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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 513-520, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984683

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the prognosis of mildly or severely symptomatic patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHCM) who underwent alcohol septal ablation (ASA). Methods: This retrospective study cohort consisted of patients with OHCM who received ASA treatment in Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from March 2001 to August 2021. These patients were divided into mildly and severely symptomatic groups according to the severity of clinical symptoms. Long-term follow-up was conducted, and the following data were collected: duration of follow-up, postoperatire treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, arrhythmia events and pacemaker implantation, echocardiographic parameters, and cause of death. Overall survival and survival free from OHCM-related death were observed, and the improvement of clinical symptoms and resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG) and the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation were evaluated. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to determine and compare the cumulative survival rates of the different groups. Cox regression analysis models were used to determine predictors of clinical events. Results: A total of 189 OHCM patients were included in this study, including 68 in the mildly symptomatic group and 121 in the severely symptomatic group. The median follow-up of the study was 6.0 (2.7, 10.6) years. There was no statistical difference in overall survival between the mildly symptomatic group (5-year and 10-year overall survival were 97.0% and 94.4%, respectively) and the severely symptomatic group (5-year and 10-year overall survival were 94.2% and 83.9%, respectively, P=0.405); there was also no statistical difference in survival free from OHCM-related death between the mildly symptomatic group (5-year and 10-year survival free from HCM-related death were 97.0% and 94.4%, respectively) and the severely symptomatic group (5-year and 10-year survival free from HCM-related death were 95.2% and 92.6%, respectively, P=0.846). In the mildly symptomatic group, NYHA classification was improved after ASA (P<0.001), among which 37 patients (54.4%) were in NYHA class Ⅰ, and the resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG) decreased from 67.6 (42.7, 90.1) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to 24.4 (11.7, 35.6) mmHg (P<0.001). In severely symptomatic group, NYHA classification was also improved post ASA (P<0.001), among which 96 patients (79.3%) improved by at least one NYHA classification, and the resting LVOTG decreased from 69.6 (38.4, 96.1) mmHg to 19.0 (10.6, 39.8) mmHg (P<0.001). The incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation was similar between the mildly and severely symptomatic groups (10.2% vs. 13.3%, P=0.565). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that age was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in OHCM patients post ASA (HR=1.068, 95%CI 1.002-1.139, P=0.042). Conclusions: Among patients with OHCM treated with ASA, overall survival and survival free from HCM-related death were similar between mildly symptomatic group and severely symptomatic group. ASA therapy can effectively relieve resting LVOTG and improve clinical symptoms in mildly or severely symptomatic patients with OHCM. Age was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in OHCM patients post ASA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Atrial Fibrillation , Heart Septum/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/surgery
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1124-1129, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941410

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the risk factors and clinical characteristics as well as long-term prognosis of young patients (aged 18-35 years) with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: In this retrospective study, from January 2007 to December 2017, STEMI patients who were hospitalized in Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University and younger than 45 years old were collected. Patients were divided to the 18-35 years old group and 36-44 years old group. The basic information of patients, clinical laboratory results, surgical information and discharge diagnosis of enrolled patients were extracted from the electronic medical record system. Subgroup analysis on STEMI patients aged 18 to 35 years was performed to compare the clinical features and outcome of patients with normal coronary angiography or stenotic coronary angiography. Results: 496 patients (20.3%) were between 18 and 35 years old, 480 cases (96.8%) were men, and 371 cases (74.8%) were smokers. The proportion of hypertension and diabetes was lower, but percent of obese (122 cases (43.3%)), level of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), uric acid and homocysteine ​​(Hcy) were significantly higher in patients aged 18 to 35 years compared with STEMI patients aged 36 to 44 years (all P<0.05). In the 18-35 years old group, there were 53 patients (10.7%) with normal coronary angiography and 443 patients (89.3%) with stenosis. The age, proportion of hypertension and diabetes, TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG) levels were lower in the normal coronary angiography group than those in the coronary artery stenosis group (all P<0.05). The main coronary artery lesions were single vessel lesions (263 cases (59.4%)), and the main culprit vessels were left anterior descending artery lesions (238 cases (53.7%)). The follow-up time was 7.0 (4.0, 10.0) years, cardiovascular events were reported in 62 patients (18.9%), of which 14 patients (3.2%) died. The survival rate of patients without cardiovascular events in normal coronary angiography group was higher than that in stenosis group (P=0.029). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that diabetes (HR=2.713, 95%CI 1.479-4.976, P=0.001) and dyslipidemia (HR=2.819, 95%CI 1.564-5.079, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for recurrence of cardiovascular events in adult STEMI patients aged 18 to 35 years. Conclusions: STEMI patients aged 18 to 35 years were featured by male sex, obese and smokers. The proportion of hypertension and diabetes was low, while the levels of LDL-C, uric acid and Hcy were high in these patients. Coronary artery stenosis was common, and the stenosis was more likely to occur in the left anterior descending branch. Patients with normal coronary angiography had a better prognosis than those with stenosis. Diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 601-609, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941324

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical value of quantitatively assessment of left ventricular strain in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)-feature tracking (CMR-FT) technique. Methods: In this retrospective and observation study, patients with single CTO, who underwent CMR examination in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from November 2014 to January 2019, were selected as case group (CTO group), and those without cardiovascular diseases defined by echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG) and clinical history and with normal CMR results were selected as healthy control group (control group). General clinical data including age, gender, discharge diagnosis, and the examination results of echocardiography and ECG were obtained from the electronic medical record system. Two-dimensional CMR-FT was applied to measure left ventricle (LV) global peak radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strains (GPRS, GPCS and GPLS, respectively), and the regional myocardial strain in the target vessel area of CTO was analyzed. Grayscale thresholds of 5 standard deviations (SDs) were used to quantify late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Patients with CTOs were divided into infract size>10% group and infarct size≤10% group, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)≥50% group and LVEF<50% group, respectively. The differences between various groups were compared. Results: There were 52 patients in CTO group (34 males, age (54.1±11.7) years, body mass index (BMI) (26.2±2.5)kg/m2) and 30 patients in control group (14 males, age(51.6±12.3)years, BMI (25.6±3.3)kg/m2). There was no significant difference in age, gender, and BMI between the two groups (all P>0.05). LVEF, GPRS, GPCS and GPLS were significantly lower in CTO group than in control group (all P<0.05), left ventricular volume (LVEDV) was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Among the patients with CTO, there were 26 patients with infarct size>10% and 26 patients with infarct size≤10%. GPRS, GPCS and GPLS were significantly lower (all P<0.05), while LVEF and LVEDV were similar in CTO patients with infarct size≤10% as compared to control group (both P>0.05). LVEF, GPRS, GPCS and GPLS were significantly lower (all P<0.05), while LVEDV was similar in CTO patients with infarct size>10% (P>0.05) as compared to control group. GPRS and GPCS were significantly lower (both P<0.05), while LVEF, LVEDV and GPLS were similar in CTO patients with infarct size>10% as compared to infarct size≤10% group. There were 40 subjects in LVEF≥50% group and 12 subjects in LVEF<50% group. Compared with the control group, GPCS and GPLS of CTO patients were significantly lower in LVEF≥50% group and LVEF<50% group (all P<0.01), LVEF and LVEDV was similar in CTO patients with LVEF≥50% (both P>0.05), but LVEF was lower and LVEDV was larger in LVEF<50% group (both P<0.05). The GPRS, GPCS, GPLS and LVEF of CTO patients in LVEF ≥ 50% group were higher than those in LVEF<50% group (all P<0.0l), and the myocardial infarction size was smaller than that in LVEF reduced group (P<0.0l), but there was no significant difference in LVEDV between the two groups (P=0.07). In the CTO group, there were 21 patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion and 126 segments supplied by the target vessels. The peak radial strain (PRS), circumferential strain (PCS) and longitudinal strain (PLS) in the blood supply area were lower than those in the control group (all P<0 01). In 7 patients with left circumflex artery (LCX) occlusion, the number of myocardial segments supplied by the target vessels was 35, and the PRS, PCS and PLS in the target vessel supply area were lower than those in the control group (all P<0 05). In 24 patients with right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion, the number of myocardial segments supplied by the target vessels was 120, and the PRS, PCS and PLS in the target vessel supply area were lower than those in the control group (all P<0.01). Among the 126 segments in 21 patients with LAD CTO, 91 (72.2%) segments had infarct size≤25%, 17 (13.5%) segments had infarct size between 26%-50%, 11 segments (8.7%) had infarct size between 51%-75%, and 7 (5.6%) segments had infarct size between 76%-100%. Among the 35 segments in 7 patients with LCX CTO, 31 (88.6%) segments had infarct size≤25%, and 4 (11.4%) segments had infarct size between 26%-75%. Among the 120 segments in 24 patients with RCA CTO, 96 (80.0%) segments had infarct size≤25%, 11 (9.2%) segments had infarct size between 26%-50%, 8 (6.7%) segments had infarct size between 51%-75%, and 5 segments (4.2%) had infarct size between 76%-100%. Conclusions: In this study with single CTO, although the LVEF is preserved in the majority of the patients, the left ventricular global and regional strain values are significantly decreased. The larger the infarct size, the greater the impact on radial and circumferential motion, reflecting the early impairment of left ventricular function in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Contrast Media , Coronary Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 580-585, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941321

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to compare the prevalence and trends of conventional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease(ASCVD) between young Chinese and American adults with first acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis. Hospitalized yang adults (aged from 18 to 44 years old) with first acute myocardial infarction(AMI) from January 2007 through December 2017 were identified from Beijing Anzhen hospital medical record system. Prevalence and trends of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and dyslipidemia were analyzed and compared with young American adults, whose data were reported by Yandrapalli et al, and the hospitalizations for a first AMI in young adults aged 18 to 44 years were identified from national inpatient sample from January 2005 through September 2015. Results: Chinese cohort included 2 866 young adults with a first AMI (male, n=2 739, female, n=127), the mean age was (39±5) years. Presentation of AMI was more frequently ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (77.3%, 2 214/2 866). American cohort included 280 875 subjects (male, n=203 700, female, n=77 175), the mean age was 39±5 years. Presentation of AMI was more frequently non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (53.6%, 150 549/280 875). In China, dyslipidemia 2 254 (78.6%), smoking 2 084(72.7%), and hypertension 1 170 (40.8%) were most prevalent, and 96.0% (2 752/2 866) of patients had at least 1 risk factor; in the United States, smoking 159 537(56.8%), dyslipidemia 145 212 (51.7%), and hypertension 139 876 (49.8%) were most prevalent, and 90.3% (253 630/280 875) of patients had at least 1 risk factor. Women had a prevalence of diabetes was higher in women, and prevalence of dyslipidemia and smoking was higher in men in China (all P<0.05);prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension was higher in Women, and prevalence of dyslipidemia and smoking was higher in man in the United States (all P<0.001). Prevalence of dyslipidemia and smoking was higher Chinese men (79.3% vs. 54.6%, 75.5% vs. 58.1%,all P<0.001), and prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension was lower (13.1% vs. 18.6%, 14.9% vs. 19.9%, 40.6% vs. 49.3%, all P<0.001)in Chinses cohort than those in the United States cohort. Prevalence of smoking and obesity was lower (12.6% vs. 53.4%, 10.2% vs. 26.9%, all P<0.001) and prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher (63.8% vs. 44.1% P<0.001) in Chinese women than those in the United States women. Patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction had a higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension than patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in China (20.1% vs.10.9%, 17.6% vs. 14.5%, 47.4% vs. 38.9%, all P<0.05). The prevalence of the three risk factors also was higher in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the US (24.0% vs.17.0%, 25.0% vs. 20.0%, 54.6% vs. 44.2%, all P<0.001), prevalence of smoking and dyslipidemia was lower in these patients (53.5% vs. 60.5%,51.4% vs. 52.1%, all P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertension and obesity increased and the rate of smoking reduced in China from 2007 through 2017 (all trend P<0.001). The prevalence of all these five conventional risk factors increased temporally in the United States from 2005 to 2015 (all trend P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertension increased by 15.6% in China and 14.5% in the United States, respectively, accounting the largest increase. Conclusions: Smoking, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are most prevalent in China and United State. Significant sex and AMI subtype difference are observed for individual risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity increased significantly over time in China and all these five conventional risk factors increased significantly in the United States.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , China/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 242-249, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941268

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the characteristics and trends during the last 11 years of risk factors of young adults with first acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. We included young adults (18 to 44 years old) hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome in Beijing Anzhen Hospital for a first time from January 2007 to December 2017. Acute coronary syndromes include ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and unstable angina (UA). The general information, medical history and laboratory test were recorded. Risk factors of ACS were smoking, dyslipidemia, overweight/obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Data from 7 106 patients were analyzed, mean age was (39.8±4.2) years old and 6 593(92.8%)were men, including 2 254 (31.7%) STEMI, 704 (9.9%) NSTEMI and 4 148 (58.4%) UA. Most patients were male (6 593(92.8%)). Dyslipidemia (85.8%(6 094/7 106)), overweight/obesity (82.3%(5 850/7 106)), and smoking (63.9%(4 545/7 106)) were most prevalent. 98.3% (6 885/7 106) patients had at least 1 risk factor. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and overweight/obesity increased from 2007 to 2017. Rates of hypertension increased from 37.1%(111/299) to 48.1%(498/1 035) (Ptrend<0.01), diabetes from 12.0%(36/299) to 19.4%(201/1 035) (Ptrend<0.01), overweight/obesity from 74.2%(222/299) to 83.9%(868/1 035) (Ptrend<0.05), respectively. Conclusions: Dyslipidemia, overweight/obesity and smoking are most prevalent risk factors in young adults with a first ACS and most patients have at least 1 risk factor for ACS. Rates of hypertension, diabetes and overweight/obesity progressively increases over time in this patient cohort.

6.
Chinese Journal of Interventional Cardiology ; (4): 28-34, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744558

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship of wall motion abnormality and myocardium viability with chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Methods We identified 128 patients with CTO lesion of at least one coronary artery confirmed by coronary arteriography at Beijing Anzhen Hospital between December 2014 to November 2017. All of the patients received CMR examination after admission. We analyzed the CMR images according to the AHA/American College of Cardiology 17-segment model, and recorded the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-distolic volume (EDV) calculated by CMR. Results In the myocardium regions corresponding to the 149 CTO lesions, only 11.5% presented transmural myocardial infarction. A 58.6% of the myocardial segments showed no delayed enhancement. Patients with delayed enhancement degree over 75% had the lowest LVEF and the largest EDV and ESV. Conclusion CMR showed that patients with CTO lesions had different degrees of myocardial infarction. Patients with transmural myocardial infarction had significant cardiac function decline and ventricular remodeling. Only a fraction of patients had transmural infarction, suggesting that a majority of the CTO patients would benefit from treatment.

7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 600-607, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341991

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Currently, drug-eluting balloon (DEB) appears to be an attractive alternative option for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Nevertheless, the clinical outcomes of DEB have seldom been compared to those of new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES). Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of DEB compared to those of new-generation DES in the treatment of ISR.</p><p><b>Methods</b>A comprehensive search of electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library up to November 2, 2017 was performed to identify pertinent articles comparing DEB to new-generation DES for the treatment of ISR. In addition, conference proceedings for the scientific sessions of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics, and EuroPCR were also searched. The primary endpoint was target lesion revascularization (TLR) at the longest follow-up. Dichotomous variables were presented as risk ratios (RR s) with 95% confidence intervals (CI s), while the overall RR s were estimated using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model.</p><p><b>Results</b>Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and eight observational studies involving 2743 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. Overall, DEB was comparable to new-generation DES in terms of TLR (RR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.89-1.72, P = 0.21), cardiac death (RR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.89-2.71, P = 0.12), major adverse cardiovascular event (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.98-1.48, P = 0.07), myocardial infarction (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.72-1.76, P = 0.62), and stent thrombosis (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.38-2.42, P = 0.92). However, DEB was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality than new-generation DES (RR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09-2.50, P = 0.02). This was especially true in the real-world observational studies (RR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.12-2.88, P = 0.02). In RCTs, however, no significant difference was found between the two treatment strategies in the risk of all-cause mortality.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The current meta-analysis showed that DEB and new-generation DES had comparable safety and efficacy for the treatment of ISR in RCTs. However, treatment with DEB was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality in the real-world nonrandomized studies.</p>

8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 763-770, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328158

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>There are limited data on longer-term outcomes (>5 years) for patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stents (DES) era. This study aimed at comparing the long-term (>5 years) outcomes of patients with ULMCA disease underwent PCI with DES and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and the predictors of adverse events.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All consecutive patients with ULMCA disease treated with DES implantation versus CABG in our center, between January 2003 and July 2009, were screened for analyzing. A propensity score analysis was carried out to adjust for potential confounding between the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Nine hundred and twenty-two patients with ULMCA disease were enrolled for the analyses (DES = 465 vs. CABG = 457). During the median follow-up of 7.1 years (interquartile range 5.3-8.2 years), no difference was found between PCI and CABG in the occurrence of death (P = 0.282) and the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke (P = 0.294). Rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were significantly higher in the PCI group (P = 0.014) in large part because of the significantly higher rate of repeat revascularization (P < 0.001). PCI was correlated with the lower occurrence of stroke (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.012), creatinine (P = 0.016), and prior stroke (P = 0.031) were independent predictors of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, and stroke in the DES group, while age (P = 0.026) and EF (P = 0.002) were independent predictors in the CABG group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>During a median follow-up of 7.1 years, there was no difference in the rate of death between PCI with DES implantation and CABG in ULMCA lesions in the patient cohort. CABG group was observed to have significantly lower rates of repeat revascularization but higher stroke rates compared with PCI. EF, creatinine, and prior stroke were independent predictors of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, and stroke in the DES group, while age and EF were independent predictors in the CABG group.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease , Therapeutics , Drug-Eluting Stents , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Stroke Volume
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 88-93, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267173

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the changes of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation rate, and evaluate the effects of Maixuekang Capsule (, MKC) on platelet aggregation rate and long-term prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 236 patients with acute coronary syndrome, who received successful PCI, were randomly assigned to a trial group (116 cases) and a control group (120 cases) according to random numbers; treatment allocation occurred when the participants met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent forms. In the trial group, the patients were treated with MKC combined with routine medication, and in the control group the patients were treated with routine medication. The therapeutic course for the two groups was 12 months and the follow-up was 12 months. The levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation rate and serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were determined before PCI, 12 h and 30 days after PCI. In the meantime, the incidence of cardio-/cerebrovascular events was recorded during the 12-month follow-up.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with before PCI, the levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation rate and serum hs-CRP were significantly higher at 12 h after PCI (P<0.05). They were significantly reduced after 30-day-treatment of MKC, showing statistical differences when compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). During the 12-month follow-up, the incidence of cardio-/cerebrovascular events was significantly lower in the trial group than in the control group (6.9% vs. 12.5%, P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ADP-induced platelet aggregation function was significantly elevated after PCI. MKC improved the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome, possibly through inhibiting the platelet aggregation, fighting against inflammation, and protecting the vascular endothelial function.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Adenosine Diphosphate , Pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein , Metabolism , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Follow-Up Studies , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation , Prognosis
10.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 902-907, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326395

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the risk factors related to in-hospital bleeding for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical and therapeutic data of 3807 patients who were registered with acute coronary syndrome in SINO-GRACE in China from March 2001 to December 2007 were reviewed. A total of 57 patients were grouped to bleeding group and 234 out of the remaining 3750 patients without bleeding were randomly chosen and served as non-bleeding group. Hemorrhage-related factors were screened and compared between the two groups. Unitary logistic regression analysis was performed to detect the possible factors related to hemorrhage. Factors with P < 0.1 were further analyzed by stepwise regression method and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Age, history of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), previous hemorrhage, renal failure and heart failure as well incidence of acute coronary syndrome were significantly higher in bleeding group than in non-bleeding group (all P ≤ 0.05). Patients were more often treated with clopidogrel and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist in bleeding group than in non-bleeding group. (2) Single factor logistic regression analysis showed that age > 70 years, history of previous bleeding, renal failure, heart failure, clopidogrel and GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists use, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, inferior wall, lateral myocardial infarction, CABG were risk factors for bleeding (all P < 0.05). (3) Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that history of renal failure (OR = 19.77, 95%CI 4.38 - 89.18, P < 0.01) and clopidogrel (OR = 19.77, 95%CI 4.38 - 89.18, P < 0.01) and GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (OR = 343.57, 95%CI 40.39 - 999.99, P < 0.01) use were the independent risk factors for bleeding.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our results show that renal failure history and clopidogrel and GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist use are independent risk factors for in-hospital bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Pathology , Age of Onset , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Incidence , Logistic Models , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex , Renal Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Ticlopidine , Therapeutic Uses
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2472-2476, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283738

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The plasma cystatin C concentration (PcyC) has been demonstrated to have prognostic value in acute coronary syndrome, but the study of PcyC in patients with borderline coronary lesions is limited. Moreover, the effects of atorvastatin and probucol on PcyC and the severity of coronary lesions are unknown. This study was to evaluate the effects of the combination of atorvastatin and probucol on PcyC and severity of coronary lesion in patients with borderline coronary lesions.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and thirty consecutive patients with borderline coronary lesions (40% to 60% isolated single stenosis assessed by quantitative coronary angiography) were enrolled into the borderline coronary lesion (BCL) group, and one hundred and thirty-six subjects without coronary lesions comprised the controls (CTR). The subjects in the BCL group were randomized into routine treatment (RTT, n = 60), and combined treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg plus probucol 1.0 g daily added to routine medication (CBT, n = 70), both groups were treated for 6 months continuously. The levels of PcyC, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were determined. One hundred and four subjects in the BCL group were rechecked by coronary angiography.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PcyC levels were significantly higher in the BCL group than in the CTR group; (2003.26 ± 825.73) ng/ml vs. (1897.83 ± 664.46) ng/ml (P < 0.01). Compared with patients in the RTT group, the levels of PcyC, TC, LDL-C, TG and hs-CRP were significantly lower in the CBT group (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a trend towards a slight decrease in the RTT patients, (54.38 ± 10.67)% vs. (50.29 ± 9.89)% (P > 0.05), and a significant decrease in the CBT patients, (53.65 ± 9.48%) vs. (40.38 ± 12.93)% (P < 0.05), in the mean percent stenosis of borderline coronary lesions before and after six months of treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Cystatin C played an important role in the development of coronary artery disease, and was associated with the severity of coronary lesions. The combination of atorvastatin and probucol decreased PcyC levels, and could be the treatment of choice.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anticholesteremic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Atorvastatin , Coronary Disease , Blood , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cystatin C , Blood , Heptanoic Acids , Therapeutic Uses , Probucol , Therapeutic Uses , Prospective Studies , Pyrroles , Therapeutic Uses
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1657-1661, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353989

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Inflammation within vulnerable coronary plaques may cause unstable angina by promoting rupture and erosion. C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most reliable and accessible test method for clinical use for identifying coronary artery disease event. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is highly over-expressed in the vulnerable regions of a plaque. Our aim was to evaluate the plasma levels of MMP-9 and hsCRP in subjects with both unstable angina and coronary plaques, as well as in those with unstable angina without coronary plaques.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Patients with newly diagnosed unstable angina pectoris from clinical presentation and ECG, who were undergoing coronary angiography from April 2007 to April 2009, were included in this study. A total of 170 subjects were enrolled in the study. Before angiography, the baseline clinical data (mainly including conventional risk factors) was collected. These patients were divided into two groups, a non-plaque group (G1) which included 55 patients with no significant stenosis or less than 20% stenosis in at least one of the major coronary artery branches, and a plaque group (G2) which included 115 patients with at least one of the major coronary artery branches unstable angina pectoris with at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery. The patients presenting with calcified nodules of a major coronary artery were excluded from this study. We examined the serum levels of MMP-9 for all cases by multi-effect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was a significant difference in the serum levels of MMP-9 between the two groups (P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with hypertension, diabetes and current smokers were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.034, P = 0.031, and P = 0.044 respectively). The univariate Logistic regression analyses of risk factors showed that smoking was the main risk factor for angina in the non-plaque group with the OR being 1.95 (95%CI 1.02 - 3.75). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus were negatively related with the occurrence of angina in the non-plaque group with the ORs being 0.50, and 0.36, respectively (95%CI 0.26 - 0.96 and 0.14 - 0.94). The MMP-9 level was negatively related to the occurrence of angina in the non-plaque group with an OR of 0.59 (95%CI 0.47 - 0.81).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>There is a significantly difference in MMP-9 levels between the plaque and non-plaque groups. Current smoking has a significant influence on unstable angina patients without documented plaques. The serum MMP-9 level may be a significant biomarker which can help differentiate patients with unstable angina with plaques from those with unstable angina but without plaques.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angina, Unstable , Blood , Metabolism , C-Reactive Protein , Metabolism , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Blood , Metabolism , Coronary Vessels , Metabolism , Pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Blood , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Smoking
13.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 997-1004, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268269

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of the stents coated with sirolimus and anti-CD34 antibody on the short-term re-endothelialization and the long-term restenosis in Chinese Minipigs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three different types of stents [bare-metal stent (BMS), sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and anti-CD34 antibody and sirolimus-coated stent (ASES)] were randomly implanted in the coronary arteries of 22 Chinese Minipigs. At two weeks after stenting, coronary angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed in 10 experimental animals. At three months after stenting, coronary angiography and OCT were performed in the remaining 12 experimental animals. Histopathologic examination was performed on the coronary artery segments containing stent after the animals were executed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) No in-stent thrombosis and parietal thrombus were found by coronary angiography, OCT and histopathologic examination at two weeks post stenting. OCT analysis showed that the covered ratio of stent struts by neointima in ASES group was higher than in SES group [(55.56 ± 35.27)% vs. (41.82 ± 23.28)%, P < 0.05]. The mean thickness of neointima in ASES group was significantly higher than in SES group [(89.0 ± 5.0) µm vs. (32.0 ± 4.9) µm, P < 0.01] and BMS group [(89.0 ± 5.0) µm vs. (44.0 ± 7.2) µm, P < 0.01]. Histopathologic and scanning electron microscopy examinations demonstrated that the covering level and quality of stent struts by neointima in BMS and ASES group were both better than in SES group. (2) At three months follow-up, quantitative coronary angiography analysis found that late in-stent lumen loss in ASES group was significantly lower than in BMS group [(0.18 ± 0.06) mm vs.(0.35 ± 0.06) mm, P < 0.05]. OCT analysis showed that the percent neointimal hyperplasia in ASES and SES group was significantly lower than in BMS group [(34.75 ± 2.64)% and (35.63 ± 2.07)% vs. (48.28 ± 3.25)%, both P < 0.01]. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated that the percent areal restenosis of ASES and SES group were both significantly lower than that of BMS group [(28.65 ± 5.64)% and (29.33 ± 6.07)% vs. (46.18 ± 8.25)%, both P < 0.05].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The stents coated with anti-CD34 antibody and sirolimus can attenuate the inhibitory effect of sirolimus on the re-endothelialization at two weeks after stenting and the anti-hyperplasia effect of sirolimus at three months after stenting.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antibodies , Therapeutic Uses , Antigens, CD34 , Allergy and Immunology , Drug-Eluting Stents , Sirolimus , Therapeutic Uses , Swine , Swine, Miniature , Treatment Outcome
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 4071-4078, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273924

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This coronary artery spasm review aimed to explore the most possible pathogenic trigger mechanism of vulnerable plaque rupture.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>Data used in this coronary artery spasm review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>These reports from major review on coronary artery spasm. and these research included coronary artery conception, pathogenesis of spasm, mechanisms of plaque rupture, epidemiological evidence, clinical manifestation and the relationship between coronary artery spasm and vulnerable plaque rupture.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Coronary artery spasm is somehow related to the presence of atherosclerotic intima disease in the coronary artery. However, chronic low-grade inflammation causes coronary vessel smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity, which can directely cause coronary artery spasm. Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death may be initiated by a sudden intense localized contraction of coronary artery smooth muscle.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Coronary artery spasm may be one trigger that can initiate and exacerbate vulnerable plaque rupture.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Vasospasm , Pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Pathology
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3578-3582, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336580

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation is a prognostic factor for major adverse cardiac events in patients who have undergone selective percutaneous coronary interventions. This study aimed to assess whether an adjusted loading dose of clopidogrel could more effectively inhibit platelet aggregation in patients undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 205 patients undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled in this multicenter, prospective, randomized study. Patients receiving domestic clopidogrel (n = 104) served as the Talcom (Taijia) group; others (n = 101) received Plavix, the Plavix group. Patients received up to 3 additional 300-mg loading doses of clopidogrel to decrease the adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation index by more than 50% (the primary endpoint) compared with the baseline. The secondary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events at 12 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the rational loading dosage, the tailored loading dosage better inhibited platelet aggregation based on a > 50% decrease in adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation (rational loading dosage vs. tailored loading dosage, 48% vs. 73%, P = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the eligible index between the Talcom and Plavix groups (47% vs. 49% at 300 mg; 62% vs. 59% at 600 mg; 74% vs. 72% at 900 mg; P > 0.05) based on a standard adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet aggregation decrease of > 50%. After 12 months of follow-up, there were no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events (2.5% vs. 2.9%, P = 5.43). No acute or subacute stent thrombosis events occurred.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>An adjusted loading dose of clopidogrel could have significant effects on antiplatelet aggregation compared with a rational dose, decreasing 1-year major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions based on adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation with no increase in bleeding.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenosine Diphosphate , Pharmacology , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Ticlopidine
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 871-876, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242553

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Development of vulnerable lesions is not limited to the target lesions, but a pan-coronary process. Such lesions are identified by positive remodeling (intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and complex lesions (angiography)). The prevalence of lesions with vulnerable characteristics in patients with stable angina was not well known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery remodeling and incidence of angiographic complex lesions and its calcification in stable angina patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and sixty-one stable angina patients (95 males, aged (68 +/- 11) years) with 161 de novo target lesions were studied using pre-interventional IVUS. Remodeling index was defined as the lesion divided by reference vessel area; positive remodeling was defined as remodeling index > 1.05. Besides the 161 target lesions, there were 613 angiographic lesions with > 30% diameter stenoses, classified as complex or smooth. Multiple complexes were defined as more than one complex lesion in one patient. Stenoses of at least 70% were described as tight. Calcium arc area was used as a new method to quantify coronary calcification.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fifty-six patients had positive remodeling target lesion, while 105 did not. The overall number of lesions with a diameter stenoses > 30% was similar in patients with or without positive remodeling, and the frequency of angiographically complex lesions was higher in positive remodeling patients, especially at non-target site. Calcium arc area was smaller in patients with positive remodeling.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Positive remodeling on intravascular ultrasound was associated with more complex lesions angiographic findings, especially at non target site. Positive remodeling was found less calcified in patients with stable angina.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angina Pectoris , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Coronary Vessels , Pathology , Ventricular Remodeling , Physiology
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2655-2661, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285769

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>There are numerous articles on the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in different disease conditions. However, the functional properties of EPCs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are still uncertain. Here we aimed to study the number and functions of EPCs in ACS patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Patients were enrolled with admitted ACS (n = 25) and another 25 gender-, age-, atherosclerotic risk factors-matched stable coronary artery disease (CAD) controls. EPCs were defined as CD34(+)/CD133(+)/VEGFR-2(+) and quantified by flow cytometry. Moreover, functional properties of EPCs including colony-forming unit (CFU), proliferation, migration as well as apoptosis were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was detected in all patients as well.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The two groups had similar medication and clinical characteristics on admission. The EPCs in ACS patients were more than 2.6 times that in stable CAD subjects (15.6 ± 2.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8/100 000 events, P < 0.01). CFU was not statistically different between the two groups (10.8 ± 2.9 vs. 8.2 ± 1.8, number/well, P > 0.05). Furthermore, EPCs isolated from ACS patients were significantly impaired in their proliferation (0.498 ± 0.035 vs. 0.895 ± 0.067, OD value, P < 0.01) and migration capacity (20.5 ± 3.4 vs. 30.7 ± 4.3, number/well, P < 0.01) compared with controls. Moreover, the apoptosis cell in cultured EPCs was drastically increased in ACS group ((18.3 ± 2.1)% vs. (7.8 ± 0.4)%, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Patients with ACS exhibited apparently increased circulating EPCs as well as cultured apoptosis percentage together with a remarkable impairment of proliferation and migration activities compared with stable CAD subjects.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Metabolism , Pathology , Apoptosis , Physiology , Cell Movement , Physiology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Metabolism , Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2797-2802, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237413

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Randomized studies have shown beneficial effects of drug-eluting stent (DES) in reducing the risk of repeated revascularization. Other studies have shown higher proportion of death, myocardial infarction (MI) and increased cost concerning DES. However the long term safety and effectiveness of DES have been questioned recently.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>To compare long term clinical outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and cost-utility after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and bare metal stent (BMS) implantation in angina patients in China, 1241 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (PCI) with either SES (n = 632) or BMS (n = 609) were enrolled continuously in this prospective, nonrandomized, multi-center registry study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally 1570 stents were implanted for 1334 lesions. Follow-up was completed in 1205 (97.1%) patients at 12 months. Rates of MI, all causes of death were similar between the two groups. Significant differences were found at rate of cardiovascular re-hospitalization (136 (22.4%) in BMS group vs. 68 (10.8%) in SES group, P = 0.001) and recurrent angina (149 (24.5%) vs. 71 (11.3%), P = 0.001). Dramatic difference was observed when compared the baseline and 9-month HRQOL scores intra-group (P < 0.001). However no significant difference was found inter-group either in baseline or follow-up HRQOL. Compared with SES, the total cost in BMS was significantly lower on discharge (62 546.0 vs. 78 245.0 Yuan, P = 0.001). And follow-up expenditure was remarkably higher in the BMS group than that in the SES group (13 412.0 vs. 8 812.0 Yuan, P = 0.0001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>There were no significant differences on death, in-stent thrombosis, MI irrespective of stent type. SES was superior to BMS on improvement of life quality. SES was with higher cost-utility compared to BMS.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Economics , Mortality , Coronary Angiography , Drug-Eluting Stents , Economics , Health Care Costs , Immunosuppressive Agents , Metals , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Sirolimus , Stents , Economics , Treatment Outcome
19.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 484-487, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244207

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the cost-utility of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 630 patients from 13 cities undergoing PCI during the first half year of 2006 were enrolled in this study. The 36 items derived from the short form of health survey (SF-36) were applied prospectively in these patients before and 9 months after PCI. The cost per every incremental mark of SF-36 and quality adjusted life year (QALY) were calculated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The age was lower than 60 years old in more than 50% patients. (2) In terms of detailed costs, material costs accounted for 82.5% of the hospitalization costs, medications costs accounted for 6. 8% , and operation fee accounted for 5.9%. These 3 items comprised 95.2% of overall hospitalization costs, and 69. 8% material costs were the cost for stents. (3)The average re-admission hospitalization costs were 17 841.5 RMB in 44 patients who were rehospitalized due to occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. (4) Follow-up made at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 post index procedure showed that an average cost for postoperative drug treatment was 831.50 RMB per month, and most patients spent 400.0 RMB for drug treatment per month. (5) The average quality of life score increased by 20.59 post PCI (P < 0.05 vs. pre-PCI). The cost-effective analysis indicates that the cost per every incremental mark of SF-36 was 3975.7 RMB. The cost per every QALY gained was 59 898. 3 RMB.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PCI is effective for patients with coronary heart disease and the cost per QALY in China was positioned in an acceptable range.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Economics , China , Coronary Disease , Economics , Therapeutics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Treatment Outcome
20.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 629-632, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244157

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To collect data on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in mainland China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Questionnaires on PCI were distributed to all hospitals capable of performing PCI through national society of cardiology. Data in calendar year 2008 were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) 182,312 PCI were performed in mainland China in 2008 (+26.02% vs. 2007), average PCI rate was 1.39 per 10,000 people. (2) PCI was performed in 1061 hospitals and 171.83 PCI was performed per hospital. Among them, there were 461 hospitals performed more than 100 PCI (+54.18% vs. 2007). (3) The number of PCI performed among provinces was positive correlated with local per capita gross domestic product (GDP, β = 0.06, P < 0.05) and the number of the hospitals performed more than 100 PCI per year (β = 434.23, P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with local population number (β = 0.49, P < 0.05). There were no correlation between the ratio of the hospitals performed more than 100 PCI per year (β = -2746.35, P > 0.05) and the ratio of people with medical insurance (β = -855.78, P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>From 2005, PCI rose 23.87% per year in mainland China. There are significant differences among provinces on the development of PCI.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , China , Hospitals
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