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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5-12, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970495

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis(MS) shows the pathological characteristics of "inflammatory injury of white matter" and "myelin repair disability" in the central nervous system(CNS). It is very essential for MS treatment and reduction of disease burden to strengthen repair, improve function, and reduce disability. Accordingly, different from the simple immunosuppression, we believe that key to strengthening remyelination and maintaining the "damage-repair" homeostasis of tissue is to change the current one-way immunosuppression strategy and achieve the "moderate pro-inflammation-effective inflammation removal" homeostasis. Traditional Chinese medicine shows huge potential in this strategy. Through literature research, this study summarized the research on remyelination, discussed the "mode-rate pro-inflammation-effective inflammation removal" homeostasis and the "damage-repair" homeostasis based on microglia, and summed up the key links in remyelination in MS. This review is expected to lay a theoretical basis for improving the function of MS patients and guide the application of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Remyelination/physiology , Myelin Sheath/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Homeostasis
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2360-2367, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981312

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effect and underlying mechanism of Stellera chamaejasme extract(SCE) on multidrug resistance of breast cancer. The chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and adriamycin(ADR)-resistant cell line MCF-7/ADR were used as experimental subjects. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Pi staining was used to detect the cell cycle. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride(DAPI) staining and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis. Dansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and GFP-LC3B-Mcherry adenovirus transfection were used to detect autophagy. The protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, LC3B, p62, and Beclin-1 was detected by Western blot. The results showed that SCE could significantly inhibit the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant breast cancer cell lines. The drug resistance factor was 0.53, which was significantly lower than 59 of ADR. Meanwhile, the proportion of sensitive/resistant cells in the G_0/G_1 phase increased significantly after SCE treatment. In addition, DAPI staining showed that a series of apoptosis phenomena such as nuclear pyknosis, staining deepening, and nuclear fragmentation appeared in sensitive/resistant cell lines after SCE administration. Moreover, the results of flow cytometry double staining showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells in sensitive/resistant cell lines increased significantly after SCE administration. Besides, Western blot showed that the protein expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bcl-2 significantly decreased and the expression level of Bax protein significantly increased in both breast cancer cell lines after SCE administration. Furthermore, SCE could also increase the positive fluorescent spots after MDC staining and yellow fluorescent spots after GFP-LC3B-mcherry transfection, and up-regulate the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins LC3B-Ⅱ, p62, and Beclin-1 in breast cancer cells. In summary, SCE may play the role of anti-multidrug resistance by blocking the cell cycle of breast cancer multidrug-resistant cells, blocking autophagy flow, and ultimately interfering with the apoptosis resistance of drug-resistant cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Cell Proliferation
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1593-1603, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929433

ABSTRACT

The iron and inflammation homeostasis are closely coupled, forming an integrated functional unit under physiological conditions. "Iron transport balance" has become the key mechanism to maintain iron homeostasis through bidirectional regulation of iron uptake and release and dynamic management of transmembrane concentration. It is also the physiological basis for the inflammatory balance between promotion and resolution. Under pathological conditions, represented by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), disturbed iron transportation was highly involved in almost every step of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the iron transporting rebalancing provides the mechanistic basis and effective approach for the normalization of inflammatory microenvironment. Macrophage is the key regulator of inflammation homeostasis and determinant for iron transport balance. Unfortunately, the current clinical transformation based on iron transport balance theory has still been insufficient. Sometimes, this strategy even showed high complexity and contradiction, severely restricting its clinical application. By summarizing the theoretical research progress of iron transport balance, especially its relevance to macrophage phenotypic polarization, this review aims to explore the therapeutic value in inflammation intervention by targeting iron transporting balance. This review will provide the necessary knowledge and hints for the research and development of candidate drugs in treating inflammatory diseases.

4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3402-3409, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect and the possible mechanism of Shenlian( SL) extract on tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α)-induced ECV304 injury. After the establishment of TNF-α-induced ECV304 cells injure model,MTT assay was used to detect cell viability and the level of reactive oxygen species( ROS) was measured by flow cytometry. The contents of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malondialdehyde( MDA),nitric oxide( NO),endothelin-1( ET-1) and interleukin-1β( IL-1β) in the supernatant were detected by biochemical method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-lymphoma-2 gene( Bcl-2),Bcl-2 associated X protein( Bax),caspase-3,caspase-9 and nuclear factor E2 associated factor2( Nrf2)/Kelch like epichlorohydrin associated protein-1( Keap1) signaling pathway related proteins Nrf2,Keap1,quinone oxidoreductase( NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1( HO-1) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that 50 μg·L-1 TNF-α significantly damaged ECV304 cells,induced the impairment of cell viability( P<0. 01),the increase of ROS production,the decrease of SOD activity,and the increase of MDA,NO,ET-1 and IL-1β( P<0. 01),meanwhile,it caused the up-regulation of Keap1,caspase-9 and Bax protein expression,and down-regulation of NQO1 and Bcl-2 protein expression( P<0. 05) compared with the control group.Compared with the model group,SL extract reduced the damage of ECV304 cells induced by TNF-α,improved cell viability,reduced ROS production,increased SOD activity and decreased MDA,NO,ET-1,IL-1β content( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). In addition,SL extract also down-regulated the protein expression levels of Keap1,caspase-3,caspase-9 and Bax,and increased the protein expressions of Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and Bcl-2( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). The above results indicate that SL extract can provide protective effect on ECV304 cells injury induced by TNF-α,alleviate oxidative stress injury,inflammation and apoptosis,and its mechanism may be related to regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; (6): 765-766, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909599

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the potential molecular mechanism of Shenlian (SL) on myocardial ischemia (MI) on the basis of network pharmacology. METHODS Firstly, the main active ingredients of SL were screened in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database, and the MI-associated targets were collected from the DisGeNET database. Then, we used compound-target and target-pathway networks to uncover the therapeutic mechanisms of SL. On the basis of network pharmacology analysis results, we assessed the effects of SL in MI rat model and oxygen glu?cose deprivation model of H9c2 cells and validated the possible molecular mechanisms of SL on myocardial injury in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS The network pharmacology results showed that 37 potential targets were recognized, including TNF-α, Bcl-2, STAT3, PI3K, and MMP2. The pathways revealed that the possible targets of SL were involved in the reg?ulation of inflammation and apoptosis signaling pathway. Then, in vivo experiments indicated that SL significantly reduced the myocardial infarction size of MI rats. Serum CK-MB, cTnT, CK, LDH, and AST levels were significantly decreased by SL (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In vitro, SL significantly increased H9c2 cell viability. The levels of inflammation factors including TNF-α and MMP2 were significantly decreased by SL (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TUNEL and Annexin V/propidium iodide assays indicated that SL could significantly decrease the cell apoptotic rate in vivo and in vitro (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The remarkable upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein level further confirmed this result. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that the PI3K-Akt and JAK2-STAT3 pathways were significantly enriched in SL. Compared with the model group, SL treatment significantly activated the PI3K-Akt and JAK2-STAT3 pathways in vivo and in vitro according to Western blotting analyses. CONCLU?SION SL could protect the myocardium from MI injury. The underlying mechanism may be related to the reduction of inflammation and apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt and JAK2/STAT3 pathways.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3392-3400, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906821

ABSTRACT

Complete healing of the intestinal mucosa is the most ideal goal in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The intestinal mucosa healing not only significantly alters the course of the disease and relieves clinical symptoms, but also markedly reduces the occurrence of complications and prevents recurrence of IBD. As chronic inflammation associated with peptic ulcer damage is the main pathological feature of IBD, clinical treatment is mainly based on anti-inflammatory therapy, but such therapy cannot promote the healing of the intestinal mucosa of patients. Therefore, how to achieve long-term remission of IBD is still an urgent challenge. In the process of intestinal mucosal repair, the polarization of macrophages maintains the homeostasis of the intestinal microenvironment, which is a representative process that promotes mucosal inflammatory-repair. It is a key part of initiating tissue regeneration that should not be underestimated. In this paper, we reviewed the literature of the past decade, focusing on the promotion of intestinal mucosal healing in IBD. The discussion will highlight the importance and feasibility of regulating macrophages to promote intestinal mucosal repair. Following this thought, we discuss the shortcomings of current clinical treatments and summarize the relevant drugs which have potential to promote intestinal mucosal repair. The aim is to provide effective potential drugs and therapeutic targets for the treatment of IBD.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 1-9, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906293

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the therapeutic efficacies of Wujiwan at two different compatibilities (No.1 and No.2) on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) based on neuro-endocrine-immune network, and provide a theoretical basis for the treatment based on syndrome differentiation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Method:The chronic animal model of IBS with visceral hypersensitivity was established by colon irritation via percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in suckling rats. The animals were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a dicetel group (0.01 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), low- (0.335 g·kg<sup>-</sup><bold><sup>1</sup></bold>), medium- (0.67 g·kg<sup>-</sup><bold><sup>1</sup></bold>), and high-dose (1.34 g·kg<sup>-</sup><bold><sup>1</sup></bold>) No. 1 Wujiwan groups, and low- (0.385 g·kg<sup>-</sup><bold><sup>1</sup></bold>), medium- (0.77 g·kg<sup>-</sup><bold><sup>1</sup></bold>), and high-dose (1.54 g·kg<sup>-</sup><bold><sup>1</sup></bold>) No. 2 Wujiwan groups. The thresholds of abdominal elevation and bow back elevation were evaluated to detect the effect of Wujiwan on intestinal sensitivity of IBS. The density of mast cells (MC) in the colonic tissue of model rats was detected by the modified toluidine blue staining method. The concentrations/positive expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SS), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the blood/colon tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Result:There was no significant difference in body weight among different groups. Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited decreased thresholds of abdominal elevation and bow back elevation (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), increased density of MCs in the colon tissue (<italic>P<</italic>0.05), up-regulated levels of 5-HT, SP, and SS in the blood and colon tissue (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), and elevated VIP level in the colon tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the model group, Wujiwan at different compatibilities could increase the thresholds of abdominal elevation and bow back elevation (<italic>P</italic><0.01), diminish the count of MC in the colon tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and reduce the levels of 5-HT, SP, SS, and VIP (<italic>P</italic><0.05). As demonstrated by the comparison of No. 1 and No. 2 Wujiwan, No. 1 was superior to No. 2 in reducing the concentrations of 5-HT, SP, and SS in the blood, especially in 5-HT (<italic>P</italic><0.01). No significant difference between No. 1 and No. 2 in reducing 5-HT positive expression in the colon tissue was observed. Compared to the No. 1 Wujiwan, No. 2 significantly reduced SP expression, and the intensity and range of SS expression in the colon tissue in the No. 2 groups were smaller than those in the No. 1 groups (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Wujiwan at different compatibilities was capable of improving gastrointestinal hormone disorder of IBS to reduce intestinal sensitivity. In terms of systemic effect, No. 1 was superior to No. 2, while in terms of local effect, No. 2 was advantageous. No. 1 Wujiwan was superior to No. 2 in the effect on intestinal dynamics, while No. 2 had an advantageous effect on intestinal sensation over No. 1.

8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 161-171, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906220

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze active components, its targets and signaling pathways of Shenlian formula based on network pharmacology, and explore the molecular mechanism of Shenlian formula in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), in order to provide a basis for the rational interpretation of the prescription compatibility of Shenlian formula. Method:Major chemical compounds of the formula were obtained by SymMap and Systematic pharmacology database and analysis platform of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCMSP), its target proteins were obtained by SymMap and ETCM Databases, and the pathogenic genes responsible for of ASCVD were obtained by DisGeNET and GEO Datebases. Protein targets of drugs and pathogenic genes of diseases were overlapped to obtain predicted targets of Shenlian Formula for ASCVD. Proteins-proteins interactions (PPI) network was built through the String Datebase. The Cytoscape 3.6.0 was used to explore the key compounds and targets of Shenlian formula on ASCVD. Then gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway were analyzed to screen out the key targets of Shenlian Formula. Rat I/R model was adopted as representative disease model of ASCVD for experimental verification. Result:There were 59 candidate compounds, 67 predicted targets and 29 key targets of Shenlian formula on ASCVD. Key targets mainly included cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and TP53. GO analysis showed that the biological functions of potential genes of Shenlian formula in treatment of ASCVD were mainly related to apoptotic, nitric oxide biosynthetic process, response to estradiol, angiogenesis, inflammatory response and oxidative stress and acute-phase response. KEGG pathway enrichment results showed that the pathways of potential genes of Shenlian formula in treatment of ASCVD mainly involved TNF signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, hypoxia induction factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway and apoptosis. Among them, the regulatory effect of Shenlian formula on apoptosis may act on not only TP53, but also different signaling pathways of apoptosis respectively, thus playing a synergistic effect. <italic>In vivo</italic> experimentation confirmed that Shenlian formula could significantly reduce the myocardial infarction area, improve the myocardial histopathological changes, and especially reduce myocardial mitochondrial injury. Further analysis showed that Shenlian formula can significantly inhibit the expressions of activated proteins in mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Conclusion:Anti-atherosclerosis traditional Chinese medicine Shenlian formula could effectively intervene ASCVD, and its effect on mitochondrial apoptosis of myocardial cells is one of its mechanisms in protecting myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 124-131, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905997

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for determining the plasma concentrations of 10 active ingredients in Wujiwan at different time points after oral administration, and to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics between normal rats and rats with chronic visceral hypersensitive irritable bowel syndrome (CVH-IBS). Method:CVH-IBS rat model was prepared by the neonatal rat colon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon stimulation method. After intragastric administration of Wujiwan (0.245 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), blood was collected from the jugular vein at different time points, and the plasma concentrations of 10 active ingredients (berberine hydrochloride, palmatine hydrochloride, coptisine hydrochloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, epiberberine, dihydroberberine, evodiamine, evodine, paeoniflorin, albiflorin) in Wujiwan was detected simultaneously by UPLC-MS/MS, the pharmacokinetic parameters of each component in normal rats and CVH-IBS rats were calculated. Result:The established UPLC-MS/MS could sensitively and accurately detect the plasma concentrations of 10 active ingredients of Wujiwan in rats. Compared with the normal group, the absorption rates of these 10 active ingredients of Wujiwan in the blood of CVH-IBS rats all decreased to a certain extent, and the peak time (<italic>t</italic><sub>max</sub>) was prolonged. Among them, the <italic>t</italic><sub>max</sub> of berberine hydrochloride and jatrorrhizine hydrochloride were significantly prolonged from 54 minute and 39 minute to 90 minute, respectively (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC<sub>0-</sub><italic><sub>t</sub></italic>) of each component increased, and evodiamine and paeoniflorin were significantly different (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic> P</italic><0.01). The clearance rates (CL/<italic>F</italic>) of these 10 active ingredients were all decreased, among which berberine hydrochloride, palmatine hydrochloride and evodiamine had significant differences (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:There are significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior of the active ingredients in Wujiwan between normal rats and CVH-IBS rats, which may be related to the destruction of microstructure of intestinal epithelial cells and the change of activity of liver enzymes under the pathological state of IBS.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6053-6064, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878869

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) has brought untold human sufferings and economic tragedy worldwide. It causes acute myocardial injury and chronic damage of cardiovascular system, which has attracted much attention from researchers. For the immediate strategy for COVID-19, "drug repurposing" is a new opportunity for developing drugs to fight COVID-19. Artemisinin and its derivatives have a wide range of pharmacological activities. Recent studies have shown that artemisinin has clear cardiovascular protective effects. This paper summarizes the research progress on the pathogenesis the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in cardiovascular damage by 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) virus from myocardial cell injury directly by 2019-nCoV virus,viral ligands competitively bind to ACE2 and then reduce the protective effect of ACE2 on cardiovascular disease, "cytokine storm" related myocardial damage, arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death induced by the infection and stress, myocardial injury by hypoxemia, heart damage side effects from COVID-19 drugs and summarizing the cardiovascular protective effects of artemisinin and its derivatives have activities of anti-arrhythmia, anti-myocardial ischemia, anti-atherosclerosis and plaque stabilization. Then analyzed the possible multi-pathway intervention effects of artemisinin-based drugs on multiple complications of COVID-19 based on its specific immunomodulatory effects, protective effects of tissue and organ damage and broad-spectrum antiviral effect, to provide clues for the treatment of cardiovascular complications of COVID-19, and give a new basis for the therapy of COVID-19 through "drug repurposing".


Subject(s)
Humans , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 20-25, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873014

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the protective effect and mechanism of artemisinin on systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)mice using endotoxin (LPS)-induced SIRS mouse model. Method:Male BALB/c mice aged 5-7 weeks were randomly divided into normal group, LPS model group, low, medium and high-dose artemisinin groups (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1) and ibuprofen group (39 mg·kg-1). LPS (10 mg·kg-1) was intraperitoneally injected at the 7th day after the prophylaxis. According to the SIRS clinical diagnostic criteria, the respiratory rate, rectal temperature, lung index, spleen index, glycolipid metabolism, brain tissue inflammatory factors, and phosphorylation of lung tissue inflammation-related proteins were measured. Result:Intraperitoneal injection of LPS significantly reduced the respiratory rate of mice (P<0.05), body temperature decreased significantly (P<0.01), spleen index increased significantly (P<0.01), peripheral blood neutrophil percentage increased significantly (P<0.05), percentage of monocytes decreased significantly (P<0.01), thrombocyte decreased (P<0.01), platelet specific ratio decreased (P<0.01), total cholesterol content in plasma decreased (P<0.01), plasma glucose content decreased (P<0.01). The expression of interleukin-1β increased in hippocampus and cortex of brain tissue (P<0.01), and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α increased in hippocampus and cortex of brain tissue (P<0.01). The expression of phosphorylated protein STAT1 was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of phosphorylated protein c-Jun was increased (P<0.01). After the administration of artemisinin, the body temperature and the respiratory rate of mice induced by LPS were significantly increased, the pathological changes of various organs induced by LPS were alleviated, the hypoglycemia induced by LPS was significantly increased (P<0.05), the levels of inflammatory factors in hippocampus and cortex was significantly reduced, and the expressions of phosphorylated proteins STAT1 and c-Jun in lung tissue were significantly reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion:Artemisinin has a significantly protective effect on SIRS mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS possibly by reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 188-195, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872907

ABSTRACT

The normal immune system has the ability to distinguish between "self" and "non-self". Because of its dynamic balance of "immune activity-immune tolerance", it will produce immune response to the non-self antigen, but with no response or weak response to the self-antigen. However, if the balance was broken, T cell in the abnormal immune activation state will respond continually to the self-antigen, with an abnormal immune response, which caused autoimmune disease. Pathologically, "invalid" immune recognition and immune response become the main causes for autoimmune diseases. Co-stimulatory molecule is an important link between Attach antigen presenting cells(APC) and immune cells (T cell and B cell). Studies have proved that excessive co-stimulation and/or insufficient co-inhibition could cause detect of self-tolerance and induce autoimmunity. Although co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways have a significant impact on all ADS, this paper focuses on their effect on two systemic autoimmune diseases [systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis(RA)] and two organ-specific autoimmune diseases [multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1DM)], in order to discuss the pathogenesis and relationship between co-stimulatory molecules and autoimmune diseases.

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 19-27, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771523

ABSTRACT

Human health has been severely threatened by malignant tumors continuously.Rational and effective drug use provides an effective means for the treatment of malignant tumors,and is expected to become an important way to solve the problem of tumor treatment in the future.In recent years,with the escalation of new cancer theories and the emergence of clinical drug resistance,innovative research and development of anti-cancer drugs has always been a hot spot and focus in cancer research.Among them,the discovery of novel anti-cancer drugs from natural compound is of top priority due to its strong anti-cancer efficacy and the abundant drug resources.Therefore,it is imperative to systematically summarize the cutting-edge advancements of the natural products and their potential pharmacological mechanisms according to the characteristics of tumor progression,and put forward the new directions and trends for further development of anti-cancer natural products in the future.Specifically,the research advancements on anti-cancer effect of natural products were reviewed,focusing on both the traditional and innovative application.We hope this review could bring the light on the research path of the natural anti-cancer products clearly and comprehensively,and also provide inspirations for innovative,safer and more effective anti-cancer drug development and exploration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Biological Products , Pharmacology , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Research
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2317-2323, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773092

ABSTRACT

This paper was mainly to discuss the potential role and mechanism of Lianhua Qingwen Capsules(LHQW) in inhibiting pathological inflammation in the model of acute lung injury caused by bacterial infection. For in vitro study, the mRNA expression of MCP-1 in RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells, the content of MCP-1 in cell supernatant, as well as the effect of LHQW on chemotaxis of macrophages were detected. For in vivo study, mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including normal group, model group(LPS 5 mg·kg~(-1)), LHQW 300, 600 and 1 200 mg·kg~(-1)(low, middle and high dose) groups, dexamethasone 5 mg·kg~(-1) group and penicillin-streptomycin group. Then, the anal temperature was detected two hours later. Dry weight and wet weight of lung tissues in mice were determined; TNF-α and MCP-1 levels in alveolar lavage fluid and MCP-1 in serum were detected. In addition, the infiltration of alveolar macrophages was also observed and the infiltration count of alveolar macrophages was measured by CCK-8 method. HE staining was also used to observe the inflammatory infiltration of lung tissues in mice. Both of the in vitro and in vivo data consistently have confirmed that: by down-regulating the expression of MCP-1, LHWQ could efficiently decrease the chemotaxis of monocytes toward the pulmonary infection foci, thus blocking the disease development in ALI animal model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Lung Injury , Microbiology , Bacterial Infections , Drug Therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Capsules , Chemokine CCL2 , Metabolism , Chemotaxis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Macrophages , Random Allocation , THP-1 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 26-32, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802162

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Shenlian extract (SL extract) on macrophage function and inflammatory resolution in lipid peroxidation inflammatory injury models. Method:The effects of different concentrations of SL extract (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 mg·L-1) on the polarization type, foam formation and chemotactic function of macrophages were detected with RAW264.7 cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL). Western blot was used to detect pro-inflammatory resolution factor arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase(ALOX5) and inducible inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), and phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) and phosphorylated IκK (p-IκK) in nuclear factor(NF)-κB related signaling pathways. Result:Compared with the control group, ox-LDL enhanced the expressions of M1 macrophage markers TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS (PPPα, IL-1β, and iNOS (PPPPκK was inhibited significantly (PConclusion:In the inflammatory damage model of lipid peroxidation, SL extract can regulate the polarization of macrophage, inhibit the chemotaxis and foaming of ox-LDL, increase the inflammatory resolution molecular expression, and improve the state of lipid peroxidation, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 55-60, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802132

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the protective effect of phenolic compounds 4-hydroxybenzylideneacetone and (HBAc)3,4-dihydroxybenzylideneacetone (DHBAc) of Osmundae Rhizoma on the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice by establishing the mice model of SIRS.Method: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal group,the SIRS model group and the different doses of HBAC and DHBAc group (25,50,100 μg·kg-3).Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was injected intraperitoneally after 7 days of prophylactic administration.After 5 hours of modeling,the anus temperature,respiratory rate,the number of white blood cell (WBC) and platelets (PLT),WBC classification,glycolipid metabolism,inflammatory factor and signal transducing phosphorylated protein of lung were measured.Result: Intraperitoneal injection with LPS (6 mg·kg-1) in mice can significantly reduce the respiratory rate (PPPPPβ(PPPPPPPPPβ(PConclusion: The SIRS model can be established through intraperitoneal injection of LPS.HBAc and DHBAc have protective effects on endotoxin-induced SIRS in mice,and may exert anti-inflammatory effects through IκB and c-JUN pathways.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 235-241, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777448

ABSTRACT

In the background of the high incidence and high mortality of cardiovascular diseases,atherosclerosis is the main pathological feature of cardiovascular diseases and the core pathological basis for disease progression. In the evolution of atherosclerotic plaques,the rupture of unstable plaques,plaque shedding and formation of thrombosis are the most dangerous parts. In this process,the formation of plaque fibrosis is the core mechanism regulating plaque stability. Additionally,fibrosis reflects dynamic changes in the inflammatory processes and pathological changes. In view of the inflammation regulation and fibrosis regulation,this paper clarified the process of atherosclerotic plaque,explained the roles of relevant inflammatory cells and cytokines in plaque stability,and summed up drug researches related with stable plaque in recent years. In the future,improving the fibrosis will be a new idea for stabilizing plaque in atherosclerosis drug development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cytokines , Fibrosis , Inflammation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Thrombosis , Drug Therapy , Pathology
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3051-3057, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687347

ABSTRACT

Cerebral malaria (CM) is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years in Africa, severe neurological sequelae may occur in surviving children. Although artesunate has made breakthrough progress in the clinical treatment of CM, the clinical problems of high mortality and high morbidity have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, an experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model was established by infecting C57BL/6 mice with Pb ANKA (Plasmodium berghei ANKA) to compare parasitemia level, survival rates, and rapid murine coma behavior scale scores, cerebral microvascular obstruction, haemozoin deposition in the liver, body temperature and weight to investigate the anti-cerebral malaria effect of the artesunate compound combination. The results showed that the artesunate compound combination could improve the survival rate of Pb ANKA-infected mice, reduce the level of parasitemia, effectively improve the symptoms of ECM neurological injury, reduce cerebrovascular obstruction and haemozoin deposition in the liver, and also significantly improve body temperature, weight and other basic indicators. The results showed that the artesunate compound combination improved the pathological changes and neurological damage caused by CM. It is expected to provide a theoretical basis for human cerebral malaria patients in clinical adjuvant therapy.

19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3589-3594, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689874

ABSTRACT

In view of the fact that the antimalarial effects of artemisinins are significant but the mechanism has not yet been clarified and there are many different opinions, it is possible that artemisinins can produce high anti-malarial efficacy through various mechanisms and multiple pathways. In addition, the researches on the pathogenesis of malaria "erythrocyte membrane plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC)" in the past few years have provided more positive findings, which may confirm and discover the new antimalarial mechanism of artemisinins. This paper was as to study the effect of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in vitro on erythrocyte membrane permeability of HB3 plasmodium infection, with using the mechanism of 5% sorbitol can be used to kill the Plasmodium falciparum in red blood cell membrane selectively, the effectual difference of sorbitol on the killing of P. falciparum with adding DHA or not was detected, so as to investigate whether DHA can affect the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane. Result showed that, Pre-stimulation with 10 nmol·L⁻¹ DHA (the final concentration of plasmodium in vitro culture system) for 30 min could significantly decrease the killing effect of sorbitol on the HB3 plasmodium in the P. falciparum erythrocytic cycle, and DHA may inhibit the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane for preventing sorbitol through the red blood cell membrane, thereby reducing the killing effect of sorbitol on the P. falciparum.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3782-3786, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689847

ABSTRACT

This article proposes a new thought on the study of "main effect" of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae. The blood concentrations of the pharmacodynamic substances of Chinese material medica(CMM)are usually very low, with lower toxic and side effects than western medicine. Therefore, according to a recent hypothesis of additive effect of multiple components for a single target, local targets in multi-component multi-target synergistic effect network of TCM may have the additive effect of similar components. Studies on the disposition of CMM showed that a constituent could bebio-transformed to many metabolites; these compounds with a similar structure are likely to have the same pharmacological effects on the same target, which could provide experimental evidences for the hypothesis of "additive effect". The authors of this article further believe that additive effect of TCM multi-components only comes up under a limited conditions/concentration. Because of the complexity of TCM-organism system, the complex effect of multicomponent addition and competition/antagonism is more likely to appear in single targets of drug effect. This complex effect may be the key to impact the synergistic effect of TCM multi-targets. In theory, choose and create a single target additive effect could realize the scientific compatibility of TCM and improve the curative effect and attenuate toxicity. According to the clinical demand and under the guidance of the above thought, we proposed the "main effect" of TCM formulae. Because traditional Chinese medicine (compounds) have diverse and complex effects, how to better study TCM formulae compatibility mechanism and improve the curative effect? Efforts shall be made to select one or several effects relating to clinical specific syndromes from the complex and diverse effects of TCM as the "main effect". The "main effect" of TCM formulae is the macroscopic manifestation of the synergistic effect of multi-component/multi-target. The study of the Formulae "main effect" can contain at least two aspects: one is the study of pharmacokinetic application of TCM formulae, and another is the study for pharmacodynamics effect. In the study of main effect, there are two main elements. First, which drug targets are directly related to the main effect? This requires identifying the target network. Second, which drug components positively or negatively control the single target of the target network? And what change in single target effect as well as the multi-target synergistic effect will be caused by the regulatory component concentration or the change in number? These two elements is the key to elucidate the mechanism of compound action and compatibility mechanism of Chinese herbal compound formulae. Through the study of the main effect, the clinical curative effect and the mechanism of the TCM formulae shall be improved.

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