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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 266-273, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872628

ABSTRACT

Xianling Gubao is a common and effective medicine in the treatment of orthopedic diseases. In recent years, it has been reported to be associated with liver injury. However, through the analysis of the adverse drug reaction reports and key hospital cases, we found that there is considerable incomplete information in the reports of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury cases retrieved from the literature. Thus, it is difficult to accurately judge causality between the drug and liver injury. Six cases of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao were identified in key hospitals, two of which achieved the clinical diagnosis according to the assessment of the integrated evidence chain method. We further analyzed the public health data of all residents in Yinzhou. The gross incidence rate of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury was 0.034%, which corresponds to a level of rare incidence. This revealed that Xianling Gubao-related liver injury has significant divergence in individuals and an idiosyncratic nature. The gross incidence of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao was lower than that of other medicines for the treatment of orthopedic diseases. Based on the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury model mediated by immune stress, it was found that Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus were the major components that lead to liver injury, and the liver injury caused by a full prescription was less serious than that encountered with only Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus. This suggests that the other 4 herbs (Dipsaci Radix, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix,Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) can prevent/alleviate the liver injury. Through disassembled prescription analysis, we found that the attenuation efficacy of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was the most significant. In conclusion, Xianling Gubao may cause idiosyncratic liver injury in a tiny minority of susceptible individuals, but the incidence risk is lower than that of other commonly used drugs for orthopedic disease. Xianling Gubao should be discreetly applied to patients with immune stress. The major components that induced liver injury in Xianling Gubao were Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma appears to attenuate this toxicity. This study provides a reference for the rational clinical medication with Xianling Gubao.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze clinical feature and information of medication to explore the risk signals of preparations containing Psoraleae Fructus (BGZP) related with hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions (ADR), in order to reinforce pharmacovigilance.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted based on hepatobiliary ADR related with BGZP from the China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System in years from January 2012 to December 2016. Serious and general ADRs were analyzed and assessed.@*RESULTS@#There were 355 cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP. Both the amount of cases and the proportion of serious ADR showed an increasing growth by years (P<0.05). It was found that 10.43% of 355 cases may be involved with irrational drug use, including overdose, repeated medication, and combination of multiple drugs. There were 190 cases which used BGZP (non-combination), and they were mainly for common in diseases caused by abnormal immune activation (accounting for 40.53% of the total cases). Especially at the age group with the most cases with age of 41-50 years, the cases associated with immunological diseases of female were obviously more than that of male (P<0.05). The latency of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP ranged from 1 to 386 days, and the median latency was 27.5 days, along with the range of cumulative dose (0.45-520.02 g) as well as the daily dose (0.09-2.64 g/d) after the conversion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP showed significant individual differences, and there was no correlation between drug usage duration and dosage and the occurrence of hepatobiliary ADR. It may be similar with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, and recommended that BGZP should be used with more caution under monitoring liver function, especially in female patients with immunological diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921725

ABSTRACT

The output of high level innovative Chinese medicines(CM) is very rare for a few years, which is in sharp contrast to the reality that antibody drugs, small molecular targeted therapy, antibody-drug conjugate and other innovative drugs have heavy investment and high yield. Acceleration for the research and development of innovative CM drugs obviously relies on breakthrough of the modes of thinking and methodology. Deeply influenced by the thinking of allopathic medicine in Western science system, the mainstream of current basic researches on CM is to find the components and their molecular mechanisms that can directly inhibit or antagonize the target in disease focal. However, it is difficult to explain the mechanism of the reported " active" components in many CMs, since their steady-state concentrations in disease focal are usually significantly lower than the effective concentrations of those components. Therefore, based on the original methodology of CM-systemism and harmonizing medicine, this paper proposed that the mechanism of action of CMs may not be limited to the direct antagonistic effect on the target in disease focal. Instead, it may involve indirect action through the intermediate substances across different organs or systems with a long-distance action pattern.A fundamentally break may be achieved when exploring the mechanism of action of CM active components from the perspective of indirect action. It may also change the thinking of allopathic medicine in the researches of CM and start a new innovative road for the development of indirect-acting CMs.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 291-294, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888762

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has led to a new era of cancer treatment strategies, and transforming healthcare for cancer patients. Meanwhile, reports of immune-related adverse events have been increasing, greatly hindering the use of cancer immunotherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been widely used in Asian countries for thousands of years, is known to play a complementary role in the treatment of cancer. Taken in combined with conventional modern therapies, such as resection, ablation and radiotherapy, TCM exerts its main anti-cancer effects in two ways: health-strengthening (Fu-Zheng) and pathogen-eliminating (Qu-Xie). Theoretically, pathogen-eliminating TCM can promote the release of tumor-related antigens and should be able to increase the effect of immunotherapy, while health-strengthening TCM may have immune-enhancing mechanisms that overlap with immunotherapy. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is important to balance the use of TCM and immunotherapy, with the goal of enhancing immune efficacy and antagonizing immune toxicity. In this article, we discuss this issue by considering the mechanism of tumor immunotherapy, alongside the theoretical basis of TCM treatment of tumors, with the aim of bringing new insights to future research in this field.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Immunotherapy , Integrative Medicine , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/therapy
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887958

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Epimedii Folium, composed of diverse constituents, is single at present. In view of this, an eva-luation method of 13 chemical constituents based on quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) was established to further explore the composition differences of raw products and alcohol extracts in different batches and the influence of alcohol extraction on the composition, so as to provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation and control of Epimedii Folium. The fingerprints of different batches of Epimedii Folium were constructed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) to evaluate the inter-batch consistency. The changes of the flavonoids in Epimedii Folium during alcohol extraction were analyzed based on determined levels and heat map, and the reasons for the changes were preliminarily discussed. With icariin, the quality control component recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, as the internal reference, the stability of the relative correction factors of chemical components under different conditions was investigated to obtain the relative correction factors. Then the determination results of QAMS and the external standard method were compared to verify the accuracy of QAMS. The results revealed that all batches of Epimedii Folium met the requirements specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the fingerprints of Epimedii Folium from the same place of origin exhibited a high similarity. Raw products and alcohol extracts of Epimedii Folium could be clearly distinguished by prenylated flavonoids, which are potential biomarkers for quality control. Additionally, the glycoside hydrolysis in the alcohol extraction was preliminarily explored. The QAMS method has good accuracy, durability, and repeatability in determining 13 chemical components in Epimedii Folium under different experimental conditions. No significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods was observed. This study can provide a reference for comprehensive, rapid and reasonable quality evaluation of Epimedii Folium.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Leaves
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879160

ABSTRACT

Based on the heat-clearing and detoxifying effects of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, the network pharmacology is mainly used to predict the potential targets of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma for anti-inflammatory activity and to perform the experimental verification. A method for detecting the biological potency of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma based on verifiable targets has been established to provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation and control standards of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. High performance liquid chromatography can be used to construct chemical fingerprints of different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Constructing a component-target-disease network of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma for its anti-inflammatory activity was applied to screen potential anti-inflammatory components and related targets of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, and to verify the target of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma by using biological evaluation methods. Detecting the biological potency of different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma extracts was used to inhibit COX-2 enzyme activity based the verifiable target cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2). The results showed that different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma accorded with the pharmacopoeia testing regulations, and the chemical fingerprints have a high similarity(similarity>0.93), suggesting that there is no significant difference in the characteristics of the chemical components. Based on network pharmacology predictions, 18 candidate targets were found to have potential direct interactions with the ingredients in Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Among them, the most important target is COX-2. Based on the experimental verification of recombinant human COX-2 protease activity inhibition, Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma can inhibit the COX-2 enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. It can function with a low concentration(0.75 mg·mL~(-1)), which preliminarily confirmed the accuracy of network pharmacology prediction. The biological potency detection method of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma based on COX-2 inhibitory activity was optimized and established. The qualitative response parallel line method was used to calculate the biological potency of anti-inflammatory activity, which ranged from 23.04 to 46.60 U·mg~(-1). For network pharmacology prediction, it can screen and clarify the possible targets of traditional Chinese medicine rapidly, which can guide the establishment of a biological evaluation method for the quality of medicinal materials with related activities. Compared with chemical fingerprints, the biological potency testing can better detect quality fluctuations of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Rhizome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878979

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of drug resistance in Western medicine, the repeated administration of clinical first-line drugs becomes more severe. There are many factors leading to multidrug resistance(MDR), so it is very difficult to solve the problem. Since traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has been used in the field of MDR in recent years, the research on the transporter-associated drug resistance and intervention of TCM has gradually become a hot spot. Therefore, in order to further explore the relationships among drug resistance, transporters, and TCM intervention, we review the relevant research progress in recent years and comb the achievements and limitations of this research at present. In the end, we put forward the research direction of changing body's ADME through the host's transporters and gastrointestinal flora, which provides new ideas for future research.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 276-282, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789026

ABSTRACT

Recently, the hepatotoxicity issue regarding to Psoraleae Fructus (PF) has attracted remarkable concerns, which highlights the urgent need to explore the toxicity attenuation method for PF. In this study, we proposed an alcohol soaking and water rinsing method for pre-processing PF based on the record in the classics - "Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun", aiming to attenuate the potential hepatotoxicity of PF. The optimal pre-processing methods and parameters were investigated by U*12(108) uniform design coupled with 3D-cultured human-derived liver organoids model and high-content imaging. The results showed that there were significant variations among the hepatotoxicity intensities of different pre-processed PF products. Four factors, including the concentration of alcohol, the ratio of material and alcohol in alcohol soaking, the time of alcohol soaking and the times of water rinsing, were found as independent significant factors (all P<0.01). The optimal pre-process parameters were further predicted and verified as follows: the alcohol concentration is 80%, the times of alcohol soaking is 3, the ratio of alcohol and material of alcohol soaking is 3, the time for alcohol soaking is 30 h, the ratio of water and material of water rinsing is 2, the times of water rinsing is 3, the time water rinsing is 12 h and the time of steaming is 5 h. This research demonstrated that the alcohol soaking and water rinsing method can effectively reduce the potential hepatotoxicity of PF. This method provides a reference for reducing the risk of PF liver injury from the perspective of Chinese medicinal materials pre-processing.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828359

ABSTRACT

A total of 1 392 reports on liver injury associated adverse drug reaction(LI-ADR) related to bone diseases were retrospectively analyzed based on national ADR monitoring system [18.75% of the patients used traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) alone and 68.68% used Western medicine alone]. This kind of cases accounted for 2.5% of all drug-related liver injury adverse reactions, ranking top ten of all drug categories. The number of reported cases and the proportion of serious cases showed an increasing trend from 2012 to 2016. The average age of the patients was(54.2±15.8) years old, and there was little difference in overall gender(male-female 1.04∶1). However, the number of female patients with rheumatoid arthritis was significantly higher than that of male patients(male-female 1∶2.6), while the number of male patients with gout was significantly higher than that of female patients(male-female 7.16∶1). The overall prognosis was good, with the recovery and improvement rate of 85.27%. The time from medication to liver injury varied due to different medicines. The median time to liver injury was 27 days in TCM alone group, later than 11 days in Western me-dicine alone group(P<0.05). Drugs for bone diseases have been one of the important categories for clinical drug-induced liver injury, and the number of reported cases on liver injury caused by drugs for bone diseases is increasing, so we should pay close attention to the safe and rational use of them. The LI-ADRs of male and female were different due to their different diseases, and the latency of adverse reactions in TCM group was generally longer than that in Western medicine group. In clinical medication, liver function should be monitored according to different diseases and characteristics of drugs to prevent the risk of liver injury.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Bone Diseases , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774564

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed to investigate the protective effect and pharmacodynamic difference of the ethanol extracts of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus on the drug-induced liver injury induced by acetaminophen.The cell activations of LO2 cells treated by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts were tested by CCK-8 essay.The effects of ethanol extracts on cell survival rate,the activities of ALT and AST in culture medium were detected based on the injury model of LO2 cells induced by APAP.Further,in purpose to observe the protective effect of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts on a mouse model of liver injury induced by intraperitoneal injectionof acetaminophen was established.Mice were randomly divided into control group,model group,positive drug group and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts administration groups.The activities of ALT and AST in the serum and the levels of MDA,SOD,GSH and GSH-PX in the liver homogenate of the mice were detected by commercial kits.The HEstaining was used to observe the histopathological changes of liver tissue in each group and the TUNEL staining was used to observe the hepatocyte apoptosis.The results showed that the ethanol extracts at less than 1 g·L~(-1)did not affect the activity of LO2 cell.Compared with the model group,the cell survival rates of the Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extract administration groups was significantly increased;the ALT and AST in the culture medium were distinct decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The survival rate of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extract from different batches were similar,while that of the Schisandrea Sphenatherae Fructus ethanol extract from different batches were quite different(P<0.05or P<0.01).Further,animal experiments showed that Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extract administration groups could markedly inhibit the increase of ALT and AST levels in serum(P<0.01),decrease MDA content significantly(P<0.01),and increase GSH,GSH-PX and SOD activity significantly(P<0.01).Among them,compared with other groups,Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus ethanol extract-2 group showed the best effect(P<0.05 or P<0.01)while Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus ethanol extract-1 showed a poor effect(P<0.05 or P<0.01).In conclusion,both Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts have protective effect on APAP-induced drug-induced liver injury and there was a certain difference in the efficacy between Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts from different habitats.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Liver , Mice
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773709

ABSTRACT

As entering a new era,our country has introduced a series of favorable policies,which may provide the powerful and new momentum for the development of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM). However,more and more attentions have been paid to the safety and effectiveness of TCM. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. is one of Chinese herbs with clinical efficacy and safety risk. In recent years,accumulating groups have carried out a series of exploratory studies on the clinical rational use of T. wilfordii-related preparations. Considering this situation,the goal of this special issue is to bring together a collection of original research and review articles addressing the expanding field of T. wilfordii. The special issue covers the clinical application,pharmacodynamics,toxicology,pharmacodynamics,resource identification and molecular pharmacognosy of T. wilfordii-related preparations. It focuses on the multi-disciplinary collaborative innovation,and may provide a stimulating resource for the fascinating subject of the safe and rational use of TCM,as well as have important practical significance and promotion value for the healthy development of TCM industry.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tripterygium
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2141-2148, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780352

ABSTRACT

To explore the application of an effect-constituents index (ECI) for the quality evaluation of rhubarb, we carried out the simultaneous determination of 12 chemical components by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and used the ICR mouse constipation model to determine the diarrhea biopotency of these 12 components. With the diarrhea biopotency of sennoside A as a reference, the diarrhea biopotency weight coefficient of each chemical component was obtained. A multi-component chemical quantitative analysis combined with the biopotency weight coefficients for rhubarb was developed, named the diarrhea ECI. Animal experiment ethics requirements were approved by the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of the 302 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (Grant Number: IACUC-2015-012). The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the 12 chemical components in different batches of processed products of rhubarb. Especially worthy of attention was the content of aloe-emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside in sample Rh03, nearly 40-fold higher than that in Rh07 (4.79 vs 0.12 mg·g-1), and the content of rhein-8-O-β-D-glucoside in sample Rh03, nearly 45 times higher than that in Rh07 (3.56 vs 0.08 mg·g-1). The actual measured diarrhea biopotencies of the 12 chemical components ranged from 61.65 ± 4.28 to 233.84 ± 5.58 U·mg-1. The calculated diarrhea effect-constituents indices of 16 rhubarb samples ranged from 1.07 (Rh15) to 19.38 (Rh03), and the actual measured diarrhea biopotencies of 16 rhubarb samples based the ICR mouse constipation model ranged from 23.84 U·g-1 (Rh16) to 310.94 U·g-1 (Rh05). The correlation between the diarrhea ECIs and the actual measured diarrhea biopotencies of 16 rhubarb samples was good (r = 0.969 5), suggesting that the diarrhea effect-constituents indices may be the most suitable for evaluating the quality of different rhubarbs with regard to diarrhea.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2169-2177, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780349

ABSTRACT

There are many kinds of processed products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (ALRP), but their differences in toxicity and efficacy have not been identified. The minimum premature ventricular contraction (PVC) method was used to evaluate the biological toxicity of eight processed products. The results showed that the minimal toxic dose (MTD) of an ethanol extract of Shengfupian (SFP) was 0.16 g·kg-1, which was much lower than that of Heishunpian (HSP), Baifupian (BFP), Baofupian (BAP), Paofuzi (PFZ) or Zhengfupian (ZFP), with MTDs ranging from 2.64 to 5.75 g·kg-1. No cardiotoxicity was detected with Chaofupian (CFP) and Paotianxiong (PTX). A novel +dp/dtmax assay for acute heart failure in rats was developed to evaluate the cardiac activity. It was found that all eight processed products had cardiac effects, with Shengfupian showing the strongest cardiotonic effect and the ability to restore damaged cardiac function to normal within 15 minutes of injection. Heishunpian, Baifupian and the three other products displayed moderate activity, while Paofuzi and Paotianxiong were the weakest. An LC-MS/MS method was utilized to determine the content of 13 alkaloids in water extracts. The results demonstrated that hypertoxic aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine could not be detected, higenamine was only present in Shengfupian, and salsolinol was about 4-56 times higher in Shengfupian than in other products. A correlation analysis showed that salsolinol had the best correlation with the cardiotonic index, with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.817, while the three monoester alkaloids failed to correlate with the cardiotonic effect. Higenamine and salsolinol were cardiotonic, while the 11 other components had no cardiotonic activity. This study establishes methods for precise evaluation of cardiotoxicity and cardiac activity, reveals the toxicity and efficacy of common processed products, and identifies the key quality markers for cardiac activity, providing scientific support for the quality evaluation and clinical application of processed products of aconite.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2178-2183, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780326

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to develop a bioassay to quantify the antiplatelet aggregation activity of hirudo for quality evaluation and control. Antithrombin activity of hirudo extracted by high temperature decoction was determined by thrombin titration. Antiplatelet aggregation activity of hirudo was determined through pharmacodynamic experiments in vitro and in vivo using a bioassay we developed for quantifying inhibition of platelet aggregation. Methodological investigation was carried out and the titers of 12 batches of hirudo samples were determined. During the experiment, the disposal of animals is in accordance with the ethical standards of animal experiments. The results showed that the antithrombin activity of hirudo decocted at high temperature decreased significantly and almost lost its activity. Hirudo inhibited platelet aggregation and results in vivo and in vitro were consistent. These assays were employed to test 12 batches of hirudo. The results demonstrated that the biopotency of 12 batches was 113.49, 96.13, 121.22, 127.33, 83.48, 108.72, 131.41, 127.95, 76.90, 126.27, 132.89 and 573.53 U·mg-1. The method was reliable and reproducible and can be used to assess the quality of hirudo.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1449-1456, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780232

ABSTRACT

About 15%-20% of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) will progress to chronic manifestation (CH-DILI), which sometimes advances rapidly to liver cirrhosis (LC-DILI) within 0.5-1 year with deteriorative clinical prognosis. Therefore, it is important to find a non-invasive diagnosis for early detection of liver cirrhosis. In this study, the metabolomic profiles revealed significant differences in the metabolites from the plasma of LC-DILI versus CH-DILI. We found 35 differential metabolites through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Through pathway enrichment analysis, some up-regulated metabolic pathways reflected impaired liver functions such as bile acid, lipid synthesis and decomposition during cirrhosis. Five biomarkers were found to exhibit effective diagnosis value (AUC > 0.6), including phosphatidylcholine, lysoPC (18:1 (9Z)), creatine, taurochenodeoxycholic acid and taurocholic acid. Furthermore, we found that the relative content ratio between phosphatidylcholine and lysoPC (18:1 (9Z)) had a better distinguishing ability (AUC = 0.867). The relative content ratio also had the feature to reduce systematic errors of sample processing and instrument detection, therefore having a greater value for clinical application.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 678-686, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780153

ABSTRACT

Using the idiosyncratic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated hepatotoxicity model as a positive control, liver injury induced by Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (AE) or Cortex Dictamni ethanol extracts (EE) was evaluated. Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model was established in rats [Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)-2018-008] by injecting LPS at a dosage of 2.8 mg·kg-1. Rats were randomly divided into 10 groups. The plasma levels of liver function biomarkers such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Histological changes (HE staining), hepatocellular apoptosis and the content of cytokines of liver were measured. Network pharmacology was used to analyze the relationship between chemical components and immunity in Cortex Dictamni. Compared with the control group, the doses (25, 50 g·kg-1) of AE or EE had no significant changes in ALT, AST and liver pathology (P>0.05). The doses of 4.2 g·kg-1 of AE or EE+LPS groups exhibited an elevation in ALT, AST and serum cytokines (P<0.01). Disorder of liver lobular arrangement and irregular island-like or massive necrosis of liver cells were observed in these groups. Network pharmacology shows that Cortex Dictamni may directly or indirectly participate in the process of immunomodulation. We found that Cortex Dictamni regulated 15 core targets and affected 19 pathways, including apoptosis, TNF-α, NF-kappa B signaling pathways. These results suggest that Cortex Dictamni can induce idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and the water extract can induce more serious liver injury then ethanol extract of Cortex Dictamni. These findings provide a reference for elucidating the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity induced by Cortex Dictamni.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777519

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study was performed in drug-induced liver injury(DILI) cases associated with Dictamni Cortex(Baixianpi,BXP) Preparations,which were treated at grade Ⅲ class A liver disease hospitals from 2008 to 2016 and spontaneously reported for adverse reactions between 2012 and 2016 at HILI Cloud(hilicloud.net). The results showed 25 DLII cases associated with BXP Preparations treated at grade Ⅲ class A liver disease hospitals during the 9 years,including only 14 cases in line with the clinical diagnostic criteria of Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Herb-Induced Liver Injury. And 74 DILI cases associated with BXP Preparations spontaneously reports adverse reactions,and 18. 92% of them had unreasonable medication,including polypharmacy(21. 43%),overdose(28. 57%) and repeated dosage(50%). And 47 DILI cases used BXP Preparations to treat psoriasis and vitiligo(a total of59. 57%). The time range of taking BXP Preparations until liver injury occurred was 1-366 d,with the median of 18 d. The dose of BXP Preparations was estimated to be 0. 09-12 g·d-1. And the cumulative dosage of taking drugs until liver injury occurred was 1. 1-336 g. Obvious associations with time-toxicity as well as quantity-toxicity could not be found based on the wide range of time-toxicity relations and quantity-toxicity relations. On the basis of the study,we found that DILI cases associated with BXP Preparations commonly occurred in patients with immune diseases,such as psoriasis and vitiligo,indicating specific individual differences. The results suggested that DILI cases associated with BXP Preparations would be correlated with the property of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. In conclusion,the risk of liver injury clinically caused by BXP Preparations should be paid more attention,and the studies on the mechanism of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury must be enhanced,and those on risk factors,like irrational drug use,should be strengthened. Moreover,the evaluation of the risk-to-benefit ratio is supposed to be performed for the sake of improving the risk prevention and control standards for BXP preparations,and ensuring safe and rational clinical application of BXP Preparations.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Epidemiology , China , Dictamnus , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Liver , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691399

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the possible mechanism of San-Cao Granule (SCG, ) mediating antiliver fibrosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, porcine serum-treated group, ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg/kg), SCG (3.6 g/kg) group, SCG (1.8 g/kg) group and SCG (0.9 g/kg) group, with 10 rats in each group. Liver fibrosis was induced with porcine serum by intraperitoneal injection for 8 weeks, except for the normal control group. Then, the rats in the three SCG-treated groups and UDCA group were administered SCG and UDCA respectively for 4 weeks. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and type IV collagen (IVC) were examined using commercial kits and hepatic histopathology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining. Moreover, the protein expression levels of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (p-Smad3), Smad7, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were determined by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real time quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both SCG (3.6 and 1.8 g/kg) and UDCA significantly ameliorated the liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum as indicated by retarding the serum levels increasing of ALT, AST, TBIL, HA, LN and IVC and preventing the serum level reducing of ALB compared with the model group (all P<0.01). Meanwhile, the collagen deposition was attenuated by SCG and UDCA treatment. Furthermore, SCG markedly reduced the expressions of HMGB1, TGF-β1, p-Smad3, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB and α-SMA, and enhanced the expression of the Smad7 compared with the model group (all P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SCG ameliorates hepatic fibrosis possibly through inhibiting HMGB1, TLR4/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , HMGB1 Protein , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins , Metabolism
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