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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874481

ABSTRACT

A 32-year-old woman with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), which caused continuous suicidal thoughts and depression, was treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) of an acute course followed by maintenance ECT (M-ECT) augmented onto clozapine for 7 years. Although the general psychopathology and AVHs initially reduced slightly with ECT and clozapine, her AVHs and suicidal thoughts did not decrease subjectively. When 3 years of M-ECT, her voices declined sharply, and improvement was maintained for 2 years thereafter. A total 91 ECT sessions were performed. The daily clozapine dose was decreased from 325 to 200 mg and plasma levels remained higher than 350 ng/ml; there were no noticeable cognitive side effects. In summary, we report a case showing a sudden sharp reduction in persistent AVHs after 3 years of long-term M-ECT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897899

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of the healthcare system. Apart from the issues surrounding COVID-19 itself, care for existing patients has met many challenges. One such challenge is caring for patients who are on clozapine treatment and have been confirmed positive for COVID-19. Schizophrenia has been considered to have a deep connection with the immune system, and clozapine can induce further changes in this system. COVID-19 can ravage the compromised immune system and aggravate tissue damage. The intricate relations between schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 make it difficult to predict the clinical course of COVID-19 in clozapine-treated patients. However, the rigid prohibition on using clozapine if COVID-19 is confirmed may harm patients. Patients who have to use clozapine are often refractory cases with no alternatives. Therefore, the decision to maintain or stop clozapine must be made after a comprehensive review of the patient’s unique situation. To do this, theoretical and practical issues surrounding the use of clozapine in COVID-19 should be reviewed and discussed. In this review, we gather useful information surrounding this issue and present an overview. Focusing on the immune system, various theoretical possibilities that could arise from schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 were carefully examined, and practical checklists for the care of these patients were explored. It is hoped that this review will convince many clinicians to pay attention to this momentous issue and facilitate more active sharing of clinical experiences.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892384

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined the satisfaction of patients who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy to provide important information for improving the social misunderstanding about electroconvulsive therapy, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, and make a decision of effective treatment. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction, adverse effects, attitudes, and experiences toward electroconvulsive therapy in patients at 2 to 4 weeks after finishing an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy in three psychiatric hospitals. @*Results@#There were 85 respondents (38 males), whose average age was 42.0±13.6 years and average illness duration was 12.8±8.9 years. Fifty-two patients (61.2%), 19 (22.4%), 8 (9.4%), and 6 (7.1%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders, respectively. The average session number for acute electroconvulsive therapy was 12.6±6.0 sessions, and 61 patients (71.8%) had received maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Among the respondents, 60.0% reported that they were satisfied with the electroconvulsive therapy. Satisfaction was similar according to sex, age, diagnosis, electrode placement, and use of anesthetic agents. Forty-three (53.8%) patients experienced memory impairment during acute electroconvulsive therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were generally satisfied with the treatment and that memory impairment should be detected early and managed promptly. Follow-up studies with a large number of subjects and variables will be needed to determine the predictive factors affecting satisfaction toward electroconvulsive therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890195

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of the healthcare system. Apart from the issues surrounding COVID-19 itself, care for existing patients has met many challenges. One such challenge is caring for patients who are on clozapine treatment and have been confirmed positive for COVID-19. Schizophrenia has been considered to have a deep connection with the immune system, and clozapine can induce further changes in this system. COVID-19 can ravage the compromised immune system and aggravate tissue damage. The intricate relations between schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 make it difficult to predict the clinical course of COVID-19 in clozapine-treated patients. However, the rigid prohibition on using clozapine if COVID-19 is confirmed may harm patients. Patients who have to use clozapine are often refractory cases with no alternatives. Therefore, the decision to maintain or stop clozapine must be made after a comprehensive review of the patient’s unique situation. To do this, theoretical and practical issues surrounding the use of clozapine in COVID-19 should be reviewed and discussed. In this review, we gather useful information surrounding this issue and present an overview. Focusing on the immune system, various theoretical possibilities that could arise from schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 were carefully examined, and practical checklists for the care of these patients were explored. It is hoped that this review will convince many clinicians to pay attention to this momentous issue and facilitate more active sharing of clinical experiences.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900088

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined the satisfaction of patients who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy to provide important information for improving the social misunderstanding about electroconvulsive therapy, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, and make a decision of effective treatment. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction, adverse effects, attitudes, and experiences toward electroconvulsive therapy in patients at 2 to 4 weeks after finishing an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy in three psychiatric hospitals. @*Results@#There were 85 respondents (38 males), whose average age was 42.0±13.6 years and average illness duration was 12.8±8.9 years. Fifty-two patients (61.2%), 19 (22.4%), 8 (9.4%), and 6 (7.1%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders, respectively. The average session number for acute electroconvulsive therapy was 12.6±6.0 sessions, and 61 patients (71.8%) had received maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Among the respondents, 60.0% reported that they were satisfied with the electroconvulsive therapy. Satisfaction was similar according to sex, age, diagnosis, electrode placement, and use of anesthetic agents. Forty-three (53.8%) patients experienced memory impairment during acute electroconvulsive therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were generally satisfied with the treatment and that memory impairment should be detected early and managed promptly. Follow-up studies with a large number of subjects and variables will be needed to determine the predictive factors affecting satisfaction toward electroconvulsive therapy.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894058

ABSTRACT

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is indicated for various mental disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder) and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in elderly patients. Furthermore, ECT is a useful first-line treatment in emergency and crisis situations such as suicide risk, violent behavior, catatonia, and food refusal, which are more frequent in elderly patients. ECT is also effective in the treatment of the motor symptoms of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Due to the high risk of various physical diseases, the comorbid physical conditions of elderly patients should be individually controlled to optimize ECT treatment. Compared to young adults, in elderly patients the seizure threshold is higher, the seizure duration is shorter, and the anesthetic dose is lower. On the contrary, the response rate in the elderly is both faster and higher. Considering potential cognitive decline and the prevention of further deterioration of cognitive function in elderly patients, in the absence of significant comorbidities, twice weekly sessions and right unilateral electrode placement with a lower seizure threshold and less cognitive effect are preferred to bilateral electrode placement, which has a high risk of adverse cognitive effects. After an acute course of ECT, continuation and maintenance of ECT, combined with prescription of therapeutic drugs, may prevent possible relapse or recurrence of mental disorders. In conclusion, ECT can be used to treat mental disorders in elderly adults, with safety and effectiveness comparable to that in young adults.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894056

ABSTRACT

Suicidality is the most serious complication of mood disorders and psychosis; effective treatment should reduce suicide rates. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development age-standardized suicide rate in Korea was 22.6 in 2018, much higher compared to other countries worldwide. As mental and psychiatric problems are the main reasons for suicide attempts, accounting for 31.6% in 2018, targeting such problems should be the focus of efforts to reduce suicide rates. However, the ability of current pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce suicide rates is limited due to their delayed effects. Therefore, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been proposed as an alternative treatment. This approach is effective for treating most mental disorders associated with high suicide rates, including severe depression, bipolar disorder, and intractable psychotic disorders; ECT is also effective for Parkinson’s disease, which has the highest suicide rate among all disorders in Korea. The acute, long-term, and prophylactic effects of ECT on suicidality have been reported in the literature, and treatment guidelines outside of Korea recommend that ECT be used at an early stage for rapid reduction of suicide rates, as opposed to being applied as a treatment of last resort. However, only ~0.092 of every 10000 members of the Korean general population received ECT in 2018; this is much lower than the average rate worldwide, of 2.2 per 10000. Elimination of obstacles to the use of ECT, early crisis intervention involving administration of ECT for rapid stabilization, and maintenance ECT to prevent recurrence should reduce suicide rates.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894050

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#ZZIn electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) research and practice, the precise determination of seizure duration is importantin the evaluation of clinical relevance of the ECT-induced seizure. In this study, we have developed computerized algorithms to assessthe duration of ECT-induced seizure. @*Methods@#ZZSubjects included 5 males and 6 females, with the mean age of 33.1 years. Total 55 ECT sessions were included in theanalysis. We analyzed the standard deviation of a finite block of electroencephalography (EEG) data and the change in the local slope ofRR intervals in electrocardiography (ECG) signals during ECT-induced seizure. And then, we compared the calculated seizure durationsfrom EEG recording (EEG algorithm) and ECG recording (ECG algorithm) with values determined by consensus of clinicians basedon the recorded EEG (EEG consensus), as a gold standard criterion, in order to testify the computational validity of our algorithms. @*Results@#ZZThe mean seizure durations calculated by each method were not significantly different in sessions with abrupt flattenedpostictal suppression and in sessions with non-abrupt flattened postictal suppression. The intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidenceinterval) of the three methods (EEG algorithm, ECG algorithm, EEG consensus) were significant in the total sessions [0.79(0.70–0.86)], the abrupt flattened postictal suppression sessions [0.84 (0.74–0.91)], and the non-abrupt flattened postictal suppressionsessions [0.67 (0.45–0.84)]. Correlations between three methods were also statistically significant, regardless of abruptness of transition. @*Conclusions@#ZZOur proposed algorithms could reliably measure the duration of ECT-induced seizure, even in sessions with nonabrupttransitions to flat postictal suppression, in which it is typically difficult to determine the seizure duration.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892370

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The present study investigates the initial seizure threshold (IST) of an ultra-brief pulse width right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (UBP-RUL ECT) in Korean patients with mental disorders to identify its predictive factors for clinical improvement. @*Methods@#This study includes thirty patients who received 0.3-ms UBP-RUL ECT using upward titration to measure IST after the use of general anesthesia and muscle relaxation between December 2015 and June 2020. During the second session, the amount of charge that ranged between 500% to 600% of IST was applied as the stimulus intensity (SI). Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a stepwise variable selection was conducted to identify the relevant predictors of IST. @*Results@#The mean age of study subjects was 49.7±18.3 years, and 12 (40.0%) patients were male. The mean IST and SI were 31.6±17.2 mC and 176.0±98.5 mC, respectively, which did not differ between males and females. The mean scores of the Clinical Global Impression-severity and the Clinical Global Impression-improvement before and after acute ECT were 5.8±0.8 and 2.1±0.7, respectively. The age and anesthetic dose per body weight were significant predictors of IST. However, the IST and SI were not associated with clinical improvement. @*Conclusion@#The present study demonstrated that the IST distribution for UBP-RUL ECT in Korean patients with mental disorders was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age and anesthetic dose.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901762

ABSTRACT

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is indicated for various mental disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder) and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in elderly patients. Furthermore, ECT is a useful first-line treatment in emergency and crisis situations such as suicide risk, violent behavior, catatonia, and food refusal, which are more frequent in elderly patients. ECT is also effective in the treatment of the motor symptoms of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Due to the high risk of various physical diseases, the comorbid physical conditions of elderly patients should be individually controlled to optimize ECT treatment. Compared to young adults, in elderly patients the seizure threshold is higher, the seizure duration is shorter, and the anesthetic dose is lower. On the contrary, the response rate in the elderly is both faster and higher. Considering potential cognitive decline and the prevention of further deterioration of cognitive function in elderly patients, in the absence of significant comorbidities, twice weekly sessions and right unilateral electrode placement with a lower seizure threshold and less cognitive effect are preferred to bilateral electrode placement, which has a high risk of adverse cognitive effects. After an acute course of ECT, continuation and maintenance of ECT, combined with prescription of therapeutic drugs, may prevent possible relapse or recurrence of mental disorders. In conclusion, ECT can be used to treat mental disorders in elderly adults, with safety and effectiveness comparable to that in young adults.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901760

ABSTRACT

Suicidality is the most serious complication of mood disorders and psychosis; effective treatment should reduce suicide rates. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development age-standardized suicide rate in Korea was 22.6 in 2018, much higher compared to other countries worldwide. As mental and psychiatric problems are the main reasons for suicide attempts, accounting for 31.6% in 2018, targeting such problems should be the focus of efforts to reduce suicide rates. However, the ability of current pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce suicide rates is limited due to their delayed effects. Therefore, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been proposed as an alternative treatment. This approach is effective for treating most mental disorders associated with high suicide rates, including severe depression, bipolar disorder, and intractable psychotic disorders; ECT is also effective for Parkinson’s disease, which has the highest suicide rate among all disorders in Korea. The acute, long-term, and prophylactic effects of ECT on suicidality have been reported in the literature, and treatment guidelines outside of Korea recommend that ECT be used at an early stage for rapid reduction of suicide rates, as opposed to being applied as a treatment of last resort. However, only ~0.092 of every 10000 members of the Korean general population received ECT in 2018; this is much lower than the average rate worldwide, of 2.2 per 10000. Elimination of obstacles to the use of ECT, early crisis intervention involving administration of ECT for rapid stabilization, and maintenance ECT to prevent recurrence should reduce suicide rates.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901754

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#ZZIn electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) research and practice, the precise determination of seizure duration is importantin the evaluation of clinical relevance of the ECT-induced seizure. In this study, we have developed computerized algorithms to assessthe duration of ECT-induced seizure. @*Methods@#ZZSubjects included 5 males and 6 females, with the mean age of 33.1 years. Total 55 ECT sessions were included in theanalysis. We analyzed the standard deviation of a finite block of electroencephalography (EEG) data and the change in the local slope ofRR intervals in electrocardiography (ECG) signals during ECT-induced seizure. And then, we compared the calculated seizure durationsfrom EEG recording (EEG algorithm) and ECG recording (ECG algorithm) with values determined by consensus of clinicians basedon the recorded EEG (EEG consensus), as a gold standard criterion, in order to testify the computational validity of our algorithms. @*Results@#ZZThe mean seizure durations calculated by each method were not significantly different in sessions with abrupt flattenedpostictal suppression and in sessions with non-abrupt flattened postictal suppression. The intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidenceinterval) of the three methods (EEG algorithm, ECG algorithm, EEG consensus) were significant in the total sessions [0.79(0.70–0.86)], the abrupt flattened postictal suppression sessions [0.84 (0.74–0.91)], and the non-abrupt flattened postictal suppressionsessions [0.67 (0.45–0.84)]. Correlations between three methods were also statistically significant, regardless of abruptness of transition. @*Conclusions@#ZZOur proposed algorithms could reliably measure the duration of ECT-induced seizure, even in sessions with nonabrupttransitions to flat postictal suppression, in which it is typically difficult to determine the seizure duration.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900074

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The present study investigates the initial seizure threshold (IST) of an ultra-brief pulse width right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (UBP-RUL ECT) in Korean patients with mental disorders to identify its predictive factors for clinical improvement. @*Methods@#This study includes thirty patients who received 0.3-ms UBP-RUL ECT using upward titration to measure IST after the use of general anesthesia and muscle relaxation between December 2015 and June 2020. During the second session, the amount of charge that ranged between 500% to 600% of IST was applied as the stimulus intensity (SI). Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a stepwise variable selection was conducted to identify the relevant predictors of IST. @*Results@#The mean age of study subjects was 49.7±18.3 years, and 12 (40.0%) patients were male. The mean IST and SI were 31.6±17.2 mC and 176.0±98.5 mC, respectively, which did not differ between males and females. The mean scores of the Clinical Global Impression-severity and the Clinical Global Impression-improvement before and after acute ECT were 5.8±0.8 and 2.1±0.7, respectively. The age and anesthetic dose per body weight were significant predictors of IST. However, the IST and SI were not associated with clinical improvement. @*Conclusion@#The present study demonstrated that the IST distribution for UBP-RUL ECT in Korean patients with mental disorders was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age and anesthetic dose.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing with a direct metal fabrication (DMF) technology has been innovatively introduced in the field of surface treatment of prostheses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such modifications on the surface of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy by titanium powder coating using DMF improves the osseointegration ability of CoCr alloy. METHODS: We compared the in vitro and in vivo ability of cells to adhere to DMF-coated CoCr alloy with machining. Biological and morphological responses to human osteoblast cell lines were examined by measuring cell proliferation rate and observing expression of actin filament. For in vivo study, we inserted different specimens in each medulla of the distal femurs of rabbit. After 3 months, the distal femurs were harvested, and a push-out test and histomorphometric analyses were performed. RESULTS: The cell proliferation rate and cell adhesion in the DMF group were higher compared with those in the machined group. Human osteoblast cells on the DMF-coated surface were more strongly adhered and well-proliferated compared with those on the other surface. In the in vivo test, there was a significant difference in the ultimate shear strength between the DMF and machined groups (2.49 MPa vs. 0.87 MPa, respectively, p = 0.001). In the histomorphometric analysis, there was a significant difference in the mean bone-to-implant contact percentages between the DMF and machined groups (72.3 ± 6.2% vs. 47.6 ± 6.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Titanium coating of CoCr alloy with 3D metal printing provides optimal surface characteristics and a good biological surface both in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Alloys , Cell Adhesion , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Femur , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Osseointegration , Osteoblasts , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prostheses and Implants , Shear Strength , Titanium
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the treatment of schizophrenia, treatment compliance is an important prognostic factor. As insight has a significant impact on treatment compliance, an appropriate assessment of insight is essential in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Birchwood Insight Scale (BIS). METHODS: Fifty seven adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-5 were recruited from a university hospital. They were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), The Scale to Assessment Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) and BIS. Explorative factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the Korean version of BIS. Concurrent validity was evaluated by a comparison with the PANSS G12 item and SUMD. The test-retest correlation was evaluated to examine the test-retest reliability. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the variables affecting insight. RESULTS: Explorative factor analysis showed that the Korean version of BIS was composed of 2 factors, which are ‘Awareness of symptoms’ and ‘Awareness of illness and need for treatment.’ The Korean version of BIS was reliable in terms of the internal consistency. Concurrent validity with the PANSS G 12 item and SUMD was statistically significant. The test-retest reliability was also statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the PANSS negative factor affects the BIS score, indicating that negative symptoms of schizophrenia may impair insight of the illness. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Korean version of BIS is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the insight of patients with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Compliance , Humans , Mental Disorders , Psychopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 704-712, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to report the initial seizure threshold (IST) of a brief-pulse bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (BP-BL ECT) in Korean patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and to identify IST predictors. METHODS: Among 67 patients who received ECT and diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, we included 56 patients who received 1-millisecond BP-BL ECT after anesthesia with sodium thiopental between March 2012 and June 2018. Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of the IST. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 36.9±12.0 years and 30 (53.6%) patients were male. The mean and median IST were 105.9±54.5 and 96 millicoulombs (mC), respectively. The IST was predicted by age, gender, and dose (mg/kg) of sodium thiopental. Other physical and clinical variables were not associated with the IST. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the IST of 1-ms BP-BL ECT following sodium thiopental anesthesia in Korean patients was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age, gender, and dose of sodium thiopental.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Seizures , Sodium , Thiopental
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 403-406, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760932

ABSTRACT

This study explored long-term changes in self-report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) among patients with schizophrenia taking clozapine. Forty-four patients who were evaluated more than twice and were above the mild severity category on the Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) were enrolled. The mean observation period was 492.5±350.1 days (median, 452 days). The mean total, physical, and emotional factor scores on the HPSVQ were significantly reduced from baseline to the final observations except for one item “interference with life,” which was not significantly reduced. Regarding the time-dependent longitudinal changes modeled using linear mixed-effect regression, the total and physical factor scores showed significant changes during the first year, but the emotional factor score did not satisfy a more stringent level of significance. Female gender was negatively associated with the reduction in total and physical factor scores. The duration of treatment with clozapine also had a negative relationship with the reductions in all three scores.


Subject(s)
Clozapine , Female , Hallucinations , Humans , Schizophrenia , Voice
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738904

ABSTRACT

During antipsychotic drug treatment, clinicians occasionally encounter sudden attacks of oculogyric crisis (OGC) and/or paroxysmal perceptual alteration (PPA) which occur mostly in the afternoon or early evening lasting for minutes to hours and are eventually remitted with rests or short sleep and/or medications such as benzodiazepines, anticholinergics and so forth. Moreover, these attacks are usually accompanied with psychiatric symptoms such as various modalities of hallucinations and illusions, delusions, obsessive thoughts, panic attacks, agitation as well as autonomic symptoms. These accompanying psychiatric symptoms can be perceived as a worsening of psychiatric symptoms if the clinician does not understand the symptoms due to the side effects of antipsychotic drugs, which may result in increasing the dosage of antipsychotics instead of reducing doses or switching to less offending drugs. On the other hand, patients could easily recognize the symptoms as the adverse effects of drugs. This literature review and case-series study is aimed to raise awareness of OGC and PPA by providing clinical cases and author's views with the literature reviews about concepts, recognitions and managements from the works of Japanese authors who first reported the clinical importance of these attacks, particularly PPA.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Asians , Benzodiazepines , Cholinergic Antagonists , Delusions , Dihydroergotamine , Hallucinations , Hand , Humans , Illusions , Panic Disorder , Schizophrenia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718572

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Presenilins are functionally important components of γ-secretase, which cleaves a number of transmembrane proteins. Manipulations of PSEN1 and PSEN2 have been separately studied in Alzheimer disease (AD) and cancer because both involve substrates of γ-secretase. However, numerous clinical studies have reported an inverse correlation between AD and cancer. Interestingly, AD is a neurodegenerative disorder, whereas cancer is characterized by the proliferation of malignant cells. However, this inverse correlation in the PSEN double-knockout (PSEN dKO) mouse model of AD has been not elucidated, although doing so would shed light onto the relationship between AD and cancer. METHODS: To investigate the inverse relationship of AD and cancer under conditions of PSEN loss, we used the hippocampus of 7-month-old and 18-month-old PSEN dKO mice for a microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis, and explored the tumorsuppressive or oncogenic role of differentially-expressed miRNAs. RESULTS: The total number of miRNAs that showed changes in expression level was greater at 18 months of age than at 7 months. Most of the putative target genes of the differentially-expressed miRNAs involved Cancer pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Based on literature reviews, many of the miRNAs involved in Cancer pathways were found to be known tumorsuppressive miRNAs, and their target genes were known or putative oncogenes. In conclusion, the expression levels of known tumor-suppressive miRNAs increased at 7 and 18 months, in the PSEN dKO mouse model of AD, supporting the negative correlation between AD and cancer.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Hippocampus , Humans , Infant , Mice , Microarray Analysis , MicroRNAs , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Oncogenes , Presenilins
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 717-726, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715599

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for mood disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested the important role of circadian genes in mood disorders. However, the effects of ECT on circadian genes have not been systemically investigated. METHODS: We examined the expression and daily oscillation of major circadian genes in the rat frontal cortex after electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). RESULTS: Firstly, mRNA and protein level were investigated at 24 hr after single ECS (E1X) and repeated ECS treatements for 10 days (E10X), which showed more remarkable changes after E10X than E1X. mRNA expression of Rorα, Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Cry1 was decreased, while Rev-erbα expression was increased at 24 hr after E10X compared to sham. The proteins showed similar pattern of changes. Next, the effects on oscillation and rhythm properties (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) were examined, which also showed more prominent changes after E10X than E1X. After E10X, mesor of Rorα, Bmal1, and Cry1 was reduced, and that of Rev-erbα was increased. Five genes, Rev-erbα, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, and Cry2, showed earlier acrophase after E10X. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that repeated ECS induces reduced expression and phase advance of major circadian genes in the in vivo rat frontal cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Frontal Lobe , Mood Disorders , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Seizures
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