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1.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 97-106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992577

ABSTRACT

During coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, the treatment of severe trauma has been impacted. The Consensus on emergency surgery and infection prevention and control for severe trauma patients with 2019 novel corona virus pneumonia was published online on February 12, 2020, providing a strong guidance for the emergency treatment of severe trauma and the self-protection of medical staffs in the early stage of the epidemic. With the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council renaming "novel coronavirus pneumonia" to "novel coronavirus infection" and the infection being managed with measures against class B infectious diseases since January 8, 2023, the consensus published in 2020 is no longer applicable to the emergency treatment of severe trauma in the new stage of epidemic prevention and control. In this context, led by the Chinese Traumatology Association, Chinese Trauma Surgeon Association, Trauma Medicine Branch of Chinese International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care, and Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Traumatology, the Chinese expert consensus on emergency surgery for severe trauma and infection prevention during coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic ( version 2023) is formulated to ensure the effectiveness and safety in the treatment of severe trauma in the new stage. Based on the policy of the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council and by using evidence-based medical evidence as well as Delphi expert consultation and voting, 16 recommendations are put forward from the four aspects of the related definitions, infection prevention, preoperative assessment and preparation, emergency operation and postoperative management, hoping to provide a reference for severe trauma care in the new stage of the epidemic prevention and control.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 192-195, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990832

ABSTRACT

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are final output neurons from the retina to the brain, which can transmit light signals and participate in image-forming vision (IFV) (image formation) and non-image-forming vision (NIFV) (non-image formation). Visual processing system not only transmits visual information of images, but also influences human physiological activities and behaviors by incoming optical signals, which is called NIFV.NIFV relies less on signals generated by conventional photoreceptor cells, but a special class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). ipRGCs are a subset of retinal ganglion cells that express melanopsin.The axons of the ipRGCs project to unique targets and modulate a broad range of NIFV behaviors, from basic physiological regulation (such as heart rate and pupil size) to more complex behavioral regulation (such as circadian rhythm) and even higher-level cognitive processes (such as anxiety and other emotions). NIFV circuit is an important response to light, and ipRGCs plays a vital role in NIFV circuit.This article reviewed the regulation of NIFV circuit in physiological activities and behaviors, summarized the relationship between the projections of ipRGCs to the NIFV function, and provided ophthalmologists with more knowledge of visual system.

3.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 643-649, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958495

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the pathogenic gene and clinical phenotypes of a family affected with rare sector retinitis pigmentosa (sector RP).Methods:A retrospective clinical study. A patient with sector RP diagnosed in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University and his parents were included in the study. Detailed medical history was collected; best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus color photography, autofluorescence (AF), visual field, optical coherence tomography (OCT), electroretinogram, fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) examination were performed. The peripheral venous blood of the patient and his parents were collected, and DNA was extracted. A whole exon sequencing was used for the proband. The mutations were verified by targeted Sanger sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics analysis and cosegregation analysis were performed.Results:The proband, a 17-year-old male, had presented with gradually decreased vision in the past 2 years with BCVA of 0.4 in both eyes. Retinal vessels attenuation and macular dystrophy without obvious pigmentation on the fundus were observed. AF showed, in bilateral eyes, a symmetrical hypo-autofluorescent region only in the inferonasal quadrant and "petal-like" hyper-AF macula. The visual field examination showed defects in the superotemporal quadrant corresponding to the affected retina. OCT showed loss of the photoreceptor layer except for the foveal region. Electroretinogram examination presented reduced scotopic wave peaks and extinct photopic response. FFA and ICGA showed the atrophy retinal pigment epithelium around the optic disk and in the inferior retina. The clinical phenotypes of the parents were normal. The whole exon sequencing identified one mutation in SPATA7 gene, c.1112T>C (p.Ile371Thr) in exon10 and a copy number variation in trans. The missense mutation resulted in the change of isoleucine to threonine at amino acid 371 in the encoded SPATA7 protein, and the mother carried this heterozygous mutation c.1112T>C. According to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria and guidelines for classification of genetic variants, the missense mutation was classified as the uncertain significance. The CNV, originating from his father, contributed to the loss of exon10 and was confirmed as the likely pathogenic variant. Conclusions:The macula can be involved in sector RP, leading to the macular dystrophy. The missense variant in SPATA7 gene, c.1112T>C (p.Ile371Thr), might be a pathogenic mutation site in this pedigree.

4.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 584-592, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958490

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the light response, retinal inflammation and apoptosis of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 1 year after the new type of channelrhodopsin PsCatCh2.0 was transfected into the retina of rd1 mice. Methods:Twenty-four male rd1 mice were randomly divided into rd1 experimental group and rd1 control group, 12 mice in each group. 1.5 μl of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)2/2-cytomegalovirus (CMV)- PsCatCh2.0-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was injected into the vitreous cavity 1 mm below the corneoscleral limbus of mice in the rd1 experimental group, and the same dose of recombinant virus was injected 2 weeks later at temporal side 1 mm below the corneoscleral limbus. One year after virus injection, the light response of RGCs expressing PsCatCh2.0 was recorded by patch clamp technique; the expression of PsCatCh2.0 in the retina was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining; the transfection efficiency of recombinant virus was evaluated by the transfection efficiency of virus and the number of RGCs. Hematoxylineosin staining was performed to measure the inner retinal thickness. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 in retina; real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the relative expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and Bax mRNA. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase kit was used to observe the apoptosis of retinal cells in each group of mice. Results:One year after the intravitreal injection of recombinant virus, PsCatCh2.0-expressing RGCs can still generate 30 pA photocurrent. The virus PsCatCh2.0-EGFP was mainly transfected into RGCs, and partly transfected into amacrine cells, almost no transfection was seen in bipolar and horizontal cells. There were no significant differences in the number of RGCs and thickness of the inner retina between the rd1 experimental group and the rd1 control group ( F=14.35, 0.05; P>0.05), while the rd1 experimental group NF-κB p65 protein expression, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA quantification were significantly lower than those of rd1 control group ( F=4.61, 5.91, 5.78; P<0.05). The number of red fluorescent apoptotic cells in the retina of mice in the rd1 experimental group was less than that in the rd1 control group, and the Bax mRNA expression was lower than that in the rd1 control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( F=7.52, P<0.01). Conclusion:One year after intravitreal injection of recombinant virus, the PsCatCh2.0 expressing RGCs can still generate photocurrent. Long term transfection and expression of PsCatCh2.0 has no obvious cytotoxic effect on RGCs, nor it increases the inflammatory effect of the retina of rd1 mice with retinal degeneration.

5.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 891-895, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912421

ABSTRACT

X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a rare X-linked inherited retinal disorder, mainly affects bilateral retina. Patients often present with visual deterioration accompanied by a spoke-wheel pattern in the macula due to splitting of inner retinal layers and a disproportionate decline in the b-wave relative to a-wave of electroretinogram. The current therapy is mainly directed toward treatment of complications with no effective clinical management yet. In recent years, with the deepening understanding of XLRS, adeno-associated virus(AAV)-mediated gene therapy has become a potential new approach for the treatment. Two clinical trials on XLRS gene therapy are currently underway. These two clinical trials assess the ocular safety and tolerability of recombinant AAV- RS1 vector and explore its safe dose in XLRS patients. However, the recovery of retinal structure and function in XLRS patients is unsatisfactory. Following the in-depth research and progress of clinical trials, it is expected that more accurate and effective treatments for XLRS patients will be provided in the future.

6.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 483-487, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912360

ABSTRACT

Retinal degeneration is a blind eye disease caused by changes in the function of retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptor cells. Stem cell transplantation, gene therapy, retinal prosthesis implantation and other new biological technologies have made great progress in the restoration of visual function, but they still face many difficulties. Optogenetic is a new interdisciplinary technology that combines optics, physiology and genetics. It can express photosensitive proteins on retinal neurons in retinal degeneration. The light stimulation causing depolarization or hyperpolarization reaction of cells that expressed photosensitive proteins to gain light sensitivity. Compared with the immune rejection of stem cell therapy, the greater individualization of gene therapy and the greater traumatic nature of retinal prosthesis implantation, optogenetic technology has significant advantages, and it is also urgent to solve the problems of low spatial and temporal resolution and light sensitivity. With the gradual development of optogenetics technology, it is bound to form a deeper level of cross and fusion with other fields, so as to contribute to the recovery of visual function of patients with retinal degeneration.

7.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 594-605, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890352

ABSTRACT

Background@#We previously, reported that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, we investigated whether the mechanisms underlying of the anti-apoptotic effects of G-CSF were associated with autophagy using a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. @*Methods@#Diabetic cardiomyopathy was induced in rats through a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin and the rats were then treated with G-CSF for 5 days. Rat H9c2 cardiac cells were cultured under high glucose conditions as an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The extent of apoptosis and protein levels related to autophagy (Beclin-1, microtubule-binding protein light chain 3 [LC3]-II/LC3-I ratio, and P62) were determined for both models. Autophagy determination was performed using an Autophagy Detection kit. @*Results@#G-CSF significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the diabetic myocardium in vivo and led to an increase in Beclin-1 level and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level. Similarly, G-CSF suppressed apoptosis, increased Beclin-1 level and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level in high glucose-induced H9c2 cardiac cells in vitro. These effects of G-CSF were abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. In addition, G-CSF significantly increased autophagic flux in vitro. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF might be significantly associated with the up-regulation of autophagy in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 388-397, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883349

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish Crx-iCreERT2 fluorescent reporter human embryonic stem cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and 3D retinal organoid culture.Methods:The target site sequence of H9 cell line was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). SgRNAs were designed by CRISPR/Cas9 technique and their activity was detected.The most optimal sgRNA was selected according to the factors such as activity and specificity.After identification of the target vectors by restriction enzyme and sequencing, the target vectors were transferred to the H9 cell line by electroporation.P2A-tdTomato-P2A-iCreERT2 was inserted between Exon4 and 3’-untranslated region of hES-ZLM-001 gene.Knockin positive clones were obtained after drug treatment, enrichment of positive clones.Primers were designed to perform PCR on the target region, and homozygous de-resistant knockin positive cell clones were selected according to the sequencing results and peaks.The 1-A07 cell line was cultured, and then flow cytometry for the proportion of OCT4 positive cells, immunofluorescence for three stem cell molecular markers including SOX2, NANOG, SSEA4, karyotype analysis were carried out to confirm whether the 1-A07 cell line could be used for further experiments.Retinal organoids were obtained by three-dimensional (3D) culture technology and the expression of molecular markers was detected by immunofluorescence at different developmental stages of retinal organoids. Results:The target site sequence of H9 cell line was consistent with that given by Genebank and Ensembl.Sixteen sgRNAs were designed according to the target site sequence of H9 cell line, and finally sgRNA8 and sgRNA12 were selected.The sgRNAs and recombinant plasmids were transfected into the H9 cell line by electroporation, and four homozygous de-resistant knockin positive cell clones were obtained by PCR.Crx-iCreERT2 fluorescent reporter human embryonic stem cell lines were successfully obtained.In 1-A07 cell line, the proportion of OCT4 positive cells was about 98.7% by flow cytometry, and the expression of three stem cell markers was positive by immunofluorescence, and the karyotype was normal 46, XX.The results showed that the 1-A07 cell line could be used for further experiments.The Crx-iCreERT2 fluorescent reporter human embryonic stem cell lines were differentiated into tdTomato positive retinal organoids by 3D culture technology.BRN3A positive ganglion cells, CALBINDIN positive horizontal cells and CHAT positive amacrine cells appeared on day 30 of differentiation.RECOVERIN positive photoreceptors arose on day 45 of differentiation.PKCα positive bipolar cells presented on day 90 of differentiation.Ganglion cells were shown in the deep layer of retinal organoids, and horizontal cells, amacrine cells and bipolar cells in the middle layer, and photoreceptors in the top layer.Conclusions:Crx-iCreERT2 fluorescent reporter human embryonic stem cell lines are successfully established and can be differentiated into retinal organoids that express tdTomato red fluorescence through 3D culture technology.Those retinal organoids contain the same types of neurons as normal human retinas, and follow a certain temporal and spatial developmental sequence similar to the developmental rules of normal human retinas.Crx-iCreERT2 fluorescent reporter human embryonic stem cell line is a powerful tool for researching retinal development and diseases and can be applied in treatments for blindness.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 594-605, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898056

ABSTRACT

Background@#We previously, reported that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, we investigated whether the mechanisms underlying of the anti-apoptotic effects of G-CSF were associated with autophagy using a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. @*Methods@#Diabetic cardiomyopathy was induced in rats through a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin and the rats were then treated with G-CSF for 5 days. Rat H9c2 cardiac cells were cultured under high glucose conditions as an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The extent of apoptosis and protein levels related to autophagy (Beclin-1, microtubule-binding protein light chain 3 [LC3]-II/LC3-I ratio, and P62) were determined for both models. Autophagy determination was performed using an Autophagy Detection kit. @*Results@#G-CSF significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the diabetic myocardium in vivo and led to an increase in Beclin-1 level and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level. Similarly, G-CSF suppressed apoptosis, increased Beclin-1 level and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level in high glucose-induced H9c2 cardiac cells in vitro. These effects of G-CSF were abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. In addition, G-CSF significantly increased autophagic flux in vitro. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF might be significantly associated with the up-regulation of autophagy in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

10.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 201-203, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900318

ABSTRACT

One of the major criticisms of laparoscopic colectomy is the requirement of an additional mini laparotomy to remove the resected specimen. This may be associated with postoperative pain and wound complications. Therefore, the use of a natural orifice as a delivery route for the specimen extraction without a laparotomy incision can subsequently reduce the risk of wound complications. In this video, we demonstrate the natural orifice specimen extraction procedure with a side-to-end single-stapling colorectal anastomosis.

11.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 173-185, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the process of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We have previously reported that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) ameliorated diastolic dysfunction and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we hypothesized a regulatory role of cardiac miRNAs in the mechanism of the anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.METHODS: Rats were given a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin injection and then randomly allocated to receive treatment with either G-CSF or saline. H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were cultured under a high glucose (HG) condition to induce diabetic cardiomyopathy in vitro. We examined the extent of apoptosis, miRNA expression, and miRNA target genes in the myocardium and H9c2 cells.RESULTS: G-CSF treatment significantly decreased apoptosis and reduced miR-34a expression in diabetic myocardium and H9c2 cells under the HG condition. G-CSF treatment also significantly increased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein expression as a target for miR-34a. In addition, transfection with an miR-34a mimic significantly increased apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 luciferase activity in H9c2 cells.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that G-CSF might have an anti-apoptotic effect through down-regulation of miR-34a in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Diet, High-Fat , Down-Regulation , Glucose , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , In Vitro Techniques , Luciferases , Lymphoma, B-Cell , MicroRNAs , Models, Animal , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Streptozocin , Transfection
12.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 8-17, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889256

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (mPVTT) complications were generally characterized by extremely poor prognoses. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in predicting HCC complicated by mPVTT. @*Methods@#Five hundred one HCC patients received surgery in our hospital during November 2008 to December 2014, among which 32 patients (6.4%) were diagnosed as HCC complicated by mPVTT. Six cases were excluded for reasons of complex medical conditions, including 2 cases of salvage liver transplantation, 2 cases of re-resection, 1 case of mPVTT combined with inferior vina cava tumor thrombosis, and 1 case of residual portal vein tumor thrombosis. Ultimately, 26 cases were enrolled in this study. The maximal tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was identified as a predictive factor and detected. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients complicated by mPVTT. @*Results@#Our results showed that the median OS was 16 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS was 55.6%, 31.7%, and 31.7%, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that SUVmax ≥ 4.65 was the only independent risk factor for RFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#SUVmax was an independent predictor for RFS and OS of patients suffering from both HCC and mPVTT. L ow SUVmax could serve as an effective factor for selecting candidates with low recurrence risks and for helping with improving patient survival after surgical resection.

13.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 838-845, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871846

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the light sensitivity and kinetic of the new optogenetics tools Channelrhodopsin-XXM2.0 (XXM2.0) and Channelrhodopsin- PsCatCh2.0 ( PsCatCh2.0), and analyze whether they could be used to restore the visual function by optogenetics. Methods:Molecular biology techniques were used to link the gene fragments of XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 to the vector pCIG(c)-msFoxn3 containing ampicillin resistant screening gene and reporter gene to form new plasmid pCIG(c)-msFoxn3-XXM2.0 and pCIG(c)-msFoxn3- PsCatCh2.0. The constructed plasmids were transfected into HEK 293T cells, and light responses were recorded in the whole cell mode with the HEKA patch clamp system. The photocurrent was recorded under three light intensity included 2.7×10 16, 4.7×10 15, and 6.4×10 14 photons/(cm 2·s). And then, XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 were stimulated with 2.7×10 16 photons/(cm 2·s) and fully recovered. The opening and closing time constants were analyzed with Clampfit 10.6 software. At the same light intensity, photocurrents of XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 were recorded by the light pulse stimulating of 2-32 Hz. The current attenuation was analyzed at long intervals of 4000 ms and short intervals of 200 ms after repeated stimulation. Comparisons between groups were performed by independent samples t test. Results:Restriction endonuclease sites of EcoRⅠ and EcoRⅤ were successfully introduced at XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 sequences. When the digestion was completed, they were ligated by T4 DNA ligase to construct new plasmids pCIG(c)-msFoxn3-XXM2.0 and pCIG (c)-msFoxn3- PsCatCh2.0, and then transfected on HEK 293T cells. The light intensity dependence was showed in XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0. The greater light intensity was accompanied by the greater photocurrent. Under the light intensity 6.4×10 14 photons/(cm 2·s) below the retinal safety threshold, large photocurrent was still generated in XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 with 92.8±142.0 and 13.9±5.6 pA ( t=1.24, 1.24; P=0.28, 0.29). The opening time constants of XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 were 23.9±6.7 and 2.4±0.8 ms, and the closing time constants were 5 803.0±568.2 and 219.9±25.6 ms. Compared with PsCatCh2.0, the opening and closing time constant of XXM2.0 were both larger than PsCatCh2.0. The differences were statistically significant ( t=7.10, 31.60; P=0.00, 0.00). In terms of response frequency, XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 could follow to 32 Hz high-frequency pulsed light stimulation, and all could respond to repeated light stimulation at a long (4000 ms) and a short time (200 ms) interval with the small current decay rate. Conclusion:XXM2.0 and PsCatCh2.0 could be activated under light intensity with safety for the retina, and could respond to high frequency (at least 32 Hz) pulsed light stimuli with low current attenuation, which could meet the characteristics of opsins required to restore the visual function by optogenetics.

14.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 295-301, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871744

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the protective effects of different concentrations of chloroquine on RGC in n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) injured mice and its possible mechanisms.Methods:Fifty-four healthy male C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into three groups, 18 in each group. The mice in low-dose chloroquine group were intraperitoneally injected with chloroquine solution at a dose of 10 mg/kg daily. Mice in high-dose chloroquine group were intraperitoneally injected with chloroquine solution at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the mice in control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of PBS. NMDA intravitreal injection was performed 2 days after intraperitoneal injection, 5 nmoles NMDA was injected into the left eye, and the same volume of PBS was injected into the right eye as a control. The RGC staining of retinal plaques were performed 7 days after NMDA injection, and the number of alive RGC was calculated. The visual acuity and electroretinogram were used to evaluate the electrophysiological functions of RGC at 9 and 10 days after modeling. Real-time quantitative PCR and retinal frozen sections and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence staining were performed 11 days after NMDA injection to evaluate the glial activation of the retina. The density, visual acuity, and the amplitude of PhNR-wave of RGC between groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance.Results:At 7 days after NMDA injection, the density of RGC in retinal patch of low-dose chloroquine group was significantly higher than that of intraperitoneal injection of PBS control group ( F=54.41, P<0.01). The density of RGC in retinal patch of high-dose chloroquine group was lower than that of control group ( F=1.18, P>0.05). The visual acuity was higher than control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( F=9.10, P<0.05). The amplitude of PhNR-wave was significantly higher in low-dose chloroquine group than that of the control group ( F=17.60, P<0.01). The mRNA level of inflammatory factor and GFAP positive signal was also significantly lower than that of the control group ( F=23.66, P<0.05). The amplitude of PhNR-wave, the expression of GFAP ( F=110.20, P<0.01) and the mRNA level of inflammatory factors ( F=167.60, 17.78; P<0.01) in the high-dose chloroquine group were higher than the other two groups, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusions:In NMDA injury retinal model, low-dose chloroquine significantly increased the survival and physiological function of RGC, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of glial activation and inflammatory response. High-dose of chloroquine would aggravate the apoptosis of RGC.

15.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 242-248, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871727

ABSTRACT

Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) is the most important viral tool and has been widely used in gene therapy. Because of its small size, non-enveloped, non-pathogenic and other characteristics, so it is one of the main means to treat hereditary retinal diseases. Aiming at MERTK for retinitis pigmentosa, ND4 for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or RPE1 for choroideremia, AAV gene therapy improved half patients' visual acuity in clinic tests. Besides, there are some clinic tests in progress for Leber’s congenital amaurosis, X-linked retinoschisis, Achromatopsia, age-related macular degeneration. But more researches need to be found before clinic test for Stargardt disease, Usher syndrome and nanophthalmos. At present, AAV gene therapy is mainly used for recessive hereditary retinal diseases, and technology is needed to intervene for dominant retinal diseases. For the treatment of hereditary retinal diseases, this will be an important and complex systematic project, which requires more human and material resources to participate in and study together, and we expect to have a great breakthrough in the near future.

16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 8-17, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896960

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (mPVTT) complications were generally characterized by extremely poor prognoses. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in predicting HCC complicated by mPVTT. @*Methods@#Five hundred one HCC patients received surgery in our hospital during November 2008 to December 2014, among which 32 patients (6.4%) were diagnosed as HCC complicated by mPVTT. Six cases were excluded for reasons of complex medical conditions, including 2 cases of salvage liver transplantation, 2 cases of re-resection, 1 case of mPVTT combined with inferior vina cava tumor thrombosis, and 1 case of residual portal vein tumor thrombosis. Ultimately, 26 cases were enrolled in this study. The maximal tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was identified as a predictive factor and detected. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients complicated by mPVTT. @*Results@#Our results showed that the median OS was 16 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS was 55.6%, 31.7%, and 31.7%, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that SUVmax ≥ 4.65 was the only independent risk factor for RFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#SUVmax was an independent predictor for RFS and OS of patients suffering from both HCC and mPVTT. L ow SUVmax could serve as an effective factor for selecting candidates with low recurrence risks and for helping with improving patient survival after surgical resection.

17.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 201-203, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892614

ABSTRACT

One of the major criticisms of laparoscopic colectomy is the requirement of an additional mini laparotomy to remove the resected specimen. This may be associated with postoperative pain and wound complications. Therefore, the use of a natural orifice as a delivery route for the specimen extraction without a laparotomy incision can subsequently reduce the risk of wound complications. In this video, we demonstrate the natural orifice specimen extraction procedure with a side-to-end single-stapling colorectal anastomosis.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 760-765, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865354

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the changes of brain function in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) based on the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method.Methods:A cross-sectional study method was performed, 34 cases of non-proliferative DR patients treated in the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University during July 2018 to March 2019 were collected.Meanwhile, 34 healthy volunteers with matched age, gender, and education years were recruited.All subjects were performed with conventional MRI scanning and rs-fMRI scanning, then the fALFF values in the whole brain were calculated, and the differences of neuronal activities between the two groups were explored.This research protocol was approved by the Ethic Committee of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, and written informed consent was obtained from each subject before any medical examination.Results:The fALFF values of DR patients in the left inferior temporal gyrus, left cerebellum, right pallidum, left supplementary motor area, and right superior orbitofrontal gyrus were -0.58±0.29, -0.47±0.39, -0.37±0.24, -0.31±0.26 and 0.29±0.49, respectively, which were significantly higher than -1.03±0.29, -0.90±0.31, -0.78±0.22, -0.72±0.21 and-0.17±0.46 of the normal control (voxel level P<0.01, gaussian random field correction, cluster level P<0.05)(all at P<0.001). Conclusions:Abnormal spontaneous neuronal activities occur in the left inferior temporal gyrus, left cerebellum, right pallidum, left supplementary motor area, and right superior orbitofrontal gyrus of DR patients.These abnormalities may associate with cognitive, vision and emotion.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 746-753, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865348

ABSTRACT

Objective:To utilize four viral tracer tools with different properties, to visualize cell morphology and connectome in visual pathways and explore and summarize the applications of different viral tracer tools in visual circuit, basing on the technology of neural circuitry tracing with viral vectors.Methods:For cell tracing, C57BL/J mice were injected by fluorogold, adeno-associated virus (AAV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) or herpes simplex virus 1 strain 129 (H129). GAD2-Cre mice were injected by AAV. Thy1-Cre mice were injected by rabies virus (RV). Four mice were contained in every group.Retrograde tracing: mice were injected with fluorogold, AAV, PRV or RV in SC regions.After a certain period, their retinas were isolated, expanded into flat-mounted on slides to observe the morphology and distribution of labelled retinal cells.Anterograde tracing: mice were injected with H129 in vitreous cavities.After a certain period, their brains were isolated to observe the morphology and distribution of labelled brain cells. Results:The number of cells labelled by fluorogold was larger than that labelled by AAV.The morphology of cells labelled by AAV possessed more details than that by fluorogold.H129 and PRV injection could display numerous cells with synaptic connections in the visual circuit.Recombined RV could mono-transsynaptically spread and label cells with the support of helper virus.Conclusions:AAV is more helpful in studying cell morphology.HSV-1, PRV and RV can be used to study cell connectomes.Cooperated with Cre/loxP system, Caspase-3, DTA, Gcamp or other neuroscience tools, viral tracer tools can be used to regulate the function of cells that belong to a specific cell type.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 704-709, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865335

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is an emerging technology that observes transcriptomes' differences between individual cells at the cellular level.The basic strategy is to capture single cells and lysis the cells to get mRNA, then amplify them after reversing transcriptions, finally cDNA is used to build sequencing libraries.At present, this technology has been widely used in many subject areas.Visual system includes retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex, etc.It's responsible for the acquisition and processing of visual information and the formation of vision.Visual information accounts for more than 70% of all sensory information.Therefore, the study of the visual system is particularly important.With the rapid development of science and technology, there are more and more research results on scRNA-seq.This technology is gradually becoming an important tool for guiding clinical practice, and has provided a bridge for basic research transforming to clinical research.In this review, we introduce the main technical routes and methods of scRNA-seq and detail its application in visual system.

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