led to the implementation of the nationwide ‘Right Decisions in Cancer Care’ initiative. This initiative is based on the concepts of medical professionalism in that it should be led by physicians working in the field of oncology, that education should be offered to patients and clinicians, and that it should influence healthcare policy. In this article, we introduce the nationwide ‘Right Decision in Cancer Care’ initiative and highlight the five initial items on its agenda. The agenda is open to expansion and update as the medical environment evolves and additional clinical evidence becomes available.

6.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 149-153, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765714

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or right atrium (RA) is a rare and intractable disease. A standard treatment has not been established yet, owing to the rarity of disease and difficulties in the therapeutic treatment. Herein, we report the case of a patient who had recurrent HCC (after a prior lobectomy) involving both IVC and RA and underwent multimodality treatments including external beam radiotherapy and transarterial chemotherapy, followed by sorafenib treatment. The disease was well controlled with local treatments and sustained for 7 years until last follow-up after the systemic treatments. Our case shows a possibility of long-term survival for patients affected by HCC involving IVC and/or RA, after a rigorous multimodality treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Vena Cava, Inferior
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1589-1599, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is limited data on radiotherapy (RT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with Child-Pugh classification B (CP-B). This study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes of fractionated conformal RT in HCC patients with CP-B. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of HCC patients with CP-B treated with RT between 2009 and 2014 at 13 institutions in Korea. HCC was diagnosed by the Korea guideline of 2009, and modern RT techniques were applied. Fraction size was ≤ 5 Gy and the biologically effective dose (BED) ≥ 40 Gy₁₀ (α/β = 10 Gy). A total of 184 patients were included in this study. RESULTS: Initial CP score was seven in 62.0% of patients, eight in 31.0%, and nine in 7.0%. Portal vein tumor thrombosis was present in 66.3% of patients. The BED ranged from 40.4 to 89.6 Gy₁₀ (median, 56.0 Gy₁₀). After RT completion, 48.4% of patients underwent additional treatment. The median overall survival (OS) was 9.4 months. The local progression-free survival and OS rates at 1 year were 58.9% and 39.8%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, non-classic radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) (p < 0.001) and additional treatment (p < 0.001) were the most significant prognostic factors of OS. Among 132 evaluable patients without progressive disease, 19.7% experienced non-classic RILD. Normal liver volume was the most predictive dosimetric parameter of non-classic RILD. CONCLUSION: Fractionated conformal RT showed favorable OS with a moderate risk non-classic RILD. The individual radiotherapy for CP-B could be cautiously applied weighing the survival benefits and the RILD risks.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Korea , Liver , Liver Diseases , Multivariate Analysis , Portal Vein , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 75-79, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765676

ABSTRACT

Curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein invasion is difficult to achieve, and the prognosis is dismal. Combining external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) has shown favorable local therapeutic effects for patients with HCC exhibiting portal vein invasion. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a recently developed EBRT modality that shows excellent tumor control. The combination of SBRT and HAIC for HCC with portal vein invasion has not been well-studied. We report a patient with HCC and portal vein invasion who achieved 15 months of survival with complete response status after combination SBRT and HAIC. The patient later experienced grade 3 biliary stricture and died of liver abscesses of unknown etiologies that subsequently appeared.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Constriction, Pathologic , Drug Therapy , Humans , Liver Abscess , Portal Vein , Prognosis , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Therapeutic Uses , Venous Thrombosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the recent changes of radiation therapy (RT) modalities in Korea. In particular, we focused on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilization as the main index, presenting the application status of advanced RT. METHODS: We collected information from the Korean Health and Insurance Review and Assessment Service data based on the National Health Insurance Service claims and reimbursements records by using treatment codes from 2010 to 2016. We classified locating region of each institution as capital vs. non-capital areas and metropolitan vs. non-metropolitan areas to assess the regional difference in IMRT utilization in Korea. RESULTS: IMRT use has been steadily increased in Korea, with an annual increase estimate (AIE) of 37.9% from 2011 to 2016 (P < 0.001) resulting in IMRT being the second most common RT modality following three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. In general, an increasing trend of IMRT utilization was observed, regardless of the region. The rate of AIE in the capital areas or metropolitan areas was higher than that in non-capital areas or non-metropolitan areas (40.7% vs. 31.9%; P < 0.001 and 39.7% vs. 29.4%; P < 0.001, respectively). DISCUSSION: The result of our survey showed that IMRT has become one of the most common RT modalities. IMRT is becoming popular in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, while metropolitan area has faster AIE possibly due to concentration of medical resources and movement of advanced patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insurance , Korea , National Health Programs , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess prognostic value of metastatic pelvic lymph node (mPLN) in early-stage cervical cancer treated with radical surgery followed by postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Also, we sought to define a high-risk group using prognosticators for recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted using the data from 13 Korean institutions from 2000 to 2010. A total of 249 IB-IIA patients with high-risk factors were included. We evaluated distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in relation to clinicopathologic factors including pNstage, number of mPLN, lymph node (LN)ratio (number of positive LN/number of harvested LN), and log odds of mPLNs (log(number of positive LN+0.5/number of negative LN+0.5)). RESULTS: In univariate analysis, histology (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC] vs. others), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of mPLNs (≤ 3 vs. > 3), LN ratio (≤ 17% vs. > 17%), and log odds of mPLNs (≤ -0.58 vs. > -0.58) were significant prognosticators for DMFS and DFS. Resection margin involvement only affected DFS. No significant survival difference was observed between pN0 patients and patients with 1-3 mPLNs. Multivariate analysis revealed that mPLN > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC were unfavorable index for both DMFS (p 3 in early-stage cervical cancer affects DMFS and DFS. A scoring system using mPLNs > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC could stratify risk groups of recurrence in surgically resected early-stage cervix cancer with high-risk factors.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
11.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 19-44, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164274

ABSTRACT

The General Rules for the Study of Primary Liver Cancer was published in June 2001 as the first edition. Since then, the 5th edition of the General Rules for the Study of Primary Liver Cancer was published by the 17th Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association based on the most recent data. The 5th edition of the General Rules for the Study of Primary Liver Cancer ranged over numerous topics such as anatomy, medical assessment of the patients, staging of hepatocellular carcinoma, description of the image findings, summary of hepatic resection, description of the surgical specimens, liver transplantation, reporting the pathological findings, pathological examinations of liver specimen, non-surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and assessment of tumor response after non-surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The 5th General Rules for the Study of Primary Liver Cancer will not only become the basis of academic development for liver cancer studies in Korea, but also serve as the primary form of national liver cancer data accumulation based on standardized rules.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Korea , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Radiotherapy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6993

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine patterns of radiotherapy (RT) in Korean patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the evolving guideline for HCC established by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center (KLCSG-NCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 765 patients with HCC who were treated with RT between January 2011 and December 2012 in 12 institutions. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 13.3 months (range, 0.2 to 51.7 months). Compared with previous data between 2004 and 2005, the use of RT as a first treatment has increased (9.0% vs. 40.8%). Increased application of intensity-modulated RT resulted in an increase in radiation dose (fractional dose, 1.8 Gy vs. 2.5 Gy; biologically effective dose, 53.1 Gy10 vs. 56.3 Gy10). Median overall survival was 16.2 months, which is longer than that reported in previous data (12 months). In subgroup analysis, treatments were significantly different according to stage (p < 0.001). Stereotactic body RT was used in patients with early HCC, and most patients with advanced stage were treated with three-dimensional conformal RT. CONCLUSION: Based on the evolving KLCSG-NCC practice guideline for HCC, clinical practice patterns of RT have changed. Although RT is still used mainly in advanced HCC, the number of patients with good performance status who were treated with RT as a first treatment has increased. This change in practice patterns could result in improvement in overall survival.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115240

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in patients who underwent hysterectomy for uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS). METHODS: Patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I–IVa UCS who were treated between 1990 and 2012 were identified retrospectively in a multi-institutional database. Of 235 identified patients, 97 (41.3%) received adjuvant RT. Twenty-two patients with a history of previous pelvic RT were analyzed separately. Survival outcomes were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Patients with a previous history of pelvic RT had poor survival outcomes, and 72.6% of these patients experienced locoregional recurrence; however, none received RT after a diagnosis of UCS. Univariate analyses revealed that pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND) and para-aortic lymph node sampling were significant factors for locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Among patients without previous pelvic RT, the percentage of locoregional failure was lower for those who received adjuvant RT than for those who did not (28.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.107). Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations between PLND and LRRFS, distant metastasis-free survival, and DFS. In subgroup analyses, RT significantly improved the 5-year LRRFS rate of patients who did not undergo PLND (52.7% vs. 18.7% for non-RT, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant RT decreased the risk of locoregional recurrence after hysterectomy for UCS, particularly in patients without surgical nodal staging. Given the poorer locoregional outcomes of patients previously subjected to pelvic RT, meticulous re-administration of RT might improve locoregional control while leading to less toxicity in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinosarcoma/mortality , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Neoplasms/mortality
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1074-1083, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the role of adjuvant therapy in stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) alone or chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) according to risk group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted including patients with surgical stage IIIA endometrial cancertreated by radical surgery and adjuvant RT or CTRT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients with stage IIIA disease were identified. Nineteen patients (20.4%) experienced recurrence, mostly distant metastasis (17.2%). Combined CTRT did not affect DFS (74.1% vs. 82.4%, p=0.130) or OS (96.3% vs. 91.9%, p=0.262) in stage IIIA disease compared with RT alone. Patients with age ≥ 60 years, grade G2/3, and lymphovascular space involvement had a significantly worse DFS and those variables were defined as risk factors. The high-risk group showed a significant reduction in 5-year DFS (≥ 2 risk factors) (49.0% vs. 88.0%, p < 0.001) compared with the low-risk group (< 2). Multivariate analysis confirmed that more than one risk factor was the only predictor of worse DFS (hazard ratio, 5.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.12 to 13.98; p < 0.001). Of patients with no risk factors, a subset treated with RT alone showed an excellent 5-year DFS and OS (93.8% and 100%, respectively). CONCLUSION: We identified a low-risk subset of stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who might be reasonable candidates for adjuvant RT alone. Further randomized studies are needed to determine which subset might benefit from combined CTRT.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of the treatment of primary vaginal cancer using definitive radiotherapy (RT) and to evaluate the prognostic factors of survival. METHODS: The medical records of nine institutions were retrospectively reviewed to find the patients with vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without chemotherapy. A total of 138 patients met the inclusion criteria. None had undergone curative excision. RESULTS: The median follow-up time of the survivors was 77.6 months and the median survival time was 46.9 months. The 5-year overall survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 68%, 80%, and 68.7%, respectively. In the survival analysis, the multivariate analysis showed that a lower the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and prior hysterectomy were favorable prognostic factors of CSS, and a lower FIGO stage and diagnosed prior to year 2000 were favorable prognostic factors of PFS. In the subgroup analysis of the patients with available human papillomavirus (HPV) results (n=27), no statistically significant relationship between the HPV status and recurrence or survival was found. Grade 3 or 4 acute and late toxicity were present in 16 and 9 patients, respectively. The FIGO stage and the tumor size were predictors of severe late toxicity. CONCLUSION: The data clearly showed that a higher FIGO stage was correlated with a worse survival outcome and higher severe late toxicity. Therefore, precise RT and careful observation are crucial in advanced vaginal cancer. In this study, the HPV status was not related to the survival outcome, but its further investigation is needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brachytherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hysterectomy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden , Vaginal Neoplasms/mortality
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106247

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of radiochemotherapeutic sequence and time to initiation of adjuvant treatment on loco-regional control for resected stage II and III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment outcomes for rectal cancer patients from two hospitals with different sequencing strategies regarding adjuvant concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRCT) were compared retrospectively. Pelvic radiotherapy was administered concurrently on the first (early CRCT, n=180) or the third cycle of chemotherapy (late CRCT, n=180). During radiotherapy, two cycles of fluorouracil were provided to patients in both groups. In the early CRCT group, median six cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin were prescribed during the post-CRCT period. In the late CRCT group, two cycles of fluorouracil were administered in the pre- and post-CRCT periods. RESULTS: No significant differences in the 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) (92.5% vs. 95.6%, p=0.43) or overall survival and disease-free survival were observed between groups. Patients who began receiving adjuvant treatment later than five weeks after surgery had lower LRRFS than patients who received adjuvant treatment within five weeks following surgery (79% vs. 91%, p<0.01). The risk of loco-regional recurrence increased as the time to initiation of adjuvant treatment was delayed. CONCLUSION: In the current study, treatment outcomes were not significantly influenced by the sequence of adjuvant treatment but by the delay of adjuvant treatment for more than five weeks. Timely administration of adjuvant treatment is deemed important in achieving loco-regional tumor control for stage II/III rectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Humans , Leucovorin , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8697

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcome and prognostic factor of postoperative radiotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty three patients with extremity STS were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy from January 1981 to December 2010 at Korea University Medical Center. Median total 60 Gy (range, 50 to 74.4 Gy) of radiation was delivered and 7 patients were treated with chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 70 months (range, 5 to 302 months). Twelve patients (27.9%) sustained relapse of their disease. Local recurrence occurred in 3 patients (7.0%) and distant metastases developed in 10 patients (23.3%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 69.2% and disease free survival was 67.9%. The 5-year local relapse-free survival was 90.7% and distant relapse-free survival was 73.3%. On univariate analysis, no significant prognostic factors were associated with development of local recurrence. Histologic grade (p = 0.005) and stage (p = 0.02) influenced the development of distant metastases. Histologic grade was unique significant prognostic factor for the OS on univariate and multivariate analysis. Severe acute treatment-related complications, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade 3 or 4, developed in 6 patients (14.0%) and severe late complications in 2 patients (4.7%). CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery with postoperative radiotherapy achieved a satisfactory rate of local control with acceptable complication rate in extremity STS. Most failures were distant metastases that correlate with tumor grade and stage. The majority of local recurrences developed within the field. Selective dose escalation of radiotherapy or development of effective systemic treatment might be considered.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Disease-Free Survival , Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Sarcoma , Treatment Outcome
18.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 156-163, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220896

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-five patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had received RT alone. Median total dose was 54 Gy (range, 36 to 61.2 Gy). The definition of tumor progression were as follows: evidence of tumor progression on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, worsening of clinical sign requiring additional operation or others, rising serum hormone level against a previously stable or falling value, and failure of controlling serum hormone level so that the hormone level had been far from optimal range until last follow-up. Age, sex, hormone secretion, tumor extension, tumor size, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic significance in tumor control. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 2 to 14.4 years). The 10-year actuarial local control rates for non-secreting and secreting adenomas were 96% and 66%, respectively. In univariate analysis, hormone secretion was significant prognostic factor (p = 0.042) and cavernous sinus extension was marginally significant factor (p = 0.054) for adverse local control. All other factors were not significant. In multivariate analysis, hormone secretion and gender were significant. Fifty-three patients had mass-effect symptoms (headache, dizziness, visual disturbance, hypopituitarism, loss of consciousness, and cranial nerve palsy). A total of 17 of 23 patients with headache and 27 of 34 patients with visual impairment were improved. Twenty-seven patients experienced symptoms of endocrine hypersecretion (galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menstruation, decreased libido, gynecomastia, acromegaly, and Cushing's disease). Amenorrhea was abated in 7 of 10 patients, galactorrhea in 8 of 8 patients, acromegaly in 7 of 11 patients, Cushing's disease in 4 of 4 patients. Long-term complication was observed in 4 patients; 3 patients with cerebrovascular accident, 1 patient developed dementia. Of these patients, 3 of 4 received more than 60 Gy of irradiation. CONCLUSION: EBRT is highly effective in preventing recurrence and reducing mass effect of non-secreting adenoma. Effort to improve tumor control of secreting adenoma is required. Careful long-term follow-up is required when relatively high dose is applied. Modern radiosurgery or proton RT may be options to decrease late complications.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Acromegaly , Adenoma , Amenorrhea , Cavernous Sinus , Cranial Nerves , Dementia , Dizziness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Galactorrhea , Gynecomastia , Headache , Humans , Hypopituitarism , Korea , Libido , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Medical Records , Menstruation , Multivariate Analysis , Pituitary Neoplasms , Pregnancy , Protons , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Unconsciousness , Vision Disorders
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180482

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the postoperative radiotherapy results and prognostic factors in patients with WHO grade 3 and 4 gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 99 patients with malignant gliomas who underwent postoperative radiotherapy between 1988 and 2007 were enrolled in this study. Total resections, subtotal resections (> or =50%), partial resections (<50%), and biopsies were performed in 16, 38, 22, and 23 patients, respectively. In total there were 32, 63 and 4 WHO grade 3, 4, and unspecified high grade gliomas, respectively. The biologically equivalent dose was in the range of 18.6 to 83.3 Gy(10) (median dose, 72.2 Gy(10)). We retrospectively analyzed survival rate, patterns of failure, prognostic factors, and adverse effects. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 11 months and there were 54 patients (54.5%) with local failure. The one and 2-year survival rates were 56.6% and 29.3%, respectively, and the median survival duration was 13 months. The one and 2-year progression-free survival rates (PFS) were 31.3% and 18.2%, respectively, and the median PFS was 7 months. The prognostic factors for overall survival were age (p=0.0001), surgical extents (subtotal resection, p=0.023; partial resection, p=0.009; biopsy only, p=0.002), and enhancement of tumor in postoperative imaging study (p=0.049). The factors affecting PFS were age (p=0.036), tumor enhancement of the postoperative imaging study (p=0.006). There were 3 patients with grade 3 and 4 side effects during and after radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and surgical extents, tumor enhancement of the postoperative imaging study was included in the prognostic factors. The most common relapse patterns were local failures and hence, additional studies are needed to improve local control rates.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Glioma , Humans , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the treatment outcomes, complications, prognostic factors after a long-term follow-up of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 1981 and December 2006, 190 eligible patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated at our department with a curative intent. Of these patients, 103 were treated with RT alone and 87 patients received CCRT. The median age was 49 years (range, 8~78 years). The distributions of clinical stage according to the AJCC 6th edition included I: 7 (3.6%), IIA: 8 (4.2%), IIB: 33 (17.4%), III: 82 (43.2%), IVA: 31 (16.3%), IVB: 29 (15.3%). The accumulated radiation doses to the primary tumor ranged from 66.6~87.0 Gy (median, 72 Gy). Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively analyzed. Acute and late toxicities were assessed using the RTOG criteria. RESULTS: A total of 96.8% (184/190) of patients completed the planned treatment. With a mean follow-up of 73 months (range, 2~278 months; median, 52 months), 93 (48.9%) patients had relapses that were local 44 (23.2%), nodal 13 (6.8%), or distant 49 (25.8%). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 55.6% and 44.5%, 54.8% and 51.3%, in addition to 65.3% and 57.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CCRT, age, gender, and stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. The CCRT and gender were independent prognostic factors for both DFS and DSS. There was no grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity, but grade 3 mucositis and hematologic toxicity were present in 42 patients (22.1%) and 18 patients (9.5%), respectively. During follow-up, grade 3 hearing loss in 9 patients and trismus in 6 patients were reported. CONCLUSION: The results of our study were in accordance with findings of previous studies and we confirmed that CCRT, low stage, female gender, and young age were related to improvement in OS. However, there are limitations in the locoregional control that can be achieved by CCRT with 2D conventional radiation therapy. This observation has led to further studies on clarifying the efficacy of concurrent chemotherapy by intensity modulated radiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hearing Loss , Humans , Mucositis , Multivariate Analysis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Trismus
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