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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875427

ABSTRACT

Men and women are different, but this difference has not been well reflected in clinical trials and preclinical studies of biomedical science. Gender medicine, which systematically analyzes research results according to sex and gender, has been emphasized to overcome this problem. On the other hand, researchers still have difficulty in applying gender medicine to their research. To perform rigorous gender medicine, using correct terms, a thorough literature review during research planning, appropriate statistical analysis and reporting, and cautious interpretation of the results are necessary. Applying gender medicine will increase the reproducibility of studies, promote discoveries, expand the study relevance, and ultimately improve patient care in both men and women. Here, this study reviewed the practical issues on applying gender medicine to both preclinical and clinical studies in the field of biomedical science.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastroparesis is identified as a subject that is understudied in Asia. The scientific committee of the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association performed a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey on gastroparesis among doctors in Asia. @*Methods@#The questionnaire was created and developed through a literature review of current gastroparesis works of literature by the scientific committee of Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association. @*Results@#A total of 490 doctors from across Asia (including Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) participated in the survey. Gastroparesis is a significant gastrointestinal condition. However, a substantial proportion of respondents was unable to give the correct definition and accurate diagnostic test. The main reason for lack of interest in diagnosing gastroparesis was “the lack of reliable diagnostic tests” (46.8%) or “a lack of effective treatment” (41.5%). Only 41.7% of respondents had access to gastric emptying scintigraphy. Most doctors had never diagnosed gastroparesis at all (25.2%) or diagnosed fewer than 5 patients a year (52.1%). @*Conclusions@#Gastroparesis can be challenging to diagnose due to the lack of instrument, standardized method, and paucity of research data on normative value, risk factors, and treatment studies in Asian patients. Future strategies should concentrate on how to disseminate the latest knowledge of gastroparesis in Asia. In particular, there is an urgent need to estimate the magnitude of the problems in high risk and idiopathic patients as well as a standardized diagnostic procedure in Asia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874858

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples.The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging. @*Methods@#Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology.Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate—acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase—were not predicted by PICRUSt. @*Conclusions@#Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats.Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 253-261, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874593

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to characterize the changes in the gut microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to investigate the consequent alterations in bacterial functions. @*Methods@#We performed 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing and a phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analyses using fecal samples from control (n=12) and diarrhea-dominant IBS patients (n=7). @*Results@#The samples were clustered by the principal coordinates analysis depending on the presence of IBS (p=0.003). In the IBS patients, the abundances of Acidaminococcaceae, Sutterellaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae were significantly increased, while those of Enterococcaceae, Leuconostocaceae, Clostridiaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased. The PICRUSt results indicated that two orthologues involved in secondary bile acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased in IBS patients. Modules involved in multidrug resistance, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, the reductive citrate cycle, and the citrate cycle were significantly increased in the IBS patients. In contrast, modules involved in cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, and some transport systems were more abundant in controls than in IBS patients. @*Conclusions@#Changes in the gut microbiota composition in IBS patients lead to alterations in bacterial functions, such as bile acid transformation and the induction of inflammation, which is a known pathophysiological mechanism of IBS.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 537-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890741

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. @*Methods@#The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. @*Results@#In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB;however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB. @*Conclusions@#Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea.

6.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 403-417, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914976

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Owing to differences in the general characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) according to histological type, the association of GC risk factors, such as diet, may also differ depending on the histological type. We investigated the associations between individual and combined intake of soy products, vegetables, and dairy products and GC mortality by following up cases of death among Korean GC cases and whether these associations differ according to the histological type. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 508 GC cases were enrolled from two hospitals between 2002 and 2006. Their survival or death was prospectively followed up until December 31, 2016, through a review of medical records and telephonic surveys. Finally, 300 GC cases classified as intestinal- or diffuse-type GC cases were included. The median follow-up period was 7.1 years. @*Results@#In the fully adjusted model, a high intake of soy products (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19–0.96) and the combination of soy products and vegetables (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12–0.96) or soy products and dairy products (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14–0.98) decreased the mortality from intestinal-type GC. In particular, patients consuming various potentially protective foods (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06–0.83) showed a highly significant association with a lower mortality from intestinal-type GC. However, no significant association was found with diffuse-type GC. @*Conclusions@#High intake of potentially protective foods, including soy products, vegetables, and dairy products, may help increase survival in intestinal-type GC.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903651

ABSTRACT

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has contributed to the treatment of peptic ulcers and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Moreover, it has possibly decreased the prevalence of gastric cancer. However, eradication therapy is associated with various adverse effects, of which diarrhea is the most common. The incidence of diarrhea after eradication treatment varies from 8% to 48%. In particular, the incidence is higher in patients who receive first-line standard triple therapy compared with those who receive second-line therapy. Both antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, components of eradication therapy, have short-term and long-term impacts on gut microbiota. The alterations of gut microbiota may not recover until 1 year after eradication therapy. Most cases of diarrhea that occur after eradication therapy are antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by the destruction of the normal gut microbiota. In some cases, Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea occurs after eradication therapy. If bloody diarrhea occurs after eradication therapy and the Clostridioides difficile toxin is not detected, antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis associated with Klebsiella oxytoca infection should be suspected. It is crucial to explain the possibility of diarrhea before initiating eradication therapy to increase compliance. Furthermore, probiotics may be administered to reduce diarrhea. If severe diarrhea or symptoms other than the usual antibiotic-associated diarrhea occur during or after eradication therapy, antibiotics should be discontinued. In addition, appropriate tests to determine the cause of diarrhea should be performed. This review summarizes the alteration of the gut microbiota, the causes of diarrhea after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, and its management.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903650

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies in healthy humans have reported that the addition of mosapride to acid suppressants resulted in higher intragastric pH than acid suppressant administration alone. We investigated the effect of the addition of mosapride to famotidine on the intragastric pH and gastric emptying rate (GER) in rats. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty male Wistar rats were used in this study. Experimental groups were divided into control, famotidine-only, mosapride-only, and famotidine with mosapride (combination). The first experiment was performed in non-stressed rats. Mosapride was administered by oral gavage 1 hour before the meal, and famotidine was administered just before the meal. The rats were provided with food for 30 minutes. The intragastric pH was measured under isoflurane anesthesia, and the GER was measured after harvesting the stomach. In the stress experiment, rats were exposed to 1-hour restraint stress immediately after mosapride administration and subjected to the same process as in the experiment with the non-stressed rats. @*Results@#The famotidine-only and combination groups showed significantly higher gastric pH levels than the control group in non-stressed (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and stressed (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively) rats. The combination group also showed significantly higher intragastric pH levels than the famotidine-only group in non-stressed (P<0.01) and stressed (P<0.05) rats. Additionally, combination groups showed a significantly higher GER than the famotidine-only group in non-stressed (P<0.001) and stressed (P<0.01) rats. @*Conclusions@#The combination of mosapride with famotidine significantly increased intragastric pH compared to famotidine alone in the non-stressed and stressed rats.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 537-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898445

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. @*Methods@#The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. @*Results@#In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB;however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB. @*Conclusions@#Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895947

ABSTRACT

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has contributed to the treatment of peptic ulcers and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Moreover, it has possibly decreased the prevalence of gastric cancer. However, eradication therapy is associated with various adverse effects, of which diarrhea is the most common. The incidence of diarrhea after eradication treatment varies from 8% to 48%. In particular, the incidence is higher in patients who receive first-line standard triple therapy compared with those who receive second-line therapy. Both antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, components of eradication therapy, have short-term and long-term impacts on gut microbiota. The alterations of gut microbiota may not recover until 1 year after eradication therapy. Most cases of diarrhea that occur after eradication therapy are antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by the destruction of the normal gut microbiota. In some cases, Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea occurs after eradication therapy. If bloody diarrhea occurs after eradication therapy and the Clostridioides difficile toxin is not detected, antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis associated with Klebsiella oxytoca infection should be suspected. It is crucial to explain the possibility of diarrhea before initiating eradication therapy to increase compliance. Furthermore, probiotics may be administered to reduce diarrhea. If severe diarrhea or symptoms other than the usual antibiotic-associated diarrhea occur during or after eradication therapy, antibiotics should be discontinued. In addition, appropriate tests to determine the cause of diarrhea should be performed. This review summarizes the alteration of the gut microbiota, the causes of diarrhea after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, and its management.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895946

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies in healthy humans have reported that the addition of mosapride to acid suppressants resulted in higher intragastric pH than acid suppressant administration alone. We investigated the effect of the addition of mosapride to famotidine on the intragastric pH and gastric emptying rate (GER) in rats. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty male Wistar rats were used in this study. Experimental groups were divided into control, famotidine-only, mosapride-only, and famotidine with mosapride (combination). The first experiment was performed in non-stressed rats. Mosapride was administered by oral gavage 1 hour before the meal, and famotidine was administered just before the meal. The rats were provided with food for 30 minutes. The intragastric pH was measured under isoflurane anesthesia, and the GER was measured after harvesting the stomach. In the stress experiment, rats were exposed to 1-hour restraint stress immediately after mosapride administration and subjected to the same process as in the experiment with the non-stressed rats. @*Results@#The famotidine-only and combination groups showed significantly higher gastric pH levels than the control group in non-stressed (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and stressed (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively) rats. The combination group also showed significantly higher intragastric pH levels than the famotidine-only group in non-stressed (P<0.01) and stressed (P<0.05) rats. Additionally, combination groups showed a significantly higher GER than the famotidine-only group in non-stressed (P<0.001) and stressed (P<0.01) rats. @*Conclusions@#The combination of mosapride with famotidine significantly increased intragastric pH compared to famotidine alone in the non-stressed and stressed rats.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831924

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use on the risk of hipfracture is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPIuse and hip fracture risk using a large cohort. @*Methods@#This study recruited participants from the nationwide cohort (n =1,025,340). After exclusion of participants who had hip fractures or were aged less than 40 years during the baseline period (2002 to 2004), 371,806 participants were followed to 2013. Participants prescribed PPIs for more than 90 days during baseline period were defined as users. Fracture cases were defined when participants were hospitalized with claims of a hip fracture. @*Results@#During 4,159,343 person-years of follow-up, fractures developed more oftenin PPI users than in nonusers (relative risk [RR], 1.787; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.260 to 2.534; p = 0.002). The results persisted after adjusting for age, sex, andmany drugs relevant to osteoporosis or influential in bone health. Furthermore,fracture risk associated with PPI use increased with duration of use ( p trend 180-day users. The positive association between PPI use and fracture was also confirmed in a subgroup with health screening data where further adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity was available (adjusted RR, 2.025; 95% CI, 1.151 to 3.564, p = 0.014). Conclusions: PPI use is associated with hip fracture development.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763815

ABSTRACT

Currently, Illumina sequencers are the globally leading sequencing platform in the next-generation sequencing market. Recently, MGI Tech launched a series of new sequencers, including the MGISEQ-2000, which promise to deliver high-quality sequencing data faster and at lower prices than Illumina’s sequencers. In this study, we compared the performance of two major sequencers (MGISEQ-2000 and HiSeq 4000) to test whether the MGISEQ-2000 sequencer delivers high-quality sequence data as suggested. We performed RNA sequencing of four human colon cancer samples with the two platforms, and compared the sequencing quality and expression values. The data produced from the MGISEQ-2000 and HiSeq 4000 showed high concordance, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 0.99. Various quality control (QC) analyses showed that the MGISEQ-2000 data fulfilled the required QC measures. Our study suggests that the performance of the MGISEQ-2000 is comparable to that of the HiSeq 4000 and that the MGISEQ-2000 can be a useful platform for sequencing.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Colonic Neoplasms , Humans , Quality Control , RNA , Sequence Analysis, RNA
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761578

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota have been known to play an essential role in host immunity and metabolism. Dysbiosis is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) and other diseases such as cancers, metabolic diseases, allergies, and immunological disorders. So far, the role of gut microbiota has been studied mainly in lower GI disease but has recently been reported in upper GI diseases other than Helicobacter pylori infection, including Barrett's esophagus, esophageal carcinoma, gastric cancer, functional dyspepsia, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Probiotics have some beneficial effect on these diseases, but the effects are strain specific.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Barrett Esophagus , Dysbiosis , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Hypersensitivity , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Microbiota , Probiotics , Stomach Neoplasms , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761550

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761533

ABSTRACT

Ischemic colitis primarily affects the elderly with underlying disease, but it rarely occurs in young adults with risk factors, such as coagulopathy or vascular disorder. Moreover, it is extremely rare in the very young without risk factors. This paper presents a patient with ischemic colitis associated with heat stroke and rhabdomyolysis after intense exercise under high-temperature conditions. A 20-year-old man presented with mental deterioration after a vigorous soccer game for more than 30 minutes in sweltering weather. He also presented with hematochezia with abdominal pain. The laboratory tests revealed the following: AST 515 U/L, ALT 269 U/L, creatine kinase 23,181 U/L, BUN 29.1 mg/dL, creatinine 1.55 mg/dL, and red blood cell >50/high-power field in urine analysis. Sigmoidoscopy showed ischemic changes at the rectum and rectosigmoid junction. A diagnosis of ischemic colitis and rhabdomyolysis was made, and the patient recovered after conservative and fluid therapy. This case showed that a diagnosis of ischemic colitis should be considered in patients who present with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea after intense exercise, and appropriate treatment should be initiated immediately.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Aged , Colitis, Ischemic , Creatine Kinase , Creatinine , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Erythrocytes , Fluid Therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Heat Stroke , Hot Temperature , Humans , Rectum , Rhabdomyolysis , Risk Factors , Sigmoidoscopy , Soccer , Weather , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The International Agency for Research on Cancer defined alcohol beverages and acetaldehyde derived from alcoholic beverages as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. However, the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk has been controversial in Korean. We assessed the relationship between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in Korea through a case-control study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From 2 hospitals, a total of 316 cases with gastric cancer (208 men, 108 women) were selected and matched to 316 controls by sex and age (± 5 years) during the same duration. The current status, frequency, and amount of alcohol consumption for a year three years ago were assessed by trained interviewers. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption status and frequency did not show any significant association with gastric cancer risk. However, high alcohol consumption (≥ 20 g/day for women or ≥ 40 g/day for men) significantly increased the risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–2.85). Gastric cancer risk was strongly positively associated with alcohol consumption of ≥ 20 g/day, especially in women (OR 5.62; 95% CI 1.32–23.81). CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that excessive alcohol consumption rather than the current status or frequency of alcohol consumption contributes to the increased risk of gastric cancer, especially in women.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787198

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787181

ABSTRACT

Ischemic colitis primarily affects the elderly with underlying disease, but it rarely occurs in young adults with risk factors, such as coagulopathy or vascular disorder. Moreover, it is extremely rare in the very young without risk factors. This paper presents a patient with ischemic colitis associated with heat stroke and rhabdomyolysis after intense exercise under high-temperature conditions. A 20-year-old man presented with mental deterioration after a vigorous soccer game for more than 30 minutes in sweltering weather. He also presented with hematochezia with abdominal pain. The laboratory tests revealed the following: AST 515 U/L, ALT 269 U/L, creatine kinase 23,181 U/L, BUN 29.1 mg/dL, creatinine 1.55 mg/dL, and red blood cell >50/high-power field in urine analysis. Sigmoidoscopy showed ischemic changes at the rectum and rectosigmoid junction. A diagnosis of ischemic colitis and rhabdomyolysis was made, and the patient recovered after conservative and fluid therapy. This case showed that a diagnosis of ischemic colitis should be considered in patients who present with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea after intense exercise, and appropriate treatment should be initiated immediately.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Aged , Colitis, Ischemic , Creatine Kinase , Creatinine , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Erythrocytes , Fluid Therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Heat Stroke , Hot Temperature , Humans , Rectum , Rhabdomyolysis , Risk Factors , Sigmoidoscopy , Soccer , Weather , Young Adult
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