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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925901

ABSTRACT

Background@#Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) are key proteins mediating viral entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although gene expressions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been analyzed in various organs and diseases, their soluble forms have been less studied, particularly in asthma. Therefore, we aimed to measure circulating ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the serum of asthmatics and examine their relationship with clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#Clinical data and serum samples of 400 participants were obtained from an asthma cohort. The soluble ACE2 (sACE2) and soluble TMPRSS2 (sTMPRSS2) level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the values underwent a natural log transformation. Associations between sACE2 and TMPRSS2 levels and various clinical variables were analyzed. @*Results@#The patients younger than 70 years old, those with eosinophilic asthma (eosinophils ≥ 200 cells/µL), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) non-users were associated with higher levels of sACE2. Blood eosinophils and fractionated exhaled nitric oxide levels were positively correlated with serum ACE2. In contrast, lower levels of sTMPRSS2 were noted in patients below 70 years and those with eosinophilic asthma, while no association was noted between ICS use and sTMPRSS2. The level of sTMPRSS2 also differed according to sex, smoking history, coexisting hypertension, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio. The proportion of sputum neutrophils was positively correlated with sTMPRSS2, while the FEV1/FVC ratio reported a negative correlation with sTMPRSS2. @*Conclusion@#The levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were differently expressed according to age, ICS use, and several inflammatory markers. These findings suggest variable susceptibility and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asthmatic patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875495

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Skin (STs) and drug provocation (DPTs) tests are essential for identifying the culprit drugs causing drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs). Several protocols have been developed for the identification of some culprit drugs, but they are neither thoroughly validated nor standardized. Furthermore, language barriers may impede the exchange of information necessary for test standardization. @*Methods@#We searched the Korean literature for articles on drug hypersensitivity published from 1933 to 2016 using the KoreaMed search engine and archives of Korean journals. We reviewed and rated all articles according to the description of STs and DPTs. @*Results@#Of the 632 articles obtained in our initial search, 34 had adequate descriptions of 15 STs and 22 DPTs. Up to 27 healthy control subjects in STs were enrolled to determine non-irritating concentrations. The concentrations used for intradermal tests were commonly a 1/10 dilution of those used for skin prick tests. The interpretations of the STs were mostly similar among researchers. For DPTs, most procedures were single-arm open-label tests of various drugs. The initial dose ranged from a quarter dose to a single therapeutic dose, depending on the severity of the original hypersensitivity reaction. The interval between doses was usually 30 to 60 minutes, and a positive reaction usually occurred within twice the time of the original reaction. @*Conclusions@#Efforts to distribute information are necessary to standardize protocols and better understand DHRs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875469

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent evidence suggests an association between allergic sensitization and metabolic markers. However, this association has rarely been examined in the elderly. Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) is a recently identified adipokine that acts on the muscle and liver affecting insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the association between metabolic parameters and allergic sensitization in the elderly. @*Methods@#We analysed the database of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging cohort study conducted during 2005 to 2006. Atopy was identified by inhalant allergen skin prick test. Metabolic conditions were assessed using anthropometric indices and serum biomarkers such as fasting glucose, lipid, adiponectin, and RBP-4. @*Results@#Among the 854 elderly subjects, 17.2% had atopy. Plasma RBP-4 levels were significantly higher in the atopic elderly than nonatopic elderly (p = 0.003). When RBP-4 percentiles were categorized as under three groups, the prevalence of atopy and current rhinitis increased significantly with percentiles of RBP-4 levels (p = 0.019 and p = 0.007, respectively). Log RBP-4 was associated with atopy (odds ratio [OR], 4.10; p = 0.009) and current rhinitis (OR, 2.73; p = 0.014), but not with current asthma (OR, 1.17; p = 0.824). Higher RBP-4 level in atopic elderly was also observed in current rhinitis patients. Atopy, but not current rhinitis, showed significant relationships with log RBP-4 levels in multivariate analyses adjusted for other metabolic markers including body mass index. @*Conclusions@#RBP-4 positively associated with atopy in the general elderly population irrespective of other metabolic markers.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811068

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been increasing; however, few algorithms are available to identify DILI in electronic health records (EHRs). We aimed to identify and evaluate DILI with an appropriate screening algorithm.METHODS: We collected data from 3 university hospitals between June 2015 and May 2016 using our newly developed algorithm for identifying DILI. Among patients with alanine transferase (ALT) ≤ 120 IU/L and total bilirubin (TB) ≤ 2.4 mg/dL in blood test results within 48 hours of admission, those who either had 1) ALT > 120 IU/L and TB > 2.4 mg/dL or 2) ALT > 200 IU/L at least once during hospitalization were identified. After excluding patients with liver disease-related diagnosis at discharge, medical records were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of DILI.RESULTS: The total number of inpatients was 256,598, of whom 1,100 (0.43%) were selected by the algorithm as suspected DILI. Subsequently, 365 cases (0.14% of total inpatients, 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.16) were identified as DILI, yielding a positive predictive value of 33.1%. Antibiotics (n = 214, 47.2%) were the major class of causative drug followed by chemotherapeutic agents (n = 87, 19.2%). The most common causative drug was piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 38, 8.4%); the incidence of DILI by individual agent was highest for methotrexate (19.4 cases/1,000 patients administered the drug). Common reasons for excluding suspected DILI cases were ischemic hepatitis and postoperative liver dysfunction.CONCLUSIONS: Using our EHR-based algorithm, we identified that approximately 0.14% of patients developed DILI during hospitalization. Further studies are needed to modify criteria for more accurate identification of DILI.


Subject(s)
Alanine , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bilirubin , Diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Electronic Health Records , Hematologic Tests , Hepatitis , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Liver , Liver Diseases , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Methotrexate , Pharmacoepidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Transferases
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma in the elderly (EA; ≥ 65 years of age) is increasing, adding a heavy socioeconomic burden to the healthcare system. However, little is known about risk factors associated with acute exacerbations in EA patients. The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for acute exacerbation in EA compared to non-elderly asthma (NEA).METHODS: We combined data from 3 adult asthma cohorts under a unified protocol and database. Asthmatic patients with regular follow-up during a 1-year period were selected from the cohorts to identify the risk factors predicting acute exacerbations in EA compared to NEA.RESULTS: We selected a total of 1,086 patients from the merged cohort. During the observation period, 503 and 583 patients were assigned to the EA and NEA groups, respectively. The exacerbation rate was 31.0% in the EA and 33.2% in the NEA group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed fixed airway obstruction, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and male sex as independent risk factors for exacerbation in the EA group. In the NEA group, exacerbation increased along with an increase in eosinophil count. Bayesian analysis of the interactions among clinical factors revealed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity was directly related to exacerbation in the EA group, and eosinophil count was related to exacerbation in the NEA group.CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that fixed airway obstruction and CRS as the important clinical factors predicting acute exacerbations in EA, whereas in NEA, eosinophil count was the strong predictor of exacerbation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Airway Obstruction , Asthma , Bayes Theorem , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Eosinophils , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Risk Factors , Vital Capacity
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reduction-oxidation reaction homeostasis is vital for regulating inflammatory conditions and its dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Peroxiredoxin-6, an important intracellular anti-oxidant molecule, is reported to be highly expressed in the airways and lungs. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression pattern of peroxiredoxin-6 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic patients and in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs).METHODS: The expression levels and modifications of peroxiredoxin-6 were evaluated in PBMCs from 22 asthmatic patients. Phosphorylated and acetylated peroxiredoxin-6 in hydrogen peroxide-treated human BECs was detected using immunoprecipitation analysis. The expression level of peroxiredoxin-6 was also investigated in BECs treated with hydrogen peroxide. Cycloheximide and proteasome inhibitors were used to determine whether peroxiredoxin-6 is degraded by proteasomes.RESULTS: Peroxiredoxin-6 expression was significantly reduced in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients compared to control subjects. Distinct modification patterns for peroxiredoxin-6 were observed in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients using 2-dimensional-electrophoresis. The levels of phosphorylated serine and acetylated lysine in peroxiredoxin-6 were significantly increased in the BECs following hydrogen peroxide treatment. The level of peroxiredoxin-6 expression was reduced in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated BECs, presumably due to proteasomes.CONCLUSIONS: The expression of peroxiredoxin-6, which is down-regulated in the immune cells of asthmatic patients and BECs, can be modified by oxidative stress. This phenomenon may have an effect on asthmatic airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cycloheximide , Epithelial Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Peroxide , Immunoprecipitation , Inflammation , Lung , Lysine , Oxidative Stress , Proteasome Inhibitors , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Serine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831792

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is a common clinical condition with significant impact on quality of life and for which effective therapy remains an unmet clinical need. Over the past decade, there has been a major shift in how we approach this problem, driven by better appreciation of the clinical manifestation of chronic cough and an improved understanding of the associated neurobiology. “Cough hypersensitivity syndrome” has been proposed as a new diagnostic term for chronic cough, encompassing different phenotypes of the condition. Accumulating evidence suggests that this new concept is clinically relevant. However, while it is gaining widespread endorsement within the allergy and respiratory community, raising its profile in routine clinical practice is a priority. Thus, the present paper reviews recent progress in our understanding and management of chronic cough, with focus on mechanistic and clinical studies. It also provides detail on knowledge gaps and future research directions.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831481

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are the most severe cutaneous drug hypersensitivity reactions, which are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. SJS/TEN is associated with significant mortality and morbidity; however, effective treatment is difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well-known for their anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration properties. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether MSCs could be applied for the treatment of SJS/TEN. We developed an SJS/TEN mouse model using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a lamotrigine-induced SJS patient. MSCs were injected into the model to verify the treatment effect. In SJS model mice treated with MSCs, ocular damage rarely occurred, and apoptosis rate was significantly lower. We demonstrated a therapeutic effect of MSCs on SJS/TEN, with these cells presenting a potential novel therapy for the management of this disorder.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833767

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilia occurs commonly in many diseases including allergic diseases and helminthic infections. Toxocariasis has been suggested as one cause of eosinophilia. The present study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia and to identify the risk factors for toxocariasis. This prospective cohort study recruited a total of 81 patients with eosinophilia (34 males and 47 females) who visited the outpatient clinic at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018 and agreed to participate in this study. The prevalence of toxocariasis was examined by T. canis-specific ELISA, and the various risk factors for toxocariasis were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. Among 81 patients with eosinophilia, 18 were positive for anti-T. canis antibodies (22.2%); 88.9% were male (16/18) and 11.1% were female (2/18). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that males (OR 21.876, 95% CI: 1.667-287.144) with a history of consuming the raw meat or livers of animals (OR 5.899, 95% CI: 1.004-34.669) and a heavy alcohol-drinking habit (OR 8.767, 95% CI: 1.018-75.497) were at higher risk of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia. Toxocariasis should be considered a potential cause of eosinophilia when the patient has a history of eating the raw meat or livers of animals in Korea. A single course of albendazole is recommended to reduce the migration of Toxocara larvae in serologically positive cases with eosinophilia.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762172

ABSTRACT

A major burden of severe asthma is the future risk of adverse health outcomes. Patients with severe asthma are prone to serious exacerbation and deterioration of lung function and may experience side effects of medications such as oral corticosteroids (OCSs). However, such future risk is not easily measurable in daily clinical practice. In particular, currently available tools to measure asthma control and asthma-related quality of life incompletely predict the future risk of medication-related morbidity. This is a significant issue in asthma management. This review summarizes the current evidence of future risk in patients with severe asthma. As future risk is poorly perceived by controlled asthmatics, our review focuses on the risk in patients with ‘controlled’ severe asthma. Of note, it is likely that long-term OCS therapy may not prevent future asthma progression, including lung function decline. In addition, the risk of drug side effects increases even during low-dose OCS therapy. Thus, novel treatments are highly desirable for reducing future risks without any loss of asthma control.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Lung , Quality of Life
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are often considered an empirical therapy in the management of patients with cough. However, ICS responsiveness is difficult to interpret in daily clinical practice, as the improvements may include placebo effects or self-remission. We aimed to evaluate ICS and placebo treatment effects in adult patients with cough. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies published until June 2018, without language restriction. Randomized controlled trials reporting the effects of ICSs compared with placebo in adult patients with cough were included. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the treatment effects. Therapeutic gain was calculated by subtracting the percentage change from baseline in the cough score in the ICS treatment group from that in the placebo treatment group. RESULTS: A total of 9 studies were identified and 8 studies measuring cough severity outcomes were included for meta-analyses. Therapeutic gain from ICSs ranged from −5.0% to +94.6% across the studies included; however, it did not exceed +22%, except for an outlier reporting very high therapeutic gains (+45.6% to +94.6%, depending on outcomes). Overall ICS treatment effects in cough severity outcomes were small-to-moderate (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.54, −0.23), which were comparable between subacute and chronic coughs. However, pooled placebo treatment effects were very large in subacute cough (SMD, −2.58; 95% CI, −3.03, −2.1), and modest but significant in chronic cough (SMD, −0.46; 95% CI, −0.72, −0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Overall therapeutic gain from ICSs is small-to-moderate. However, placebo treatment effects of ICS are large in subacute cough, and modest but still significant in chronic cough. These findings indicate the need for careful interpretation of ICS responsiveness in the management of cough patients in the clinic, and also for rigorous patient selection to identify ICS-responders.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Cough , Humans , Overall , Patient Selection , Placebo Effect , Steroids
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that cough hypersensitivity may be a common feature of chronic cough in adults. However, the clinical relevance remains unclear. This study evaluated the cough-related symptom profile and the clinical relevance and impact of cough hypersensitivity in adults with chronic cough. METHODS: This cross-sectional multi-center study compared cough-related laryngeal sensations and cough triggers in patients with unexplained chronic cough following investigations and in unselected patients newly referred for chronic cough. A structured questionnaire was used to assess abnormal laryngeal sensations and cough triggers. Patients with unexplained cough were also evaluated using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and a cough visual analogue scale (VAS), and these scores were assessed for correlations with the number of triggers and laryngeal sensations. RESULTS: This study recruited 478 patients, including 62 with unexplained chronic cough and 416 with chronic cough. Most participants reported abnormal laryngeal sensations and cough triggers. Laryngeal sensations (4.4 ± 1.5 vs. 3.9 ± 1.9; P = 0.049) and cough triggers (6.9 ± 2.6 vs. 5.0 ± 2.8; P < 0.001) were more frequent in patients with unexplained chronic cough than in those with chronic cough. The number of triggers and laryngeal sensations score significantly correlated with LCQ (r = −0.51, P < 0.001) and cough VAS score (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) in patients with unexplained chronic cough. CONCLUSIONS: Cough hypersensitivity may be a common feature in adult patients with chronic cough, especially those with unexplained chronic cough. Cough-related health status and cough severity were inversely associated with the number of triggers and laryngeal sensations, suggesting potential relevance of assessing cough hypersensitivity in chronic cough patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cough , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Sensation , Symptom Assessment
15.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e16-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750177

ABSTRACT

Cough is a physiological defense reflex for protecting the airways from aspiration and irritation. Thus, roles of environmental triggers are postulated in the pathogenesis of chronic cough. There are several lines of epidemiological evidence demonstrating the relationships between environmental irritant and pollutant exposure and chronic cough. However, positive findings from cross-sectional studies just reflect the protective nature of cough but may not properly address the true impact of environmental triggers. If harmful inhalation is repeated, cough may be seen as chronic but indeed is protective in nature. Therefore, long-term residual outcomes would be the key for understanding the effects of environmental triggers on chronic cough. The present review aims to summarize the associations between chronic cough and environmental pollutants or irritant exposure, with a focus on the long-term residual effects of (1) chronic persistent exposure and (2) acute high-intensity exposure on chronic cough, and also to examine (3) whether childhood irritant/pollutant exposure may increase the risk of chronic cough in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants , Epidemiology , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Inhalation , Reflex
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Depression and allergic diseases, including asthma, are frequently reported as comorbid conditions. However, their associations have been rarely examined in community-based elderly populations.@*METHODS@#The analyses were performed using the baseline data set of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging, which consists of 1,000 elderly participants (aged > 65 years) randomly recruited from an urban community. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Major and minor depressive disorders were diagnosed by psychiatrists. Allergic conditions were assessed using structured questionnaires, lung function, and skin prick test. Quality of life and comorbidities were assessed using structured questionnaires.@*RESULTS@#Prevalence of asthma and major depressive disorder were 5.4% and 5.3%, respectively. The rate of depression was not significantly different between the non-asthmatic and asthmatic groups. No correlation was observed between the scores obtained using the depression scales and self-reported asthma. However, chronic, frequent, and nocturnal cough were significantly associated with depression and scores obtained using the depression scales, which remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analyses (chronic cough: odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57 to 12.74; p = 0.04). Rhinitis was independently associated with high Mini-Mental State Examination scores (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17; p < 0.001) and low 36-item short-form (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98; p = 0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Depression may not be significantly associated with asthma and allergic diseases in elderly populations, but cough is a significant factor affecting depression.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of infusion-related reaction (IRR) of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) as a first-line chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The medical records of 326 patients diagnosed with DLBCL were re trospectively analyzed. Both doctor's progress records and nursing records were reviewed. IRR was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria.@*RESULTS@#IRR was not associated with overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) of DLBCL patients as compared to those who did not have IRR (OS: median 78.0 months vs. 69.0 months, p = 0.700; PFS: median 65.4 months vs. 64.0 months, p = 0.901). IRR grade did not affect OS or PFS. B symptoms was independently associated with IRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.850; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041 to 3.290; p = 0.036). Further, bone marrow involvement was independently associated with re-IRR (HR, 4.904; 95% CI, 0.767 to 3.118; p = 0.029).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study shows that IRR of rituximab is not associated with OS or PFS of DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP. Furthermore, our study suggests a need for more careful observation for IRR in patients with B symptoms or bone marrow involvement.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea. Severe asthma was defined according to modified European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society criteria. Information on demographics, medical history, pulmonary function tests and skin prick tests was collected; the clinical characteristics of severe asthmatics were analyzed from the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 489 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 62.3; 45% are male. Sixty percent of patients received Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment, and 30% received step 5 treatment. The most common comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (58.7%). Aspirin hypersensitivity was observed in 14.0%. Approximately half (53.9%) are non-smokers. Atopy was proven in 38.5% of the patients. Regarding asthma medications, inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist combination inhalers were most commonly prescribed (96.5%), followed by leukotriene antagonists (71.0%). A recombinant anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been used in 1.8% of the patients. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were 78.7%, 67.5% and 67.9% of predicted values, respectively. The mean Asthma Control Test and quality of life questionnaire scores were 16.5 out of 25 and 59.5 out of 85, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline characteristics of severe asthma patients in the Korea Severe Asthma Registry were analyzed and reported for the first time. With this cohort, further prospective studies should be performed to search for ways to improve management of severe refractory asthma.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Allergy and Immunology , Aspirin , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Demography , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , Male , Mortality , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Vital Capacity
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e36-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762873

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Cough , Humans
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 952-959, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term and very short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) exceeding the daily average environmental standards for Korea (≤100 µg/m³ for PM₁₀ and ≤50 µg/m³ for PM(2.5)) on on asthma-related hospital visits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based, case-crossover study using National Health Insurance and air pollution data between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. The event day was defined as a day when PM exceeded the daily average environmental standard (short-term exposure) or daily average environmental standard for 2 hours (very short-term exposure). The control day was defined as the same day of the week at 1 week prior to the event day. RESULTS: Compared with control days, asthma-related hospital visits on the 24-hr event days and 2-hr event days increased by 4.10% and 3.45% for PM₁₀ and 5.66% and 3.74% for PM(2.5), respectively. Asthma-related hospital visits increased from the 24-hr event day for PM₁₀ to 4 days after the event day, peaking on the third day after the event day (1.26, 95% confidence interval, 1.22–1.30). Hospitalizations also increased on the third day after the event. While there was a difference in magnitude, PM(2.5) exposure showed similar trends to PM₁₀ exposure. CONCLUSION: We found a significant association between short-term and very short-term PM exposure exceeding the current daily average environmental standards of Korea and asthma-related hospital visits. These results are expected to aid in establishing appropriate environmental standards and relevant policies for PM.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Asthma , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs , Outpatients , Particulate Matter
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