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1.
Immune Network ; : e38-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890869

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that initiate both T-cell responses and tolerance. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are regulatory DCs that suppress immune responses through the induction of T-cell anergy and Tregs. Because lactoferrin (LF) was demonstrated to induce functional Tregs and has a protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease, we explored the tolerogenic effects of LF on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The expression of CD80/86 and MHC class II was diminished in LF-treated BMDCs (LF-BMDCs). LF facilitated BMDCs to suppress proliferation and elevate Foxp3 +induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation in ovalbumin-specific CD4 + T-cell culture. Foxp3 expression was further increased by blockade of the B7 molecule using CTLA4-Ig but was diminished by additional CD28 stimulation using anti-CD28 Ab. On the other hand, the levels of arginase-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (known as key T-cell suppressive molecules) were increased in LF-BMDCs. Consistently, the suppressive activity of LF-BMDCs was partially restored by inhibitors of these molecules. Collectively, these results suggest that LF effectively causes DCs to be tolerogenic by both the suppression of T-cell proliferation and enhancement of iTreg differentiation. This tolerogenic effect of LF is due to the reduction of costimulatory molecules and enhancement of suppressive molecules.

2.
Immune Network ; : e38-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898573

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that initiate both T-cell responses and tolerance. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are regulatory DCs that suppress immune responses through the induction of T-cell anergy and Tregs. Because lactoferrin (LF) was demonstrated to induce functional Tregs and has a protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease, we explored the tolerogenic effects of LF on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The expression of CD80/86 and MHC class II was diminished in LF-treated BMDCs (LF-BMDCs). LF facilitated BMDCs to suppress proliferation and elevate Foxp3 +induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation in ovalbumin-specific CD4 + T-cell culture. Foxp3 expression was further increased by blockade of the B7 molecule using CTLA4-Ig but was diminished by additional CD28 stimulation using anti-CD28 Ab. On the other hand, the levels of arginase-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (known as key T-cell suppressive molecules) were increased in LF-BMDCs. Consistently, the suppressive activity of LF-BMDCs was partially restored by inhibitors of these molecules. Collectively, these results suggest that LF effectively causes DCs to be tolerogenic by both the suppression of T-cell proliferation and enhancement of iTreg differentiation. This tolerogenic effect of LF is due to the reduction of costimulatory molecules and enhancement of suppressive molecules.

3.
Immune Network ; : e25-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716242

ABSTRACT

γδ T cells are abundant in the gut mucosa and play an important role in adaptive immunity as well as innate immunity. Although γδ T cells are supposed to be associated with the enhancement of Ab production, the status of γδ T cells, particularly in the synthesis of IgA isotype, remains unclear. We compared Ig expression in T cell receptor delta chain deficient (TCRδ⁻/⁻) mice with wild-type mice. The amount of IgA in fecal pellets was substantially elevated in TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice. This was paralleled by an increase in surface IgA expression and total IgA production by Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Likewise, the TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice produced much higher levels of serum IgA isotype. Here, surface IgA expression and number of IgA secreting cells were also elevated in the culture of spleen and bone marrow (BM) B cells. Germ-line α transcript, an indicator of IgA class switch recombination, higher in PP and MLN B cells from TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice, while it was not seen in inactivated B cells. Nevertheless, the frequency of IgA+ B cells was much higher in the spleen from TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice. These results suggest that γδ T cells control the early phase of B cells, in order to prevent unnecessary IgA isotype switching. Furthermore, this regulatory role of γδ T cells had lasting effects on the long-lived IgA-producing plasma cells in the BM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adaptive Immunity , B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Lymph Nodes , Mucous Membrane , Peyer's Patches , Plasma Cells , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Recombination, Genetic , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Immune Network ; : 37-43, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220544

ABSTRACT

It is well established that TGF-beta1 and retinoic acid (RA) cause IgA isotype switching in mice. We recently found that lactoferrin (LF) also has an activity of IgA isotype switching in spleen B cells. The present study explored the effect of LF on the Ig production by mouse peritoneal B cells. LF, like TGF-beta1, substantially increased IgA production in peritoneal B1 cells but little in peritoneal B2 cells. In contrast, LF increased IgG2b production in peritoneal B2 cells much more strongly than in peritoneal B1 cells. LF in combination with RA further enhanced the IgA production and, interestingly, this enhancement was restricted to IgA isotype and B1 cells. Similarly, the combination of the two molecules also led to expression of gut homing molecules alpha4beta7 and CCR9 on peritoneal B1 cells, but not on peritoneal B2 cells. Thus, these results indicate that LF and RA can contribute to gut IgA response through stimulating IgA isotype switching and expression of gut-homing molecules in peritoneal B1 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Lactoferrin , Spleen , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Tretinoin
5.
Immune Network ; : 237-240, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50690

ABSTRACT

Endoglin (also known as CD105 or TGF-beta type III receptor) is a co-receptor involved in TGF-beta signaling. In atherosclerosis, TGF-beta signaling is crucial in regulating disease progression owing to its anti-inflammatory effects as well as its inhibitory effects on smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endoglin is a regulator of TGF-beta signaling, but its role in atherosclerosis has yet to be defined. This review focuses on the roles of the various forms of endoglin in atherosclerosis. The expression of the two isoforms of endoglin (long-form and short-form) is increased in atherosclerotic lesions, and the expression of the soluble forms of endoglin is upregulated in sera of patients with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Interestingly, long-form endoglin shows an atheroprotective effect via the induction of eNOS expression, while short-form and soluble endoglin enhance atherogenesis by inhibiting eNOS expression and TGF-beta signaling. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that the different forms of endoglin have distinct roles in atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Disease Progression , Hypercholesterolemia , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Protein Isoforms , Transforming Growth Factor beta
6.
Immune Network ; : 10-15, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13003

ABSTRACT

Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines. Nevertheless, it is virtually unknown whether alum acts on B cells. In the present study, we explored the direct effect of alum on Ig expression by murine B cells in vitro. LPS-activated mouse spleen B cells were cultured with alum, and the level of isotype-specific Ig secretion, IgG1 secreting cell numbers, and Ig germ-line transcripts (GLT) were measured using ELISA, ELISPOT, and RT-PCR, respectively. Alum consistently enhanced total IgG1 production, numbers of IgG1 secreting cells, and GLTgamma1 expression. These results demonstrate that alum can directly cause IgG1 isotype switching leading to IgG1 production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Alum Compounds , Aluminum Hydroxide , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Count , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Hydroxides , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Spleen , Vaccines
7.
Immune Network ; : 84-88, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216359

ABSTRACT

B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is primarily expressed by macrophages and stimulates B cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and Ig production. In this study, we explored the effect of lactoferrin (LF) on BAFF expression by murine macrophages. We determined the level of BAFF expression at the transcriptional and protein levels using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. LF markedly enhanced BAFF expression in mouse macrophages at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Overexpression of Smad3/4 further increased LF-induced BAFF transcription while DN-Smad3 abolished the LF-induced BAFF expression. These results demonstrate that LF can enhance BAFF expression through Smad3/4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Cell Proliferation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lactoferrin , Macrophages , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
8.
Immune Network ; : 216-223, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well known that IgA isotype switching is induced by TGF-beta1. LPS-activated mouse normal B cells well differentiate into IgA secreting plasma cells under the influence of TGF-beta1. Nevertheless, there are lots of difficulties in studying normal B cells in detail because it is not simple to obtain highly purified B cells, showing low reproducibility and transfection efficacy, moreover impossible to keep continuous culture. To overcome these obstacles, it is desperately needed to develop B cell line which acts like normal B cells. In the present study, we investigated whether CH12F3-2A lymphoma cells are appropriate for studying IgA isotype switching event. METHODS: CH12F3-2A B cell line was treated with LPS and TGF-beta1, then levels of germ-line (GL) transcripts were measured by RT-PCR, and GLalpha promoter activity was measured by luciferase assay. In addition, membrane IgA (mIgA) expression and IgA secretion were determined by FACS and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: TGF-beta1, regardless of the presence of LPS, increased level of GLalpha transcripts but not GLgamma2b transcripts. However, IgA secretion was increased dramatically by co-stimulation of LPS and TGF-beta1. Both mIgA and IgA secretion in the presence of TGF-beta1 were further increased by over-expression of Smad3/4. Finally, GLalpha promoter activity was increased by TGF-beta1. CONCLUSION: CH12F3-2A cell line acts quite similarly to the normal B cells which have been previously reported regarding IgA expression. Thus, CH12F3-2A lymphoma cell line appears to be adequate for the investigation of the mechanism(s) of IgA isotype switching at the cellular and molecular levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Line , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Luciferases , Lymphoma , Membranes , Plasma Cells , Transfection , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
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