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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 273-283, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968558

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) is a potent treatment modality for various neuropsychiatric diseases, including Parkinson disease (PD). Recent animal studies showed that repeated ECS activates autophagy signaling, the impairment of which is known to be involved in PD. However, the effectiveness of ECS on PD and its therapeutic mechanisms have not yet been investigated in detail. @*Methods@#Systemic injection of a neurotoxin 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP), which destroys dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc), in mice was utilized to induce an animal model of PD. Mice were treated with ECS 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Behavioral changes were measured with a rotarod test. Molecular changes related to autophagy signaling in midbrain including SNc, striatum, and prefrontal cortex were analyzed with immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses. @*Results@#Repeated ECS treatments normalized the motor deficits and the loss of dopamiergic neurons in SNc of the MPTP PD mouse model. In the mouse model, LC3-II, an autophagy marker, was increased in midbrain while decreased in prefrontal cortex, both of which were reversed by repeated ECS treatments. In the prefrontal cortex, ECS-induced LC3-II increase was accompanied with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-Unc-51-like kinase 1-Beclin1 pathway activation and inhibition of mamalian target of rapamycin signaling which promotes autophagy initiation. @*Conclusion@#The findings revealed the therapeutic effects of repeated ECS treatments on PD, which could be attributed to the neuroprotective effect of ECS mediated by AMPK-autophagy signaling.

2.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 1-20, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967494

ABSTRACT

Benzodiazepines have been widely used as anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, or central muscle relaxants since the 1960s despite significant adverse effects, the potential for misuse, and consequent overdose. Benzodiazepines exert their pharmacological action by binding to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors in the brain and facilitateing the inhibitory actions of the neurotransmitter GABA. Recent findings have also elucidated the effects of benzodiazepines on the allosteric modulation of GABA-A receptors, including receptor subtypes and transmembrane proteins, which is a significant step in our understanding of GABA pharmacology. In clinical practice, the use of benzodiazepines to treat psychiatric disorders has been limited due to the challenges associated with the long-term use, namely the risks of abuse, misuse, and overdose, as well as withdrawal effects. Furthermore, the approval of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for anxiety disorders has led to their extensive use as a first-line pharmacological option and they have also been promoted in various practice guidelines for the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, although recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that benzodiazepines are useful and effective drugs for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, debates over the clinical use of benzodiazepines continue. More than 60 years after the introduction of benzodiazepines in clinical practice, it is necessary to revisit the controversies associated with benzodiazepine use and to update the discussion current approach to practice with thethrough an understanding of the new data on their pharmacological actions and to identify appropriate indications according to the new diagnostic systems of psychiatric disorders through an extensive literature review.

3.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 21-45, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967493

ABSTRACT

Clonazepam, a 7-nitrobenzodiazepine, has been used for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders such as seizures, sleep disorders, panic disorders, anxiety, and movement disorders. However, clonazepam is officially approved as a therapeutic drug only for epilepsy and panic disorders in Korea. This raises ethical issues in clinical practice, as clonazepam is prescribed off-label for most neuropsychiatric disorders in many other countries as well. The misuse and abuse of clonazepam as a recreational drug have also been commonly reported in global literature. In this review, as a therapeutic drug as the authors aim to highlight the pharmacological aspects, clinical effects, and potential addictive risks of clonazepam use, by reviewing the current literature on clonazepam to increase its clinical use by accurately understanding and identifying its psychopharmacological benefits and characteristics. However, establishing the risk/benefit ratio of clonazepam for use in specific clinical situations is difficult because of the lack of adequate updated data. Therefore, the use of clonazepam needs to be approached from the point of view of personalized drug treatment rather than following fixed guidelines which would not reflect the current real-world clinical practices.

4.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 180-189, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002975

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prevalence of GERD and treatment costs are continuously rising in Korea, and the importance of primary health care clinics where the most treatment of actual patients is conducted is increasing. In this study, the diagnosis of GERD, selection of therapeutic drugs, and treatment methods in primary health care clininics were investigated through a large-scale multi-dimensional surveys. @*Methods@#From January 2015 to December 2018, the study data of 18,010 patients with GERD were retrospectively investigated based on eletronic medical record at 542 primary health care clinics in Korea. @*Results@#Among all GERD patients, endoscopy was used for diagnosis in 16.11% of cases, and the most frequently performed in gastroenterology department (28.85%). The average BMI and the proportion of patients in stages 1 to 3 of obesity were highest in the ERD group, and the majority of the severity of ERD group was mild. Symptoms of the patients with GERD were mainly heartburn, gastric acid reflux, and chest pain. Drug treatment was performed in most of the patients with GERD, and PPI was the main drug, and Esomeprazol was prescribed the most among the main ingredients, and the ratio of PPI alone was high. The rate of symptom improvement after GERD treatment was slightly higher in the ERD group (75.91%) and the NERD group (74.36%) than in the GERD diagnosed without endoscopy group (63.89%). @*Conclusions@#In domestic primary health care clinics, the majority were diagnosed with GERD without endoscopy on the basis of symptoms. The most preferred treatment for GERD was PPI, which was prescribed alone in the majority.

5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 135-142, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900088

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined the satisfaction of patients who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy to provide important information for improving the social misunderstanding about electroconvulsive therapy, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, and make a decision of effective treatment. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction, adverse effects, attitudes, and experiences toward electroconvulsive therapy in patients at 2 to 4 weeks after finishing an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy in three psychiatric hospitals. @*Results@#There were 85 respondents (38 males), whose average age was 42.0±13.6 years and average illness duration was 12.8±8.9 years. Fifty-two patients (61.2%), 19 (22.4%), 8 (9.4%), and 6 (7.1%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders, respectively. The average session number for acute electroconvulsive therapy was 12.6±6.0 sessions, and 61 patients (71.8%) had received maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Among the respondents, 60.0% reported that they were satisfied with the electroconvulsive therapy. Satisfaction was similar according to sex, age, diagnosis, electrode placement, and use of anesthetic agents. Forty-three (53.8%) patients experienced memory impairment during acute electroconvulsive therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were generally satisfied with the treatment and that memory impairment should be detected early and managed promptly. Follow-up studies with a large number of subjects and variables will be needed to determine the predictive factors affecting satisfaction toward electroconvulsive therapy.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 411-422, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897899

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of the healthcare system. Apart from the issues surrounding COVID-19 itself, care for existing patients has met many challenges. One such challenge is caring for patients who are on clozapine treatment and have been confirmed positive for COVID-19. Schizophrenia has been considered to have a deep connection with the immune system, and clozapine can induce further changes in this system. COVID-19 can ravage the compromised immune system and aggravate tissue damage. The intricate relations between schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 make it difficult to predict the clinical course of COVID-19 in clozapine-treated patients. However, the rigid prohibition on using clozapine if COVID-19 is confirmed may harm patients. Patients who have to use clozapine are often refractory cases with no alternatives. Therefore, the decision to maintain or stop clozapine must be made after a comprehensive review of the patient’s unique situation. To do this, theoretical and practical issues surrounding the use of clozapine in COVID-19 should be reviewed and discussed. In this review, we gather useful information surrounding this issue and present an overview. Focusing on the immune system, various theoretical possibilities that could arise from schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 were carefully examined, and practical checklists for the care of these patients were explored. It is hoped that this review will convince many clinicians to pay attention to this momentous issue and facilitate more active sharing of clinical experiences.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 170-173, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874481

ABSTRACT

A 32-year-old woman with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), which caused continuous suicidal thoughts and depression, was treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) of an acute course followed by maintenance ECT (M-ECT) augmented onto clozapine for 7 years. Although the general psychopathology and AVHs initially reduced slightly with ECT and clozapine, her AVHs and suicidal thoughts did not decrease subjectively. When 3 years of M-ECT, her voices declined sharply, and improvement was maintained for 2 years thereafter. A total 91 ECT sessions were performed. The daily clozapine dose was decreased from 325 to 200 mg and plasma levels remained higher than 350 ng/ml; there were no noticeable cognitive side effects. In summary, we report a case showing a sudden sharp reduction in persistent AVHs after 3 years of long-term M-ECT.

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 411-422, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890195

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of the healthcare system. Apart from the issues surrounding COVID-19 itself, care for existing patients has met many challenges. One such challenge is caring for patients who are on clozapine treatment and have been confirmed positive for COVID-19. Schizophrenia has been considered to have a deep connection with the immune system, and clozapine can induce further changes in this system. COVID-19 can ravage the compromised immune system and aggravate tissue damage. The intricate relations between schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 make it difficult to predict the clinical course of COVID-19 in clozapine-treated patients. However, the rigid prohibition on using clozapine if COVID-19 is confirmed may harm patients. Patients who have to use clozapine are often refractory cases with no alternatives. Therefore, the decision to maintain or stop clozapine must be made after a comprehensive review of the patient’s unique situation. To do this, theoretical and practical issues surrounding the use of clozapine in COVID-19 should be reviewed and discussed. In this review, we gather useful information surrounding this issue and present an overview. Focusing on the immune system, various theoretical possibilities that could arise from schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 were carefully examined, and practical checklists for the care of these patients were explored. It is hoped that this review will convince many clinicians to pay attention to this momentous issue and facilitate more active sharing of clinical experiences.

9.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 135-142, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892384

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined the satisfaction of patients who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy to provide important information for improving the social misunderstanding about electroconvulsive therapy, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, and make a decision of effective treatment. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction, adverse effects, attitudes, and experiences toward electroconvulsive therapy in patients at 2 to 4 weeks after finishing an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy in three psychiatric hospitals. @*Results@#There were 85 respondents (38 males), whose average age was 42.0±13.6 years and average illness duration was 12.8±8.9 years. Fifty-two patients (61.2%), 19 (22.4%), 8 (9.4%), and 6 (7.1%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders, respectively. The average session number for acute electroconvulsive therapy was 12.6±6.0 sessions, and 61 patients (71.8%) had received maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Among the respondents, 60.0% reported that they were satisfied with the electroconvulsive therapy. Satisfaction was similar according to sex, age, diagnosis, electrode placement, and use of anesthetic agents. Forty-three (53.8%) patients experienced memory impairment during acute electroconvulsive therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were generally satisfied with the treatment and that memory impairment should be detected early and managed promptly. Follow-up studies with a large number of subjects and variables will be needed to determine the predictive factors affecting satisfaction toward electroconvulsive therapy.

10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 42-57, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901762

ABSTRACT

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is indicated for various mental disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder) and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in elderly patients. Furthermore, ECT is a useful first-line treatment in emergency and crisis situations such as suicide risk, violent behavior, catatonia, and food refusal, which are more frequent in elderly patients. ECT is also effective in the treatment of the motor symptoms of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Due to the high risk of various physical diseases, the comorbid physical conditions of elderly patients should be individually controlled to optimize ECT treatment. Compared to young adults, in elderly patients the seizure threshold is higher, the seizure duration is shorter, and the anesthetic dose is lower. On the contrary, the response rate in the elderly is both faster and higher. Considering potential cognitive decline and the prevention of further deterioration of cognitive function in elderly patients, in the absence of significant comorbidities, twice weekly sessions and right unilateral electrode placement with a lower seizure threshold and less cognitive effect are preferred to bilateral electrode placement, which has a high risk of adverse cognitive effects. After an acute course of ECT, continuation and maintenance of ECT, combined with prescription of therapeutic drugs, may prevent possible relapse or recurrence of mental disorders. In conclusion, ECT can be used to treat mental disorders in elderly adults, with safety and effectiveness comparable to that in young adults.

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 64-73, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901760

ABSTRACT

Suicidality is the most serious complication of mood disorders and psychosis; effective treatment should reduce suicide rates. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development age-standardized suicide rate in Korea was 22.6 in 2018, much higher compared to other countries worldwide. As mental and psychiatric problems are the main reasons for suicide attempts, accounting for 31.6% in 2018, targeting such problems should be the focus of efforts to reduce suicide rates. However, the ability of current pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce suicide rates is limited due to their delayed effects. Therefore, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been proposed as an alternative treatment. This approach is effective for treating most mental disorders associated with high suicide rates, including severe depression, bipolar disorder, and intractable psychotic disorders; ECT is also effective for Parkinson’s disease, which has the highest suicide rate among all disorders in Korea. The acute, long-term, and prophylactic effects of ECT on suicidality have been reported in the literature, and treatment guidelines outside of Korea recommend that ECT be used at an early stage for rapid reduction of suicide rates, as opposed to being applied as a treatment of last resort. However, only ~0.092 of every 10000 members of the Korean general population received ECT in 2018; this is much lower than the average rate worldwide, of 2.2 per 10000. Elimination of obstacles to the use of ECT, early crisis intervention involving administration of ECT for rapid stabilization, and maintenance ECT to prevent recurrence should reduce suicide rates.

12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901754

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#ZZIn electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) research and practice, the precise determination of seizure duration is importantin the evaluation of clinical relevance of the ECT-induced seizure. In this study, we have developed computerized algorithms to assessthe duration of ECT-induced seizure. @*Methods@#ZZSubjects included 5 males and 6 females, with the mean age of 33.1 years. Total 55 ECT sessions were included in theanalysis. We analyzed the standard deviation of a finite block of electroencephalography (EEG) data and the change in the local slope ofRR intervals in electrocardiography (ECG) signals during ECT-induced seizure. And then, we compared the calculated seizure durationsfrom EEG recording (EEG algorithm) and ECG recording (ECG algorithm) with values determined by consensus of clinicians basedon the recorded EEG (EEG consensus), as a gold standard criterion, in order to testify the computational validity of our algorithms. @*Results@#ZZThe mean seizure durations calculated by each method were not significantly different in sessions with abrupt flattenedpostictal suppression and in sessions with non-abrupt flattened postictal suppression. The intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidenceinterval) of the three methods (EEG algorithm, ECG algorithm, EEG consensus) were significant in the total sessions [0.79(0.70–0.86)], the abrupt flattened postictal suppression sessions [0.84 (0.74–0.91)], and the non-abrupt flattened postictal suppressionsessions [0.67 (0.45–0.84)]. Correlations between three methods were also statistically significant, regardless of abruptness of transition. @*Conclusions@#ZZOur proposed algorithms could reliably measure the duration of ECT-induced seizure, even in sessions with nonabrupttransitions to flat postictal suppression, in which it is typically difficult to determine the seizure duration.

13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 311-318, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900074

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The present study investigates the initial seizure threshold (IST) of an ultra-brief pulse width right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (UBP-RUL ECT) in Korean patients with mental disorders to identify its predictive factors for clinical improvement. @*Methods@#This study includes thirty patients who received 0.3-ms UBP-RUL ECT using upward titration to measure IST after the use of general anesthesia and muscle relaxation between December 2015 and June 2020. During the second session, the amount of charge that ranged between 500% to 600% of IST was applied as the stimulus intensity (SI). Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a stepwise variable selection was conducted to identify the relevant predictors of IST. @*Results@#The mean age of study subjects was 49.7±18.3 years, and 12 (40.0%) patients were male. The mean IST and SI were 31.6±17.2 mC and 176.0±98.5 mC, respectively, which did not differ between males and females. The mean scores of the Clinical Global Impression-severity and the Clinical Global Impression-improvement before and after acute ECT were 5.8±0.8 and 2.1±0.7, respectively. The age and anesthetic dose per body weight were significant predictors of IST. However, the IST and SI were not associated with clinical improvement. @*Conclusion@#The present study demonstrated that the IST distribution for UBP-RUL ECT in Korean patients with mental disorders was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age and anesthetic dose.

14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 42-57, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894058

ABSTRACT

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is indicated for various mental disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder) and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in elderly patients. Furthermore, ECT is a useful first-line treatment in emergency and crisis situations such as suicide risk, violent behavior, catatonia, and food refusal, which are more frequent in elderly patients. ECT is also effective in the treatment of the motor symptoms of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Due to the high risk of various physical diseases, the comorbid physical conditions of elderly patients should be individually controlled to optimize ECT treatment. Compared to young adults, in elderly patients the seizure threshold is higher, the seizure duration is shorter, and the anesthetic dose is lower. On the contrary, the response rate in the elderly is both faster and higher. Considering potential cognitive decline and the prevention of further deterioration of cognitive function in elderly patients, in the absence of significant comorbidities, twice weekly sessions and right unilateral electrode placement with a lower seizure threshold and less cognitive effect are preferred to bilateral electrode placement, which has a high risk of adverse cognitive effects. After an acute course of ECT, continuation and maintenance of ECT, combined with prescription of therapeutic drugs, may prevent possible relapse or recurrence of mental disorders. In conclusion, ECT can be used to treat mental disorders in elderly adults, with safety and effectiveness comparable to that in young adults.

15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 64-73, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894056

ABSTRACT

Suicidality is the most serious complication of mood disorders and psychosis; effective treatment should reduce suicide rates. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development age-standardized suicide rate in Korea was 22.6 in 2018, much higher compared to other countries worldwide. As mental and psychiatric problems are the main reasons for suicide attempts, accounting for 31.6% in 2018, targeting such problems should be the focus of efforts to reduce suicide rates. However, the ability of current pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce suicide rates is limited due to their delayed effects. Therefore, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been proposed as an alternative treatment. This approach is effective for treating most mental disorders associated with high suicide rates, including severe depression, bipolar disorder, and intractable psychotic disorders; ECT is also effective for Parkinson’s disease, which has the highest suicide rate among all disorders in Korea. The acute, long-term, and prophylactic effects of ECT on suicidality have been reported in the literature, and treatment guidelines outside of Korea recommend that ECT be used at an early stage for rapid reduction of suicide rates, as opposed to being applied as a treatment of last resort. However, only ~0.092 of every 10000 members of the Korean general population received ECT in 2018; this is much lower than the average rate worldwide, of 2.2 per 10000. Elimination of obstacles to the use of ECT, early crisis intervention involving administration of ECT for rapid stabilization, and maintenance ECT to prevent recurrence should reduce suicide rates.

16.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894050

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#ZZIn electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) research and practice, the precise determination of seizure duration is importantin the evaluation of clinical relevance of the ECT-induced seizure. In this study, we have developed computerized algorithms to assessthe duration of ECT-induced seizure. @*Methods@#ZZSubjects included 5 males and 6 females, with the mean age of 33.1 years. Total 55 ECT sessions were included in theanalysis. We analyzed the standard deviation of a finite block of electroencephalography (EEG) data and the change in the local slope ofRR intervals in electrocardiography (ECG) signals during ECT-induced seizure. And then, we compared the calculated seizure durationsfrom EEG recording (EEG algorithm) and ECG recording (ECG algorithm) with values determined by consensus of clinicians basedon the recorded EEG (EEG consensus), as a gold standard criterion, in order to testify the computational validity of our algorithms. @*Results@#ZZThe mean seizure durations calculated by each method were not significantly different in sessions with abrupt flattenedpostictal suppression and in sessions with non-abrupt flattened postictal suppression. The intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidenceinterval) of the three methods (EEG algorithm, ECG algorithm, EEG consensus) were significant in the total sessions [0.79(0.70–0.86)], the abrupt flattened postictal suppression sessions [0.84 (0.74–0.91)], and the non-abrupt flattened postictal suppressionsessions [0.67 (0.45–0.84)]. Correlations between three methods were also statistically significant, regardless of abruptness of transition. @*Conclusions@#ZZOur proposed algorithms could reliably measure the duration of ECT-induced seizure, even in sessions with nonabrupttransitions to flat postictal suppression, in which it is typically difficult to determine the seizure duration.

17.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 311-318, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892370

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The present study investigates the initial seizure threshold (IST) of an ultra-brief pulse width right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (UBP-RUL ECT) in Korean patients with mental disorders to identify its predictive factors for clinical improvement. @*Methods@#This study includes thirty patients who received 0.3-ms UBP-RUL ECT using upward titration to measure IST after the use of general anesthesia and muscle relaxation between December 2015 and June 2020. During the second session, the amount of charge that ranged between 500% to 600% of IST was applied as the stimulus intensity (SI). Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a stepwise variable selection was conducted to identify the relevant predictors of IST. @*Results@#The mean age of study subjects was 49.7±18.3 years, and 12 (40.0%) patients were male. The mean IST and SI were 31.6±17.2 mC and 176.0±98.5 mC, respectively, which did not differ between males and females. The mean scores of the Clinical Global Impression-severity and the Clinical Global Impression-improvement before and after acute ECT were 5.8±0.8 and 2.1±0.7, respectively. The age and anesthetic dose per body weight were significant predictors of IST. However, the IST and SI were not associated with clinical improvement. @*Conclusion@#The present study demonstrated that the IST distribution for UBP-RUL ECT in Korean patients with mental disorders was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age and anesthetic dose.

18.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 11-18, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing with a direct metal fabrication (DMF) technology has been innovatively introduced in the field of surface treatment of prostheses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such modifications on the surface of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy by titanium powder coating using DMF improves the osseointegration ability of CoCr alloy. METHODS: We compared the in vitro and in vivo ability of cells to adhere to DMF-coated CoCr alloy with machining. Biological and morphological responses to human osteoblast cell lines were examined by measuring cell proliferation rate and observing expression of actin filament. For in vivo study, we inserted different specimens in each medulla of the distal femurs of rabbit. After 3 months, the distal femurs were harvested, and a push-out test and histomorphometric analyses were performed. RESULTS: The cell proliferation rate and cell adhesion in the DMF group were higher compared with those in the machined group. Human osteoblast cells on the DMF-coated surface were more strongly adhered and well-proliferated compared with those on the other surface. In the in vivo test, there was a significant difference in the ultimate shear strength between the DMF and machined groups (2.49 MPa vs. 0.87 MPa, respectively, p = 0.001). In the histomorphometric analysis, there was a significant difference in the mean bone-to-implant contact percentages between the DMF and machined groups (72.3 ± 6.2% vs. 47.6 ± 6.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Titanium coating of CoCr alloy with 3D metal printing provides optimal surface characteristics and a good biological surface both in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actin Cytoskeleton , Alloys , Cell Adhesion , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Femur , In Vitro Techniques , Osseointegration , Osteoblasts , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prostheses and Implants , Shear Strength , Titanium
19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 55-63, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the treatment of schizophrenia, treatment compliance is an important prognostic factor. As insight has a significant impact on treatment compliance, an appropriate assessment of insight is essential in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Birchwood Insight Scale (BIS). METHODS: Fifty seven adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-5 were recruited from a university hospital. They were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), The Scale to Assessment Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) and BIS. Explorative factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the Korean version of BIS. Concurrent validity was evaluated by a comparison with the PANSS G12 item and SUMD. The test-retest correlation was evaluated to examine the test-retest reliability. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the variables affecting insight. RESULTS: Explorative factor analysis showed that the Korean version of BIS was composed of 2 factors, which are ‘Awareness of symptoms’ and ‘Awareness of illness and need for treatment.’ The Korean version of BIS was reliable in terms of the internal consistency. Concurrent validity with the PANSS G 12 item and SUMD was statistically significant. The test-retest reliability was also statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the PANSS negative factor affects the BIS score, indicating that negative symptoms of schizophrenia may impair insight of the illness. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Korean version of BIS is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the insight of patients with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Compliance , Mental Disorders , Psychopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 704-712, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to report the initial seizure threshold (IST) of a brief-pulse bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (BP-BL ECT) in Korean patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and to identify IST predictors. METHODS: Among 67 patients who received ECT and diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, we included 56 patients who received 1-millisecond BP-BL ECT after anesthesia with sodium thiopental between March 2012 and June 2018. Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of the IST. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 36.9±12.0 years and 30 (53.6%) patients were male. The mean and median IST were 105.9±54.5 and 96 millicoulombs (mC), respectively. The IST was predicted by age, gender, and dose (mg/kg) of sodium thiopental. Other physical and clinical variables were not associated with the IST. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the IST of 1-ms BP-BL ECT following sodium thiopental anesthesia in Korean patients was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age, gender, and dose of sodium thiopental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anesthesia , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Electronic Health Records , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Seizures , Sodium , Thiopental
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