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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 155-166, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966478

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1 and BRCA2 are among the most important genes involved in DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR). Germline BRCA1/2 (gBRCA1/2)-related cancers have specific characteristics and treatment options but conducting gBRCA1/2 testing and interpreting the genetic imprint are sometimes complicated. Here, we describe the concordance of gBRCA1/2 derived from a panel of clinical tumor tissues using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and genetic aspects of tumors harboring gBRCA1/2 pathogenic variants. @*Materials and Methods@#Targeted sequencing was performed using available tumor tissue from patients who underwent gBRCA1/2 testing. Comparative genomic analysis was performed according to gBRCA1/2 pathogenicity. @*Results@#A total of 321 patients who underwent gBRCA1/2 testing were screened, and 26 patients with gBRCA1/2 pathogenic (gBRCA1/2p) variants, eight patients with gBRCA1/2 variants of uncertain significance (VUS; gBRCA1/2v), and 43 patients with gBRCA1/2 wild-type (gBRCA1/2w) were included in analysis. Mutations in TP53 (49.4%) and PIK3CA (23.4%) were frequently detected in all samples. The number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) per tumor tissue was higher in the gBRCA1/2w group than that in the gBRCA1/2p group (14.81 vs. 18.86, p=0.278). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was significantly higher in the gBRCA1/2w group than in the gBRCA1/2p group (10.21 vs. 13.47, p=0.017). Except for BRCA1/2, other HR-related genes were frequently mutated in patients with gBRCA1/2w. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated high sensitivity of gBRCA1/2 in tumors analyzed by NGS using a panel of tumor tissues. TMB value and aberration of non-BRCA1/2 HR-related genes differed significantly according to gBRCA1/2 pathogenicity in patients with breast cancer.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 123-130, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874366

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can facilitate precision medicine approaches in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. We investigated the molecular profiling of Korean mCRC patients under the K-MASTER project which was initiated in June 2017 as a nationwide precision medicine oncology clinical trial platform which used NGS assay to screen actionable mutations. @*Materials and Methods@#As of 22 January 2020, total of 994 mCRC patients were registered in K-MASTER project. Targeted sequencing was performed using three platforms which were composed of the K-MASTER cancer panel v1.1 and the SNUH FIRST Cancer Panel v3.01. If tumor tissue was not available, cell-free DNA was extracted and the targeted sequencing was performed by Axen Cancer Panel as a liquid biopsy. @*Results@#In 994 mCRC patients, we found 1,564 clinically meaningful pathogenic variants which mutated in 71 genes. Anti-EGFR therapy candidates were 467 patients (47.0%) and BRAF V600E mutation (n=47, 4.7%), deficient mismatch repair/microsatellite instability–high (n=15, 1.5%), HER2 amplifications (n=10, 1.0%) could be incorporated with recently approved drugs. The patients with high tumor mutation burden (n=101, 12.7%) and DNA damaging response and repair defect pathway alteration (n=42, 4.2%) could be enrolled clinical trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors. There were more colorectal cancer molecular alterations such as PIK3CA, KRAS G12C, atypical BRAF, and HER2 mutations and even rarer but actionable genes that approved or ongoing clinical trials in other solid tumors. @*Conclusion@#K-MASTER project provides an intriguing background to investigate new clinical trials with biomarkers and give therapeutic opportunity for mCRC patients.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1135-1144, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831150

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the efficacy and safety of avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, in patients with metastatic or unresectable colorectal cancer (mCRC) with mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or POLE mutations. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective, open-label, multicenter phase II study, 33 patients with mCRC harboring dMMR/MSI-H or POLE mutations after failure of ≥1st-line chemotherapy received avelumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. dMMR/MSI-H was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining (IHC) by loss of expression of MMR proteins or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for microsatellite sequences. POLE mutation was confirmed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors ver. 1.1. @*Results@#The median age was 60 years, and 78.8% were male. Thirty patients were dMMR/MSI-H and three had POLE mutations. The ORR was 24.2%, and all of the responders were dMMR/MSI-H. For 21 patients with MSI-H by PCR or NGS, the ORR was 28.6%. At a median follow-up duration of 16.3 months, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.9 and 13.2 months in all patients, and 8.1 months and not reached, respectively, in patients with MSI-H by PCR or NGS. Dose interruption and discontinuation due to treatment-related adverse events occurred in 4 and 2 patients, respectively, with no treatment-related deaths. @*Conclusion@#Avelumab displayed antitumor activity with manageable toxicity in patients with previously treated mCRC harboring dMMR/MSI-H. Diagnosis of dMMR/MSI-H with PCR or NGS could be complementary to IHC to select patients who would benefit from immunotherapy.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 764-778, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831112

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the concordant or discordant genomic profiling between primary and matched metastatic tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore the clinical implication. @*Materials and Methods@#Surgical samples of primary and matched metastatic tissues from 158 patients (335 samples) with CRC at Korea University Anam Hospital were evaluated using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel. We compared genetic variants and classified them as concordant, primary-specific, and metastasis-specific variants. We used a combination of principal components analysis and clustering to find genomic groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to appraise survival between genomic groups. We used machine learning to confirm the correlation between genetic variants and metastatic sites. @*Results@#A total of 282 types of deleterious non-synonymous variants were selected for analysis. Of a total of 897 variants, an average of 40% was discordant. Three genomic groups were yielded based on the genomic discrepancy patterns. Overall survival differed significantly between the genomic groups. The poorest group had the highest proportion of concordant KRAS G12V and additional metastasis-specific SMAD4. Correlation analysis between genetic variants and metastatic sites suggested that concordant KRAS mutations would have more disseminated metastases. @*Conclusion@#Driver gene mutations were mostly concordant; however, discordant or metastasis-specific mutations were present. Clinically, the concordant driver genetic changes with additional metastasis-specific variants can predict poor prognosis for patients with CRC.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 211-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, profiling a wide range of genomic alterations has become a possibility resulting in improved implementation of targeted cancer therapy. In Asian populations, the prevalence and spectrum of clinically actionable genetic alterations has not yet been determined because of a lack of studies examining high-throughput cancer genomic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, 1,071 tumor samples were collected from five major cancer institutes in Korea and analyzed using targeted NGS at a centralized laboratory. Samples were either fresh frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) and the quality and yield of extracted genomic DNA was assessed. In order to estimate the effect of sample condition on the quality of sequencing results, tissue preparation method, specimen type (resected or biopsied) and tissue storage time were compared. RESULTS: We detected 7,360 non-synonymous point mutations, 1,164 small insertions and deletions, 3,173 copy number alterations, and 462 structural variants. Fifty-four percent of tumors had one or more clinically relevant genetic mutation. The distribution of actionable variants was variable among different genes. Fresh frozen tissues, surgically resected specimens, and recently obtained specimens generated superior sequencing results over FFPE tissues, biopsied specimens, and tissues with long storage duration. CONCLUSION: In order to overcome, challenges involved in bringing NGS testing into routine clinical use, a centralized laboratory model was designed that could improve the NGS workflows, provide appropriate turnaround times and control costs with goal of enabling precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Asian People , DNA , Korea , Methods , Paraffin , Point Mutation , Precision Medicine , Prevalence
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 851-860, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the current awareness and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as attitudes toward CAM, in patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 21 and October 31, 2017, a 25-item questionnaire regarding CAM experiences among cancer patients and their family members was conducted in 10 oncology clinics in South Korea after institutional review board approval at each institution. RESULTS: In total, 283/310 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60 years, and 60% were male. Most of the patients were actively receiving anticancer treatment at the time of the survey. A total of 106 patients (37%) had experienced a median of two types (interquartile range, 1 to 3) of CAM. Belief in CAM (odds ratio [OR], 3.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.611 to 5.640) and duration of disease (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.020) were independent factors for using CAM in multivariable analysis. Belief in CAM was significantly associated with current use of CAM (OR, 3.633; 95% CI, 1.567 to 8.424). Lay referral was the most common reason for deciding to use CAM, and only 25% of patients (72/283) discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: Patient attitudes toward and confidence in CAM modalities were strongly associated with their CAM experiences, and only a small number of patients had an open discussion about CAM with their physicians. A patient education program for CAM is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Korea , Patient Education as Topic , Referral and Consultation
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1257-1257, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763154

ABSTRACT

For the data represented in Fig. 4B, we have generated a new figure from one of these repeat experiments.

9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 246-251, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759939

ABSTRACT

“Precision” trials, using reasonably integrated biomarker targets and molecularly selective anticancer agents, have become a major concern for both patients and their physicians. As next-generation sequencing, which is a parallel analysis method, becomes quicker, easier, and more accurate, precision medicine-based approaches are becoming more generalized in determining treatments for cancer patients. However, it is not applicable to all cancer patients because of current high prices, limited reimbursement coverage, low prevalence of driver genetic mutations, and lack of treatable drugs. To solve these problems, the Republic of Korea has been operating the Cancer Precision Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment (K-MASTER) Enterprise since its establishment in June 2017. The aim of the project was to conduct large-scale genomic analyses, appropriate matching targeted clinical trials, and data management, which incorporates genomic and clinical information. In this review, we introduce the goals and composition of this project and describe the progress of the project to date.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Precision Medicine , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 246-251, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938627

ABSTRACT

“Precision” trials, using reasonably integrated biomarker targets and molecularly selective anticancer agents, have become a major concern for both patients and their physicians. As next-generation sequencing, which is a parallel analysis method, becomes quicker, easier, and more accurate, precision medicine-based approaches are becoming more generalized in determining treatments for cancer patients. However, it is not applicable to all cancer patients because of current high prices, limited reimbursement coverage, low prevalence of driver genetic mutations, and lack of treatable drugs. To solve these problems, the Republic of Korea has been operating the Cancer Precision Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment (K-MASTER) Enterprise since its establishment in June 2017. The aim of the project was to conduct large-scale genomic analyses, appropriate matching targeted clinical trials, and data management, which incorporates genomic and clinical information. In this review, we introduce the goals and composition of this project and describe the progress of the project to date.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 413-426, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114062

ABSTRACT

During chemotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy, the hepatic lesions may occur as chemotherapy-induced lesions or tumor-associated lesions, with exceptions for infectious conditions and other incidentalomas. Focal hepatic lesions arising from chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies (such as chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal injury and steatosis) and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess should be considered a mimicker of metastasis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy in the liver has roles in both the therapeutic effects for hepatic metastasis and injury to the non-tumor bearing hepatic parenchyma. In this article, we reviewed the updated concept of chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess in the liver, focusing on the pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the causative chemo-agent, pathophysiology, and characteristic imaging findings of these mimickers is critical for accurate diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary exposure of the patient to invasive tissue-based diagnosis and operations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abscess , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Eosinophils , Fatty Liver , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Therapeutic Uses
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 283-291, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172649

ABSTRACT

The symposium on “Oncology Leadership in Asia” was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association with International Cancer Conference. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research. The task of bringing together diverse countries and regions is made all the more urgent in that while Asia now accounts for more than half of all new cancer cases globally, clinical guidelines are based predominantly on practices adopted in Western countries, which may not be optimized for unique ethnic, pharmacogenomic and cultural characteristics in Asia. Recognizing the need for Asia to better gather information and data for the compilation of Asia-specific clinical guidelines, the participants discussed the current status in Asia in the national and regional contexts and identified future steps towards integrated and collaborative initiatives in Asia. A key outcome of the symposium was a proposal to combine and integrate the activities of existing pan-Asian societies, including the Asian Pacific Federation of Organizations for Cancer Research and Control (APFOCC) and Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS). Further proposals included the expansion of pan-Asian society membership to include individuals and the essential need to encourage the participation of young researchers in order to ensure self-sustainability of cancer control efforts in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asia , Asian People , Cooperative Behavior , Cultural Characteristics , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Leadership , Medical Oncology , Specialization
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 715-726, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) expression is more associated with basal-like cancers than estrogen receptor- or ErbB-2-expressing breast cancers. However, the biological relevance of different levels of CAV-1 expression according to subtype in the epithelial compartment of breast cancer remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated whether CAV-1 functions as a tumor suppressor and/or modulator of the cytotoxic activity of docetaxel (DTX) in subtypes of breast cancer using in vitro and xenograft models. RESULTS: The levels of CAV-1 expression were closely associated with DTX sensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer cells. In addition, CAV-1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and modulated DTX-induced apoptosis through cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The mechanisms underlying DTX-induced apoptosis differed in breast cancers according to the levels of CAV-1 expression. DTX robustly enhanced Bcl-2 inactivation by CAV-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells, while p53-mediated cell cycle arrest by DTX was more pronounced in CAV-1-low but p53-functional MCF-7 cells. In parallel with the data from breast cancer cell lines, CAV-1-transfected MCF-7 cells showed higher efficacy of DTX treatment in a xenograft model. CONCLUSION: We clearly demonstrated cooperative effects between CAV-1 and DTX in mediating apoptosis, suggesting that the levels of CAV-1 expression might be an important indicator for DTX use in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Caveolin 1 , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Estrogens , Heterografts , MCF-7 Cells , Negotiating , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1243-1252, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109752

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report real life experiences of sorafenib therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korea, using a subset of data from GIDEON (Global Investigation of Therapeutic Decisions in HCC and of Its Treatment with Sorafenib; a large, prospective, observational study). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2009 and April 2012, a total of 497 patients were enrolled from 11 sites in Korea. Of these, 482 patients were evaluable for safety analyses. Case report forms of paper or electronic version were used to record safety and efficacy data from all patients. RESULTS: More patients of Child-Pugh A received sorafenib for > 8 weeks than did patients of Child-Pugh B (55.5% vs. 34.3%). Child-Pugh score did not appear to influence the starting dose of sorafenib, and approximately 70% of patients both in Child-Pugh A and B groups received the recommended initial daily dose of 800 mg (69.0% and 69.5%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were 8.5 months and 2.5 months. In Child-Pugh A patients, the median OS and TTP were 10.2 months and 2.5 months. The most frequent treatment-emergent drug-related adverse event was hand-foot skin reaction (31.7%), followed by diarrhea (18.0%). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar in both Child-Pugh A (85.4%) and Child-Pugh B (84.8%) patients. CONCLUSION: Sorafenib was well tolerated by Korean HCC patients in clinical settings, and the safety profile did not appear to differ by Child-Pugh status. Survival benefit in Korean patients was in line with that of a previous pivotal phase III trial (SHARP).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diarrhea , Incidence , Korea , Life Change Events , Prospective Studies , Skin
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 796-803, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90560

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: KRAS mutations have been used widely as prognostic or predictive marker in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it may be difficult to obtain a tumor tissue for analyzing the status of KRAS mutation in large proportion of patients with advanced disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained pairs of tumor and serum samples from 65 patients with advanced CRC, between March 2008 and July 2011. KRAS mutation status from the tumor samples was analyzed by genomic polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence, and KRASmutation status from the serum samples was determined by a genomic polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. RESULTS: KRAS mutations were detected in the serum samples of 26 patients and in the tumor samples of 31 patients. KRAS mutation status in the serum and tumor samples was consistent in 44 of the 65 pairs (67.7%). There was a significant correlation between the mutations detected in the serum sample and the mutations detected in the matched tumor sample (correlation index, 0.35; p 0.05). In a multivariate analysis, liver metastasis and no cytoreductive operation were independent prognostic factors for decreased OS. CONCLUSION: The serum sample might alternatively be used when it is difficult to obtain tumor tissues for analyzing the status of KRAS mutation in patients with advanced CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 534-538, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189076

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a BRCA1 gene mutation. Evidence is mounting that there is a large increase in the risk for hematologic malignancies among patients with genetic changes in the BRCA pathways. The genomic analysis demonstrated a frameshift mutation in the BRCA1 gene: 277_279delinsCC (Phe93fs). It is a novel BRCA1 mutation that has never been reported, and caused malignant lymphoma as well as breast and ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Frameshift Mutation , Genes, BRCA1 , Germ-Line Mutation , Hematologic Neoplasms , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Ovarian Neoplasms
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 19-26, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a multi-center, prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind and parallel-group trial involving 12 institutions in Korea between May 2005 and December 2005. A total of 265 patients with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to either the azasetron or ondansetron group. All patients received azasetron (10 mg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg intravenously) on day 1 and dexamethasone (4 mg orally every 12 hours) on days 2-4. The azasetron group received azasetron (10 mg orally) with placebo of ondansetron (orally every 12 hours), and the ondansetron group received ondansetron (8 mg orally every 12 hours) with placebo of azasetron (orally) on days 2-6. RESULTS: Over days 2-6, the effective ratio of complete response in the azasetron and ondansetron groups was 45% and 54.5%, respectively (95% confidence interval, -21.4 to 2.5%). Thus, the non-inferiority of azasetron compared with ondansetron in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was not proven in the present study. All treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected drug-related adverse events were reported. The most common adverse events related to the treatment were constipation and hiccups, and there were no differences in the overall incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION: In the present study, azasetron showed inferiority in the control of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting compared with ondansetron whereas safety profiles were similar between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Constipation , Dexamethasone , Drug Therapy , Hiccup , Incidence , Korea , Nausea , Ondansetron , Prospective Studies , Serotonin Antagonists , Vomiting
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 48-54, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mutations affecting the KRAS gene are an established negative predictor for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the role of KRAS mutation as a biomarker for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data from 32 CRC patients who were available for KRAS mutation status and received cytotoxic chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as a first-line therapy. Six of 32 patients received anti-EGFR therapies. We used KRAS mutation status as a predictive or prognostic factor in CRC patients receiving bevacizumab. RESULTS: We observed mutations in KRAS in 59.4% of patients. Bevacizumab was used in combination with oxaliplatin based regimens. There was no significant difference for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with oxaliplatin based cytotoxic chemotherapy plus bevacizumab according to the status of KRAS mutation. After first-line therapy, 28 patients (87.5%) received second-line therapy. In univariate analysis, KRAS mutations did not have a major prognostic value for PFS (hazard ratio, 1.007; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.469 to 2.162; p>0.05) or OS (hazard ratio, 0.548; 95% CI, 0.226 to 1.328; p>0.05). In addition, anti-EGFR therapies did not affect the impact on OS. CONCLUSION: KRAS mutation is neither a predictive for bevacizumab nor a prognostic for OS in CRC patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Endothelial Growth Factors , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Bevacizumab
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 419-424, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8773

ABSTRACT

Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome is a clinical manifestation of systemic organ involvement by Toxocara species. VLM with involvement of the bladder and liver is a rare finding. A 62-year-old woman presented with diffuse bladder wall thickening and multiple liver masses with peripheral eosinophilia and urinary symptoms. We considered malignancy or eosinophilic cystitis through clinical manifestations and imaging findings. However, no suspicious malignant lesions were observed on cystoscopy and liver mass biopsy revealed the presence of eosinophilic necrotizing granuloma without malignant cells. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected by western blotting and the patient was diagnosed with VLM syndrome. After taking prednisolone, urinary symptoms disappeared. On abdominal CT scan taken after three months, the size of multiple liver masses and bladder wall thickening had decreased. VLM syndrome should be suspected in patients with an atypical imaging pattern and peripheral eosinophilia.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies , Biopsy , Blotting, Western , Cystitis , Cystoscopy , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Granuloma , Larva Migrans, Visceral , Liver , Prednisolone , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Toxocara , Toxocariasis , Urinary Bladder
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 172-177, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106244

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is no established standard second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) who failed gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of modified methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) in patients with metastatic UC previously treated with GC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 28 patients who received modified MVAC between November 2004 and November 2012. All patients failed prior, first-line GC chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 64.0 years (range, 33.0 to 77.0 years), and 23 (82.1%) patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. The overall response rate and the disease control rate were 36.0% and 64.0%, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 38 weeks (range, 5 to 182 weeks), median progression free survival was 21.0 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3 to 35.7 weeks) and median overall survival was 49.0 weeks (95% CI, 18.8 to 79.3 weeks). Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities included neutropenia (n=21, 75.0%) and anemia (n=9, 32.1%). Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicities did not occur and there was no treatment-related death. CONCLUSION: Modified MVAC appears to be a safe and active chemotherapy regimen in patients with stable physical status and adequate renal function after GC treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Methotrexate , Neutropenia , Retrospective Studies , Vinblastine
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