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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S245-S252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875504

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although the use of surveillance 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is discouraged in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, its usefulness in different subtypes has not been thoroughly investigated. @*Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 157 patients who showed positive results on surveillance FDG-PET/CT every 6 months following complete response for up to 5 years. All of the patients also underwent biopsies. @*Results@#Seventy-eight (49.6%) of 157 patients had true positive results; the remaining 79 (50.3%), including eight (5.1%) with secondary malignancies, were confirmed to yield false positive results. Among the 78 patients with true positive results, the disease in seven (8.9%) had transformed to a different subtype. The positive predictive value (PPV) of FDG-PET/CT for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) was lower than that for indolent B-cell or aggressive T-cell NHL (p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively), especially in patients with a low/low-intermediate international prognostic index (IPI) upon a positive PET/CT finding. On the other hand, indolent B-cell and aggressive T-cell NHL patients showed PPVs of > 60%, including those with low/low-intermediate secondary IPIs. @*Conclusions@#The role of FDG-PET/CT surveillance is limited, and differs according to the lymphoma subtype. FDG-PET/CT may be useful in detecting early relapse in patients with aggressive T-cell NHL, including those with low/low-intermediate risk secondary IPI; as already known, FDG-PET/CT has no role in aggressive B-cell NHL. Repeat biopsy should be performed to discriminate relapse or transformation from false positive findings in patients with positive surveillance FDG-PET/CT results.

2.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 426-431, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834570

ABSTRACT

Herein, we describe the first case of renal intravascular large B cell lymphoma in Korea occurring in a 66-year-old female. She presented with mild fever and dyspnea. On physical and laboratory evaluations, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was suspected, but the bone marrow biopsy results were unremarkable. During the work-up, massive proteinuria developed, which led to a renal biopsy. The renal architecture was relatively well-preserved, but the glomeruli were hypercellular with the infiltration of atypical, large lymphoid cells with increased nucleus-cytoplasm ratio and clumped chromatin. Similar cells were also present in the peritubular capillaries. The tumor cells exhibited membranous staining for CD20 and CD79a. After the diagnosis of intravascular large B cell lymphoma, the patient received rituximab-based chemotherapy under close follow-up.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 774-779, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833408

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are rare hematologic tumors.This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic features of the entire spectrum of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, including clinicopathological variables and patient outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#We comprehensively reviewed 274 patients who were diagnosed with histiocytic and dendritic neoplasms at Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea between 1995 and 2018. @*Results@#The most common neoplasm was Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), followed by dermal xanthogranuloma. Among non-LCH sarcomas, histiocytic sarcoma (HS) showed a relatively high prevalence, followed by follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS). Disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma (DJG), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), indeterminate dendritic cell tumor (IDCT), and interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) rarely occurred. Generally, these tumors presented in childhood, although the non-LCH sarcoma (HS/FDCS/IDCS/IDCT) group of tumors and ECD occurred in late adulthood. Multiorgan involvement and advanced Ann-Arbor stage, as well as recurrence and death of disease, were not uncommon. The non-LCH sarcoma group had the worst overall survival, compared to the DJG, ECD, and LCH groups. @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms exhibit heterogeneous epidemiologic characteristics and that some patients may have unfavorable outcomes, especially those with non-LCH sarcoma.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1273-1282, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831131

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is critical for maintaining bone marrow microenvironments during hematopoiesis, but its role in hematological malignancies remains obscure. Here, we investigated whether FOXC1 regulates tumor dormancy and activation in the microenvironments of T and natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred and twenty cases of T and NK cell lymphomas were included; the immunohistochemical expression of FOXC1 was investigated in stromal cells, and numbers of FOXC1+ stromal cells were counted. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in tumor cells was investigated using immunohistochemistry. @*Results@#FOXC1 was variably expressed in C-X-C motif chemokine 12–associated reticular stromal cells, histiocytes, (myo)fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The phenotypes of cases were categorized as dormant (high p-p38/low p-ERK1/2; n=30, 25.0%), active (high p-ERK1/2/low p-p38; n=25, 20.8%), or intermediate (others; n=65, 54.2%). Lower FOXC1+ stromal cell infiltration was associated with the dormant phenotype, the precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma subtype, and inferior overall survival rates, whereas higher FOXC1+ stromal cell infiltration was associated with the active phenotype and favorable patient prognosis (p < 0.05 for all). @*Conclusion@#These results suggested that FOXC1+ stromal cells within the microenvironments of T and NK cell lymphomas might be related to tumor phenotypes.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 374-387, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831060

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcome of brentuximab vedotin (BV) has not been related with CD30 expressionin previous studies enrolling patients with a wide range of CD30 expression level.Thus, this study explored the efficacy of BV in high-CD30–expressing non-Hodgkin lymphoma(NHL) patients most likely to benefit. @*Materials and Methods@#This phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02280785) enrolled relapsed or refractory high-CD30–expressing NHL, with BV administered intravenously at 1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks.The primary endpoint was > 40% disease control rate, consisting of complete response(CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease. We defined high CD30 expression as ! 30%tumor cells positive for CD30 by immunohistochemistry. @*Results@#High-CD30-expressing NHL patients (n=33) were enrolled except anaplastic large cell lymphoma.The disease control rate was 48.5% (16/33) including six CR and six PR; six patients(4CR, 2PR) maintained their response over 16 completed cycles. Response to BV and survivalwere not associated with CD30 expression levels. Over a median of 29.2 months offollow-up, the median progression-free and overall survival rates were 1.9 months and 6.1months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fever (39%), neutropenia(30%), fatigue (24%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (27%). In a post-hoc analysis forthe association of multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) on treatment outcome, MUM1-negative patients showed a higher response (55.6%, 5/9) than MUM1-positive patients(13.3%, 2/15). @*Conclusion@#BV performance as a single agent was acceptable in terms of disease control rates and toxicityprofiles, especially MUM1-negative patients.

6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 309-311, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32741

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Panniculitis, Peritoneal
7.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 322-324, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32737

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Adenoids , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Umbilicus
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 846-854, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) treatments of early-stage extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with stage I or II ENKTL [n=39 (71%) and 16 (29%) patients, respectively] who were treated with RT between 1999 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The median age was 54 years (range, 24-81). Patients were grouped by treatment modality as RT alone [n=19 (35%)], upfront CT plus RT [CT+RT, n=16 (29%)], and concurrent chemoradiotherapy [CCRT, n=20 (36%)]. The median RT dose was 48 Gy. Patient characteristics between each treatment group were well balanced. Patterns of failure and survival were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall response rate after RT was 94.6%. Ten patients experienced distant failure, and seven experienced local failure comprising five in-field and two out-field failures. The local and distant failure rates in the RT-alone group were the same (16%). In the CT+RT group, the most common failure sites were local (19%). In the CCRT group, the most common failures were distant (25%). At a median follow-up of 56 months (range, 1-178 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival rates were 66% and 54%, respectively. The 5-year OS rate for the RT-alone and CT+RT groups were 76% and 69%, respectively, and the 2-year OS rate for the CCRT group was 62% (p=0.388). CONCLUSION: In the era of multimodal treatment for ENKTL, RT alone using advanced techniques should be considered for local disease control, whereas maintenance CT regimens should be considered for distant disease control.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
9.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 104-112, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that the splicing factor neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 (NOVA1) is enriched in fibroblasts and accumulated T cells of tertiary lymphoid structures. In the present study, we investigated NOVA1 expression in various subtypes of mature and immature T- and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas as well as in various B-cell lymphoma subtypes. METHODS: NOVA1 immunoexpression was evaluated in hyperplastic palatine tonsils (n = 20), T- and NK-cell lymphomas (n = 177), diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n = 151), and other types of B cell lymphomas (n = 31). Nuclear staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells were graded. NOVA1 mRNA expression was analyzed in various lymphoma cell lines. RESULTS: Tumor cells of T- and NK-cell lymphomas showed higher expression levels of NOVA1 than did normal paracortical T cells, and 56.5% of T- and NK-cell lymphoma cases showed diffuse and strong expression. The NOVA1 expression level varied according to the subtype; it was higher in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), and T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL), but it was lower in ALK-positive ALCL. In almost all B-cell lymphomas, NOVA1 expression was very low or negative. NOVA1 mRNA was also expressed in Jurkat, a T-LBL cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that NOVA1 upregulation may be involved in certain subtypes of T- and NK-cell lymphomas, but not in B-cell lymphomas. Upregulated NOVA1 expression seems to be a specific biological feature of activated T cells such as T- and NK-cell lymphomas.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Fibroblasts , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Palatine Tonsil , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , T-Lymphocytes , Up-Regulation
10.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 246-249, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11105

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 369-376, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A long non-coding RNA hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is involved in epigenetic regulation through chromatin remodeling by recruiting polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, and EED) that induce histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Deregulation of c-MYC and interaction between c-MYC and EZH2 are well known in lymphomagenesis; however, little is known about the expression status of HOTAIR in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). METHODS: The expression status of PRC2 (EZH2, SUZ12, and EED), H3K27me3, c-MYC, and BCL2 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (n = 231), and HOTAIR was investigated by a quantification real-time polymerase chain reaction method (n = 164) in DLBCLs. RESULTS: The present study confirmed the positive correlation among PRC2 proteins, H3K27me3, and c-MYC in DLBCLs. Expression level of HOTAIR was also positively correlated to EZH2 (p < .05, respectively). Between c-MYC and HOTAIR, and between c- MYC/BCL2 co-expression and HOTAIR, however, negative correlation was observed in DLBCLs (p < .05, respectively). High level of H3K27me3 was determined as an independent prognostic marker in poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.0; p = .023) of DLBCL patients. High expression of HOTAIR, however, was associated with favorable overall survival (p = .004) in the univariate analysis, but the impact was not significant in the multivariate analysis. The favorable outcome of DLBCL with HOTAIR high expression levels may be related to the negative correlation with c- MYC expression or c-MYC/BCL2 co-expression. CONCLUSIONS: HOTAIR expression could be one of possible mechanisms for inducing H3K27me3 via EZH2-related PRC2 activation, and induced H3K27me3 may be strongly related to aggressive DLBCLs which show poor patient outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Epigenomics , Histones , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Lysine , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , RNA, Long Noncoding
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 9-17, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20381

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pediatric-type sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma (EWS), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT) are rare in adults, with limited studies on their prognosis and optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to examine the outcome of children and adult patients with RMS, EWS, PNET, and DSRCT and relevant prognostic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 220 pediatric-type sarcoma patients at a single institution between 1985 and 2011. Comparisons were made in order to examine differences in demographics, disease characteristics, and survival. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 220 consecutive patients were identified at our institute. Median age was 15.6 years (range, 0 to 81 years) and there were 108 children (49%) and 112 adult patients (51%). According to histological classification, 106 patients (48.2%) had RMS, 60 (27.3%) had EWS, 50 (22.7%) had PNET, and 4 (1.8%) had DSRCT. With a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, the estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 75 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.2 to 122.8 months) and median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients was 11 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 13.2 months). No significant difference in OS and EFS was observed between adults and children. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.617; 95% CI, 1.022 to 2.557; p=0.040) and no debulking surgery (HR, 1.443; 95% CI, 1.104 to 1.812; p=0.012) showed independent association with worse OS. CONCLUSION: Metastatic disease and no surgical treatment are poor prognostic factors for OS among pediatric-type sarcomas for both adults and children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Classification , Demography , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Sarcoma, Ewing
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1338-1344, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185886

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is often difficult to discriminate focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) or adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) from thyroid cancer if they both have suspicious ultrasound (US) findings. We aimed to make a predictive model of FLT from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in suspicious nodules with benign cytologic results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 214 patients who had undergone fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and had shown thyroid nodules with suspicious US features. PTC was confirmed by surgical pathology. FLT and AH were confirmed through more than two separate FNABs. Clinical and biochemical findings, as well as US features, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 214 patients, 100 patients were diagnosed with PTC, 55 patients with FLT, and 59 patients with AH. The proportion of elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels (p=0.014) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) or thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) positivity (p<0.001) in the FLT group was significantly higher than that in the PTC group. Regarding US features, absence of calcification (p=0.006) and "diffuse thyroid disease" (DTD) pattern on US (p<0.001) were frequently seen in the FLT group. On multivariate analysis, Tg-Ab positivity, presence of a DTD pattern on US, and absence of calcification in nodules were associated with FLT with the best specificity of 99% and positive predictive value of 96%. In contrast, a taller than wide shape of nodules was the only variable significant for differentiating AH from PTC. CONCLUSION: Suspicious thyroid nodules with cytologic benign results could be followed up with US rather than repeat FNAB, if patients exhibit Tg-Ab positivity, no calcifications in nodules, and a DTD pattern on US.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Calcinosis , Carcinoma/pathology , Hashimoto Disease , Hyperplasia/pathology , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroglobulin/blood , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/pathology , Thyrotropin/blood
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 207-218, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20461

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: 14-3-3 sigma (sigma) is considered to be an important tumor suppressor and decreased expression of the same has been reported in many malignant tumors by hypermethylation at its promoter or ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by estrogen-responsive ring finger protein (Efp). In this study, we investigated the significance of 14-3-3 sigma expression in human breast cancer and its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: Efp was silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in order to examine its influence on the level of 14-3-3 sigma protein. The methylation status of the 14-3-3 sigma promoter was also evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression of Efp and 14-3-3 sigma in 220 human breast carcinoma tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Other clinicopathological parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: Silencing Efp in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line resulted in increased expression of 14-3-3 sigma. The Efp-positive human breast cancers were more frequently 14-3-3 sigma-negative (60.5% vs. 39.5%). Hypermethylation of 14-3-3 sigma was common (64.9%) and had an inverse association with 14-3-3 sigma positivity (p=0.072). Positive 14-3-3 sigma expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis: disease-free survival (p=0.008) and disease-specific survival (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that in human breast cancer, the regulation of 14-3-3 sigma may involve two mechanisms: ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by Efp and downregulation by hypermethylation. However, the inactivation of 14-3-3 sigma is probably achieved mainly by hypermethylation. Interestingly, 14-3-3 sigma turned out to be a very significant poor prognostic indicator, which is in contrast to its previously known function as a tumor suppressor, suggesting a different role of 14-3-3 sigma in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line , Disease-Free Survival , Down-Regulation , Fingers , Immunohistochemistry , Methylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Proteolysis , RNA, Small Interfering
15.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 126-132, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previously, cutaneous lymphomas were classified according to either the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) classification paradigms. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of Korean cutaneous lymphoma according to the new WHO-EORTC classification system. METHODS: A total of 517 patients were recruited during a recent 5 year-period (2006-2010) from 21 institutes and classified according to the WHO-EORTC criteria. RESULTS: The patients included 298 males and 219 females, and the mean age at diagnosis was 49 years. The lesions preferentially affected the trunk area (40.2%). The most frequent subtypes in order of decreasing prevalence were mycosis fungoides (22.2%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (17.2%), CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (13.7%), and extranodal natural killer/T (NK/T) cell lymphoma, nasal type (12.0%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accounted for 11.2% of cases, half of which were secondary cutaneous involvement; other types of B-cell lymphoma accounted for less than 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with data from Western countries, this study revealed relatively lower rates of mycosis fungoides and B-cell lymphoma in Korean patients, as well as higher rates of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Academies and Institutes , Classification , Diagnosis , Korea , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Mycosis Fungoides , Prevalence , T-Lymphocytes , World Health Organization
16.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 48-58, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62930

ABSTRACT

Recently, next generation sequencing (NGS) has received attention as the ultimate genotyping method to overcome the limitations of capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, such as the limited number of STR loci that can be measured simultaneously using fluorescent-labeled primers and the maximum size of STR amplicons. In this study, we analyzed 15 autosomal STR markers via the NGS method and evaluated their effectiveness in STR analysis. Using male and female standard DNA as single-sources and their 1:1 mixture, we sequentially generated sample amplicons by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, constructed DNA libraries by ligation of adapters with a multiplex identifier (MID), and sequenced DNA using the Roche GS Junior Platform. Sequencing data for each sample were analyzed via alignment with pre-built reference sequences. Most STR alleles could be determined by applying a coverage threshold of 20% for the two single-sources and 10% for the 1:1 mixture. The structure of the STR in each allele was accurately determined by examining the sequences of the target STR region. The mixture ratio of the mixed sample was estimated by analyzing the coverage ratios between assigned alleles at each locus and the reference/variant ratios from the observed sequence variations. In conclusion, the experimental method used in this study allowed the successful generation of NGS data. In addition, the NGS data analysis protocol enables accurate STR allele call and repeat structure determination at each locus. Therefore, this approach using the NGS system will be helpful to interpret and analysis the STR profiles from singe-source and even mixed samples in forensic investigation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Alleles , DNA , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Gene Library , Ligation , Microsatellite Repeats , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Statistics as Topic
17.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 1-8, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34179

ABSTRACT

The estimation of age is an important issue in forensic science, and the forensic community has attempted many times to establish methods for solving this issue. Aging leads to alterations in tissues and organs at the molecular level. These alterations at the molecular level may aid forensic scientists to estimate the age of a living person or a dead body. Initially, the focus was on the genetic components of aging, but recently, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as the key contributors to the alterations in genome structure and function that accompany aging. In particular, DNA methylation is one of the best-understood mechanisms, and it has been suggested as a promising biomarker for age estimation in many studies. In this review, we summarize the recent studies on age-associated DNA methylation changes in different tissues and discuss its possible and practical applications in forensics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , DNA , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Forensic Sciences , Genome
18.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 57-65, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35119

ABSTRACT

Kinship testing in forensic casework is largely based on a likelihood ratio (LR) approach with short tandem repeat (STR) markers; however, in order to efficiently identify potential relatives in a specific population, the threshold values for kinship prediction should be determined by analyzing the kinship index distributions of the population in question. In this study, 250,000 DNA profiles were simulated using allele frequencies at 20 autosomal STR loci in Koreans, then the LRs were calculated for true close relatives and unrelated pairs. The LR distributions in related and unrelated pairs under a given relationship were compared in 2 sets of 13 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and 20 STR profiles. Using 13 CODIS STRs, true relatives in parent/child and full-sibling relationships were sufficiently discriminated from unrelated pairs with LR thresholds of 1,000 and 100, respectively. However, the CODIS STRs lacked the discriminatory power to differentiate between related and unrelated pairs in uncle/nephew and first cousin relationships due to high false-positive and false-negative rates with a LR threshold of 10. Increasing the number of STR loci to 20 increased discrimination of close relatives, but high false results remained in uncle/nephew and first cousin relationships. The kinship index data from this study will help make decisions on various kinship testing and familial searching in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Discrimination, Psychological , DNA , Gene Frequency , Microsatellite Repeats
19.
The Journal of the Korean Bone and Joint Tumor Society ; : 50-55, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the usefulness of arterial embolization on sacral and pelvic giant cell tumor (GCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 9 patients who had undergone serial arterial embolization between December 1996 and May 2008. We analyzed the clinical outcomes and therapeutic responsiveness of arterial embolization on sacral and pelvic GCT. RESULTS: Six of 9 cases showed progression of disease (PD) status, even if 5 cases showed PD status despite of additional treatments including surgery and radiation, implying that serial arterial embolization on sacral and pelvic GCT is not effective. Three of 9 cases showed stable disease (SD) or continuous disease free (CDF) status and we analyzed associated factors with these good responses for embolization by chi2 test. The number of feeding vessels under six (p=0.048) and the number of collateral arterial supply under three (p=0.048) in the first angiogram showed significant relationships with good response for embolization, while remaining tumor staining by contrast after the first embolization and repeated embolization times were not significant. CONCLUSION: Although serial arterial embolization is not an effective modality on sacral and pelvic giant cell tumors, it may be a pilot modality under narrow indication of tumors with poor vascularity at first angiogram.


Subject(s)
Humans , Giant Cell Tumors , Giant Cells , Medical Records , Pelvic Bones , Retrospective Studies , Sacrum
20.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 183-190, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93103

ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally used to identify highly degraded forensic samples, particularly when the extracted DNA is not sufficient for nuclear DNA analysis. However, direct sequencing, the most widely used mtDNA analysis method, is laborious and time-consuming, and precludes the simultaneous analysis of many samples. Here, we describe a rapid and simple screening method for mtDNA analysis in Koreans using single base extension (SBE) methods. Sixteen highly polymorphic mtDNA SNPs from the control region were selected, and a multiplex SBE system was constructed to analyze them. Because the developed system consists of two duplex PCRs, which produce small amplicons with fewer than 270 bp, it works well with highly degraded samples such as old skeletal remains. Using this multiplex SBE system, 145 different haplotypes were expected to be observed from 593 unrelated Koreans. Seventy-three haplotypes were expected to be observed only once, and the most frequent haplotype was expected to occur 80 times. Since the mean number of pairwise differences was estimated to be 4.55, the developed system could be useful to exclude samples that do not match evidence and reference samples. Therefore, the multiplex SBE system used in this study will be a useful tool to analyze many samples simultaneously and to efficiently screen out non-matching mtDNA sequences in forensic casework.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , DNA , DNA, Mitochondrial , Haplotypes , Mass Screening , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
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