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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 671-683, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976709

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Even though pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved for refractory soft tissue sarcoma (STS), little is known about the molecular determinants of the response to pazopanib. We performed integrative molecular characterization to identify potential predictors of pazopanib efficacy. @*Materials and Methods@#We obtained fresh pre-treatment tumor tissue from 35 patients with advanced STS receiving pazopanib-based treatment. Among those, 18 (51.4%) received pazopanib monotherapy, and the remaining 17 (48.6%) received pazopanib in combination with durvalumab, programmed death-ligand 1 blockade. Whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing were performed for each tumor and patient germline DNA. @*Results@#Of the 35 patients receiving pazopanib-based treatment, nine achieved a partial response (PR), resulting in an objective response rate (ORR) of 27.3%, and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.0 months. Patients with CDK4 amplification (copy ratio tumor to normal > 2) exhibited shorter PFS (3.7 vs. 7.9 months, p=2.09×10–4) and a poorer response (ORR; 0% vs. 33.3%) compared to those without a gene amplification (copy ratio ≤ 2). Moreover, non-responders demonstrated transcriptional activation of CDK4 via DNA amplification, resulting in cell cycle activation. In the durvalumab combination cohort, seven of the 17 patients (41.2%) achieved a PR, and gene expression analysis revealed that durvalumab responders exhibited high immune/stromal cell infiltration, mainly comprising natural killer cells, compared to non-responders as well as increased expression of CD19, a B-cell marker. @*Conclusion@#Despite the limitation of heterogeneity in the study population and treatment, we identified possible molecular predictors of pazopanib efficacy that can be employed in future clinical trials aimed at evaluating therapeutic strategies.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 452-467, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976705

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#NUT carcinoma (NC) is a solid tumor caused by the rearrangement of NUTM1 that usually develops in midline structures, such as the thorax. No standard treatment has been established despite high lethality. Thus, we investigated whether targeting the junction region of NUTM1 fusion breakpoints could serve as a potential treatment option for NC. @*Materials and Methods@#We designed and evaluated a series of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the junction region of BRD4-NUTM1 fusion (B4N), the most common form of NUTM1 fusion. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction using the blood of patients was also tested to evaluate the treatment responses by the junction sequence of the B4N fusion transcripts. @*Results@#As expected, the majority of NC fusion types were B4N (12 of 18, 67%). B4N fusion-specific siRNA treatment on NC cells showed specific inhibitory effects on the B4N fusion transcript and fusion protein without affecting the endogenous expression of the parent genes, resulting in decreased relative cell growth and attenuation of tumor size. In addition, the fusion transcript levels in platelet-rich-plasma samples of the NC patients with systemic metastasis showed a negative correlation with therapeutic effect, suggesting its potential as a measure of treatment responsiveness. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that tumor-specific sequences could be used to treat patients with fusion genes as part of precision medicine for a rare but deadly disease.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 28-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966499

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitors are approved for the treatment of neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) fusion-positive tumors. The detection of NTRK fusion using a validated method is required before therapeutic application. An interlaboratory comparison study of next-generation sequencing (NGS)–based NTRK gene fusion detection with validated clinical samples was conducted at six major hospitals in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 18 samples, including a positive standard reference and eight positive and nine negative clinical samples, were validated using the VENTANA pan-TRK (EPR17341) and TruSight Oncology 500 assays. These samples were then tested using four different NGS panels currently being used at the six participating institutions. @*Results@#NTRK fusions were not detected in any of the nine negative clinical samples, demonstrating 100% specificity in all six participating institutions. All assays showed 100% analytical sensitivity to identify the NTRK fusion status in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, although with variable clinical sensitivity. False-negative results were due to low tumor purity, poor RNA quality, and DNA-based sequencing panel. The RNA-based targeted NGS assay showed an overall high success rate of identifying NTRK fusion status in FFPE samples. @*Conclusion@#This study is the first to test the proficiency of NGS-based NTRK detection in South Korea with the largest participating institutions. RNA-based NGS assays to detect NTRK fusions can accurately characterize fusion transcripts if sufficient RNA of adequate quality is available. The comparative performance data will support the implementation of targeted NGS-based sequencing assays for NTRK fusion detection in routine diagnostics.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 145-154, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966483

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the concordance rate of PIK3CA mutations between primary and matched distant metastatic sites in patients with breast cancer and to verify whether there are differences in the frequency of PIK3CA hotspot mutations depending on the metastatic sites involved. @*Materials and Methods@#Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens of primary breast and matched distant metastatic tumors were retrospectively obtained for 49 patients. Additionally, 40 archived FFPE specimens were independently collected from different breast cancer metastatic sites, which were limited to three common sites: the liver, brain, and lung. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed using droplet digital PCR, including hotspots involving exons 9 and 20. @*Results@#After analysis of 49 breast tumors with matched metastasis sites, 87.8% showed concordance in PIK3CA mutation status. According to PIK3CA hotspot mutation testing in 89 cases of breast cancer metastatic sites, the proportion of PIK3CA mutations at sites of metastasis involving the liver, brain, and lung was 37.5%, 28.6%, and 42.9%, respectively, which did not result in statistical significance. @*Conclusion@#The high concordance of PIK3CA mutation status between primary and matched metastasis sites suggests that metastatic sites, regardless of the metastatic organ, could be considered sample sources for PIK3CA mutation testing for improved therapeutic strategies in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 9-24, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874350

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To find biomarkers for disease, there have been constant attempts to investigate the genes that differ from those in the disease groups. However, the values that lie outside the overall pattern of a distribution, the outliers, are frequently excluded in traditional analytical methods as they are considered to be ‘some sort of problem.’ Such outliers may have a biologic role in the disease group. Thus, this study explored new biomarker using outlier analysis, and verified the suitability of therapeutic potential of two genes (TM4SF4 and LRRK2). @*Materials and Methods@#Modified Tukey’s fences outlier analysis was carried out to identify new biomarkers using the public gene expression datasets. And we verified the presence of the selected biomarkers in other clinical samples via customized gene expression panels and tissue microarrays. Moreover, a siRNA-based knockdown test was performed to evaluate the impact of the biomarkers on oncogenic phenotypes. @*Results@#TM4SF4 in lung cancer and LRRK2 in breast cancer were chosen as candidates among the genes derived from the analysis. TM4SF4 and LRRK2 were overexpressed in the small number of samples with lung cancer (4.20%) and breast cancer (2.42%), respectively. Knockdown of TM4SF4 and LRRK2 suppressed the growth of lung and breast cancer cell lines. The LRRK2 overexpressing cell lines were more sensitive to LRRK2-IN-1 than the LRRK2 under-expressing cell lines @*Conclusion@#Our modified outlier-based analysis method has proved to rescue biomarkers previously missed or unnoticed by traditional analysis showing TM4SF4 and LRRK2 are novel target candidates for lung and breast cancer, respectively.

6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 181-191, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900492

ABSTRACT

Molecular biomarker testing is the standard of care for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In 2017, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group and the Korean Molecular Pathology Study Group co-published a molecular testing guideline which contained almost all known genetic changes that aid in treatment decisions or predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Since then there have been significant changes in targeted therapies as well as molecular testing including newly approved targeted drugs and liquid biopsy. In order to reflect these changes, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group developed a consensus statement on molecular biomarker testing. This consensus statement was crafted to provide guidance on what genes should be tested, as well as methodology, samples, patient selection, reporting and quality control.

7.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 181-191, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892788

ABSTRACT

Molecular biomarker testing is the standard of care for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In 2017, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group and the Korean Molecular Pathology Study Group co-published a molecular testing guideline which contained almost all known genetic changes that aid in treatment decisions or predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Since then there have been significant changes in targeted therapies as well as molecular testing including newly approved targeted drugs and liquid biopsy. In order to reflect these changes, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group developed a consensus statement on molecular biomarker testing. This consensus statement was crafted to provide guidance on what genes should be tested, as well as methodology, samples, patient selection, reporting and quality control.

8.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 204-212, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834561

ABSTRACT

With advances in target therapy, molecular analysis of tumors is routinely required for treatment decisions in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Liquid biopsy refers to the sampling and analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) in various body fluids, primarily blood. Because the technique is minimally invasive, liquid biopsies are the future in cancer management. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ctDNA tests have been performed in routine clinical practice in advanced NSCLC patients to guide tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In the near future, liquid biopsy will be a crucial prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic method in NSCLC. Here we present the current status and future perspectives of liquid biopsy in NSCLC.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 493-501, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and clinical outcomes in patients with stage III non-squamous cell lung cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2013, the medical records of 197 patients with stage III non- squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive CCRT were analyzed to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: Among 197 eligible patients, 81 patients were EGFR wild type, 36 patients had an EGFR mutation (exon 19 Del, n=18; L858R, n=9, uncommon [G719X, L868, T790M], n=9), and 80 patients had unknown EGFR status. The median age was 59 years (range, 28 to 80 years) and 136 patients (69.0%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 66.5 months (range, 1.9 to 114.5 months). One hundred sixty-four patients (83.2%) experienced disease progression. Median PFS was 8.9 months for the EGFR mutation group, 11.8 months for EGFR wild type, and 10.5 months for the unknown EGFR group (p=0.013 and p=0.042, respectively). The most common site of metastasis in the EGFR mutant group was the brain. However, there was no significant difference in OS among the three groups (34.6 months for EGFR mutant group vs. 31.9 months for EGFR wild type vs. 22.6 months for EGFR unknown group; p=0.792 and p=0.284). A total of 29 patients (80.6%) with EGFR mutation were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib, n=24; erlotinib, n=3; afatinib, n=2) upon progression. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation is associatedwith short PFS and the brain is the most common site of distant metastasis in patients with stage III non- squamous cell lung cancer treated with CCRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 623-631, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations account for approximately 4% of all EGFR mutations. Given the rarity of this mutation, its clinical outcomes are not fully established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who showed an exon 20 insertion were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and outcomes, including responses to chemotherapy (CTx) or targeted therapy. RESULTS: Of 3,539 NSCLC patients who harbored an activating EGFR mutation, 56 (1.6%) had an exon 20 insertion. Of the advanced NSCLC patients, 27 of 1,479 (1.8%) had an exon 20 insertion. The median overall survival was 29.4 months (95% confidence interval 9.3 to 49.6) for 27 advancedNSCLC patients. The 22 patientswho received systemic CTx achieved a 50.0% response rate and a 77.2% disease control rate, with 4.2 months of progression-free survival. Six patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Three of the four patients that had only an exon 20 insertion showed progressive disease, while one showed stable disease. The othertwo patients had an exon 20 insertion and another EGFR mutation and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: The incidence of an exon 20 insertion mutation is rare in Korea and occasionally accompanied by other common EGFR mutations. Although the response to systemic CTx. in these patients is comparable to that of patients with other mutations, the response rate to first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs is quite low. Therefore, the development of a more efficient agent is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exons , Incidence , Korea , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 347-353, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessment of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemical staining is used for treatment decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regarding use of PD-L1/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immunotherapy. The reliability of the PD-L1 22C3 pharmDx assay is critical in guiding clinical practice. The Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists investigated the interobserver reproducibility of PD-L1 staining with 22C3 pharmDx in NSCLC samples.METHODS: Twenty-seven pathologists individually assessed the tumor proportion score (TPS) for 107 NSCLC samples. Each case was divided into three levels based on TPS: <1%, 1%–49%, and ≥50%.RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient for TPS was 0.902±0.058. Weighted κ coefficient for 3-step assessment was 0.748±0.093. The κ coefficients for 1% and 50% cut-offs were 0.633 and 0.834, respectively. There was a significant association between interobserver reproducibility and experience (formal PD-L1 training, more experience for PD-L1 assessment, and longer practice duration on surgical pathology), histologic subtype, and specimen type.CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PD-L1 immunohistochemical staining provides a reproducible basis for decisions on anti–PD-1 therapy in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cell Death , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Observer Variation , Pathology
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e123-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) are usually effective in lung adenocarcinoma patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement. However, even after a good response to ALK-TKI therapy, most patients acquire resistance to these agents. Histological transformation is one of several suggested mechanisms of acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs. The clinicopathologic features of four patients with ALK-expressing adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine features were analyzed. METHODS: We selected combined neuroendocrine differentiation in pulmonary adenocarcinoma cases with positive ALK immunostaining. Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by CD56 immunohistochemical stain. Additional ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation tests were also performed. RESULTS: All four cases were positive for ALK immunohistochemistry and no EGFR mutations were detected. Interestingly, the results of ALK FISH assays showed rearrangement in only two cases. Three cases showed combined adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine component without history of ALK-TKI administration; one of them was treated with crizotinib and experienced partial tumor regression. The remaining case had an adenocarcinoma at initial biopsy and she showed a partial response to crizotinib, and neuroendocrine changes were visible on second biopsy. Then she was treated with ceritinib and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: We suggest that ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma with combined neuroendocrine component is responsive to ALK-TKIs. Moreover, even after neuroendocrine transformation as a result of resistance to ALK-TKIs, the tumor may have partial response to second generation ALK-TKIs.

13.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 349-353, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741185

ABSTRACT

Cytologic diagnosis of nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is important due to its aggressive behavior and miserable prognosis. Early diagnosis of NMC can facilitate proper management, and here we report two rare cases of thoracic NMC with cytohistologic correlation. In aspiration cytology, the tumor presented with mixed cohesive clusters and dispersed single cells, diffuse background necrosis and many neutrophils. Most of the tumor cells had scanty cytoplasm and medium-sized irregular nuclei, which had fine to granular nuclear chromatin. Interestingly, a few dyskeratotic cells or squamoid cell clusters were present in each case. Biopsy specimen histology revealed more frequent squamous differentiation, and additional immunohistochemistry tests showed nuclear expression of NUT. Because this tumor has a notorious progression and has been previously underestimated in terms of its prevalence, awareness of characteristic findings and proper ancillary tests should be considered in all suspicious cases.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Chromatin , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Lung , Necrosis , Neutrophils , Nuclear Proteins , Nuts , Prevalence , Prognosis , Testis
14.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 30-36, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Distribution and survival of sarcoma in Korea are not well described, after the changing of sarcoma classification on 2013. The researchers investigated the distribution and survival in single center 2017 cases of sarcoma.METHODS: Patients with primary sarcoma, who underwent surgery, were investigated. All cases were collected during a 20 year period (1995–2015) from Samsung Medical Center in Korea. Histopathologic types were classified by World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2013). And overall survival rates were analyzed.RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2015, 2017 patients were collected. The most frequent type of sarcoma was gastrointestinal tumor (15%), followed by liposarcoma (12%), leiomyosarcoma (9%), dermatofibrosarcoma (6%), giant cell sarcoma (6%). The most common primary site of sarcoma was the intra-abdominal area (45%, including visceral area). Extremities accounted for 26% of all cases. Sixteen percent of sarcoma were located in retroperitoneal area. The overall survival rate was 70.4% (median follow-up time, 36.8 months; range, 0.1–261.3 months). The best prognosis was dermatofibrosarcoma (100%, 5-year survival rate). The worst prognosis was angiosarcoma (39.3%). Survival analysis by the primary site demonstrated favor prognosis in extremities than head & neck, chest lesion.CONCLUSION: The researchers reported Korean sarcoma characteristics with using the new WHO classification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Classification , Dermatofibrosarcoma , Epidemiology , Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Giant Cells , Head , Hemangiosarcoma , Korea , Leiomyosarcoma , Liposarcoma , Neck , Prognosis , Sarcoma , Survival Rate , Thorax , World Health Organization
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 915-926, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160280

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) can provide more reliable information about tumor biology than cell line models. We developed PDXs for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that have histopathologic and genetic similarities to the primary patient tissues and evaluated their potential for use as a platform for translational EOC research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We successfully established PDXs by subrenal capsule implantation of primary EOC tissues into female BALB/C-nude mice. The rate of successful PDX engraftment was 48.8% (22/45 cases). Hematoxylin and eosin staining and short tandem repeat analysis showed histopathological and genetic similarity between the PDX and primary patient tissues. RESULTS: Patients whose tumors were successfully engrafted in mice had significantly inferior overall survival when compared with those whose tumors failed to engraft (p=0.040). In preclinical tests of this model, we found that paclitaxel-carboplatin combination chemotherapy significantly deceased tumor weight in PDXs compared with the control treatment (p=0.013). Moreover, erlotinib treatment significantly decreased tumor weight in epidermal growth factor receptor–overexpressing PDX with clear cell histology (p=0.023). CONCLUSION: PDXs for EOC with histopathological and genetic stability can be efficiently developed by subrenal capsule implantation and have the potential to provide a promising platform for future translational research and precision medicine for EOC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Biology , Cell Line , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Epidermal Growth Factor , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Hematoxylin , Heterografts , Microsatellite Repeats , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Precision Medicine , Translational Research, Biomedical , Tumor Burden
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1065-1076, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160267

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The discoidin domain-containing receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2) is known to contain mutations in a small subset of patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the lung. Studying the DDR2 mutations in patients with SCC of the lung would advance our understanding and guide the development of therapeutic strategies against lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 100 samples through a preliminary genetic screen, including specimens from biopsies and surgical resection, and confirmed SCC by histologic examination. DDR2 mutations on exons 6, 15, 16, and 18 were analyzed by Sanger sequencing of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The functional effects of novel DDR2 mutants were confirmed by in vitro assays. RESULTS: We identified novel somatic mutations of DDR2 in two of the 100 SCC samples studied. One mutation was c.1745T>A (p.V582E) and the other was c.1784T>C (p.L595P), and both were on exon 15. Both patients were smokers and EGFR/KRAS/ALK-triple negative. The expression of the mutant DDR2 induced activation of DDR2 by the collagen ligand and caused enhanced cell growth and tumor progression. Moreover, dasatinib, a DDR2 inhibitor, showed potential efficacy against DDR2 L595P mutant–bearing cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a mutation in DDR2 occurs naturally with a frequency of about 2% in Korean lung SCC patients. In addition, we showed that each of the novel DDR2 mutations were located in a kinase domain and induced an increase in cell proliferation rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Proliferation , Collagen , Dasatinib , Epithelial Cells , Exons , In Vitro Techniques , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Phosphotransferases , Prevalence , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , TYK2 Kinase , Tyrosine
18.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 191-204, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38104

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently emerged as an essential component of personalized cancer medicine due to its high throughput and low per-base cost. However, no sufficient guidelines for implementing NGS as a clinical molecular pathology test are established in Korea. To ensure clinical grade quality without inhibiting adoption of NGS, a taskforce team assembled by the Korean Society of Pathologists developed laboratory guidelines for NGS cancer panel testing procedures and requirements for clinical implementation of NGS. This consensus standard proposal consists of two parts: laboratory guidelines and requirements for clinical NGS laboratories. The laboratory guidelines part addressed several important issues across multistep NGS cancer panel tests including choice of gene panel and platform, sample handling, nucleic acid management, sample identity tracking, library preparation, sequencing, analysis and reporting. Requirements for clinical NGS tests were summarized in terms of documentation, validation, quality management, and other required written policies. Together with appropriate pathologist training and international laboratory standards, these laboratory standards would help molecular pathology laboratories to successfully implement NGS cancer panel tests in clinic. In this way, the oncology community would be able to help patients to benefit more from personalized cancer medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Korea , Pathology, Molecular , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quality Control
19.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 242-254, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38101

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapies guided by molecular diagnostics have become a standard treatment of lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements are currently used as the best predictive biomarkers for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors, respectively. Besides EGFR and ALK, the list of druggable genetic alterations has been growing, including ROS1 rearrangements, RET rearrangements, and MET alterations. In this situation, pathologists should carefully manage clinical samples for molecular testing and should do their best to quickly and accurately identify patients who will benefit from precision therapeutics. Here, we grouped molecular biomarkers of lung cancers into three categories—mutations, gene rearrangements, and amplifications—and propose expanded guidelines on molecular testing of lung cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Gene Rearrangement , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lymphoma , Pathology, Molecular , Phosphotransferases , Precision Medicine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
20.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 44-48, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79149

ABSTRACT

We herein describe a 70-year-old woman who presented with respiratory failure due to extensive lung adenocarcinoma. Despite advanced disease, care in the intensive care unit with ventilator support was performed because she was a newly diagnosed patient and was considered to have the potential to recover after cancer treatment. Because prompt control of the cancer was needed to treat the respiratory failure, empirical treatment with an oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor was initiated before confirmation of EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma, and the patient was successfully treated. Later, EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma was confirmed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Intensive Care Units , Lung , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventilators, Mechanical , Erlotinib Hydrochloride
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