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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878921

ABSTRACT

As a precious traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), snake bile has been widely used in numerous Chinese medicine prescriptions. Bile acid(BA) derivatives have been demonstrated as the primary chemical family in snake bile. In-depth chemical characterization of BAs is of great importance towards the establishment of quality standards and clarification of the effective material basis for snake bile. This study firstly employed ~1H-NMR to preliminarily analyze the chemical profiles of snake bile, an automated fraction collector was subsequently implemented to obtain the fractions-of-interest. The fraction was then concentrated and re-analyzed by LC-MS. Based on ~1H-NMR, BAs were found to be the main components of snake bile, and six BAs including CDCA, CA, TCDCA, TCA, TDCA and GCA were tentatively identified from the representative spectrum with the assistance of literature and reference compounds. Whereas the content of TCA in snake bile was too great, resulting in a great obstacle for the detection of trace components, the automated fraction collector was subsequently implemented to obtain the fractions-of-interest for LC-MS analysis. According to matching MS/MS information and retention time with reference compounds as well as database retrieval, a total of 57 BAs were detected and annotated. Because of the combination of ~1H-NMR and LC-MS platforms, the findings are beneficial for the in-depth characterization of BAs in snake bile, which provides references for the establishment of quality control and evaluation methods of snake bile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, Liquid , Snakes , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888192

ABSTRACT

Longxue Tongluo Capsules(LTC) has good efficacy against blood stasis syndrome during the recovery period of ischemic stroke. Its main active ingredient is the phenolic extract of Chinese dragon's blood. In our previous study, the primary mass fragmentation pathways of phenolic derivatives from LTC were clarified. Herein, the metabolites in rat plasma were characterized following the oral administration of loureirin A and loureirin C using liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectro-metry(LC-IT-TOF-MS), with 18 and 55 metabolites identified, respectively. On this basis, with the help of the obtained accurate molecular weight, characteristic fragment ions, reference comparison, combined with LTC database and natural products database self-created in our group, 18 prototypes and 106 metabolites were tentatively identified in rat plasma after oral gavage of LTC at a dose of 500 mg·kg~(-1). Glucuronidation, sulfonation, and methylation were major biotransformation pathways of LTC. This study preliminarily clarified the LTC constituents absorbed into blood and laid the foundation for clarifying the effective substances of LTC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Rats
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888075

ABSTRACT

The current study aims to rapidly and comprehensively profile the chemical composition of Cistanche salsa using direct infusion coupled with MS/MS~(ALL)(DI-MS/MS~(ALL)). The C. salsa extract was directly imported into electrospray ionization(ESI) source of quadrupole time-of-flight(Q-TOF) mass spectrometer with an infusion pump at a flow rate of 10 μL·min~(-1). Acquisition program was applied under negative ionization polarity to collect one MS~1 spectrum(m/z 50-1 200), followed by 1 150 MS~2 spectra with precursor isolation window(m/z 1) amongst mass range m/z 50-1 200. After each MS~2 spectrum was matched to its precursor ion, putative identification was conducted through matching mass spectral data with literature and database. A total of 31 components were identified from C. salsa, including 9 phenylethanoid glycosides, 2 iridoids, 4 saccharides, 9 organic acids, and 7 other compounds, similar to those from C. tubulosa and C. deserticola. In conclusion, DI-MS/MS~(ALL), a facile and reliable analytical tool, can be employed for qualitative analysis of chemical constituents in C. salsa. The research offers a promising strategy to achieve rapid chemome profiling of herbal medicine and provides an alternative source of Cistanches Herba.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cistanche , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycosides , Plants, Medicinal , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888072

ABSTRACT

Eleven condensed tannins were isolated from the roots of Indigofera stachyodes by various column chromatography techniques including silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). These compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS) data as stachyotannin A(1), epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-catechin(2), cinnamtannin D1(3), cinnamtannin B1(4), epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin(5), gambiriin C(6), proanthocyanidin A1(7), proanthocyanidin A2(8), aesculitannin B(9), proanthocyanidin A4(10), and procyanidin B5(11). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2-11 were isolated from Indigofera for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4-11 showed inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced ATP release in platelets.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Indigofera , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Extracts , Proanthocyanidins
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888012

ABSTRACT

Isomers are widely distributed in Chinese herbal medicines,and can be discriminated by energy-resolved mass spectrometry( ER-MS). However,ER-MS was performed through direct injection of reference compounds with syringe pump,which encountered a significant technical barrier for high-throughput and automated measurements. Herein,online ER-MS was conducted using LC-MS platform,and a pair of isomers,kaempferol vs luteolin,were employed as a case study to illustrate and assess the utility of online ER-MS for isomeric discrimination. High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data of both flavonoids were acquired on LC-QE-Orbitrap-MS,and the fragmentation pathways responsible for the primary fragment ions were proposed. The primary signal in MS1 occurred at m/z 285( [M-H]-),and the primary signals of either compound generated by retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation were observed at m/z 151 and 133. The spectral information was subsequently transferred onto LC-Qtrap-MS platform to carry out online ER-MS. Two precursor-to-product ion transition candidates were constructed as m/z 285>151 and 285>133,and either afterward derived a set of pseudo-ion transitions( PITs) and so forth,exactly corresponding to a series of progressive collision energies( eg-5,-8,-11 e V,and so on). All PITs were typed into the monitoring list of multiple reaction monitoring program to generate the peak area datasets. Either dataset was normalized using the highest values in the set and imported into Graph Pad Prism software to plot the Gaus-sian-shaped curve that was termed as the break-down graph. The apex of the regressive curve was termed as optimal collision energy( OCE). The OCE values corresponding to m/z 285>151 were calculated as-29. 06 e V and-35. 71 e V for kaempferol and luteolin,respectively. In the case of m/z 285>133,the OCEs were yielded as-44. 15 e V for kaempferol and-49. 01 e V for luteolin. With re-ference to their chemical structures,the location of hydroxyl group was regarded to be responsible for the differences of either m/z 285>151 or 285>133 between the isomers,attributing to their different bond properties. Above all,online ER-MS offers an eligible tool for isomeric discrimination,and provides meaningful information for the accurate chemical composition characterization based on LC-MS,which is not limited to Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Flavonoids , Kaempferols , Luteolin , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879181

ABSTRACT

A new method of MS/MS~(ALL) was designed to sequentially record a MS~2 spectrum at each unit mass window through gas phase fractionation concept, so as to offer an opportunity for universal MS~2 spectral recording with direct infusion(DI). As a proof-of-concept, DI-MS/MS~(ALL) was applied for rapid chemome profiling of a famous herbal medicine named Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. After each MS~2 spectrum was correlated to its precursor ion, the structural annotation was conducted by applying well-defined mass cracking rules, matching the mass spectral data with literatures and referring to those accessible databases. As a result, a total of 54 components were identified from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract, including 21 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, 12 iridoids, 4 triterpenoids and 4 other compounds. Therefore, DI-MS/MS~(ALL) is a powerful tool for comprehensive, rapid qualitative analysis of chemical profiles of traditional Chinese medicine and other chemical components of complex systems.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lonicera , Plant Extracts , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879180

ABSTRACT

This study aims to study the chemical components from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii. Five cembranoid diterpenes were isolated from the gum resin of B. carterii by various of column chromatographies including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties, mass spectrometry(MS), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR), Ultraviolet(UV) and infrared(IR) spectroscopic data. These compounds were identified as(1S,2E,4R,5S,7E,11E)-4-methoxy-5-hydroxycembrane(1),(1R~*,4R~*,5E,8E,12E,15E)-4-hydroxycembra-5,8,12,15-tetraene(2), cembrene A(3),(3S,4S,7R)-4-hydroxycembrane(4), and pavidolide D(5). Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 were obtained from the gum resin of B. carterii for the first time. Compound 2 showed weak inhibition on the human liver cancer cell line HepG2.


Subject(s)
Boswellia , Cell Line , Diterpenes , Humans , Molecular Structure , Resins, Plant
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828000

ABSTRACT

Several Orobanche medicinal plants sometimes served as alternative sources of Cistanches Herba, attributing to the benefits such as tonifying kidney, strengthening tendons and bones. Among them, O. coerulescens, O. cernua and O. pycnostachya have been widely utilized in northern China for treatments of pains in the loins and knees, impotence, and spermatorrhea. However, their chemical profiles haven't been elucidated. In the present study, UHPLC-IT-TOF-MS was implemented to conduct in-depth chemome profiling of O. coerulescens, O. cernua and O. pycnostachya, aiming to achieve a comprehensive chemical characterization and to provide pronounced information for the quality control and clinical applications. An ACE Ultra-Core 2.5 Super C_(18)(3.0 mm×150 mm, 2.5 μm) column was deployed for chromatographic separations, and high-resolution MS~n spectra were recorded by IT-TOF-MS. Forty-eight components, in total, were observed, and thirty-eight ones were structurally annotated according to proposing mass fragmentation patterns, matching with relevant databases. Particularly, nine ones were confirmed by reference compounds. Overall, the chemical compositions of O. coerulescens and O. cernua are quite similar, and differences occur between O. pycnostachya and the prior two ones; primary chemical family is phenylethanoid glycosides, and several lignan glycosides as well as iridoid glycosides are also observed; the primary components include acteoside, isoacteoside, crenatoside and 2'-acetylacteoside, etc.


Subject(s)
China , Cistanche , Glycosides , Male , Orobanche , Plants, Medicinal
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771496

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a research area with highly original innovation features,and is also a Chinese name card to the world. However,TCM owns a unique theoretical system which is quite different from western modern medicine,leading to an awkward situation of deficient modern social identity as well as poor international spread. Therefore,how to establish a research strategy in line with the characteristics of TCM itself to systematically interpret the unique scientific connotation of TCM is always a public hot topic. Based on persistent practical exploration and scientific consideration in TCM,our group firstly promoted the concept of traditional Chinese medicine chemical biology(TCM chemical biology,TCMCB). The major idea of TCMCB is to clarify the nature of TCM regulating life progress to link TCM to modern medicine by using TCM components as chemical tools. Notably,TCMCB mainly focuses on TCM target identification and TCM-guided disease molecular mechanism exploration,further to clarify the basic law of TCM mediating disease process. Finally,TCMCB-guided scientific studies can help explain TCM theory and promote the developmentof modern innovative drugs based on identified targets using TCM active components. Moreover,TCMCB is of vital importance for investigating the scientific nature of biological progress and the pattern of disease occurrence and development,indicating a key significance for modern life science and medicine. This review introduces the definition of TCMCB as well as its academic thought,research method,technology system and scientific significance,for providing new research ideas and scientific thoughts for TCM development.


Subject(s)
Biology , Chemistry , Interdisciplinary Research , Medicine , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773275

ABSTRACT

Chemical profiling of a given herbal medicine( HM) is the prerequisite for clarifying the effective material basis and therapeutic mechanisms,and it is an important integral part of traditional Chinese medicine chemical biology( TCMCB). In current study,we aimed to propose a new strategy for fast chemical characterization of HM by using reversed phase liquid chromatography-hydrophilic interaction chromatography-predictive multiple reaction monitoring( RPLC-HILIC-p MRM),and Artemisiae Scopariae Herba was employed in this study to illustrate the entire strategy. In response to wide polarity spanning of the diverse chemical clusters in Artemisiae Scopariae Herba,RPLC and HILIC were coupled in series to retain and separate hydrophilic and hydrophobic components simultaneously by identifying the characteristics of chromatographic separation. Most of the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine can be predicted by summarizing the results of chemical constituents of the same genera and introducing primary metabolites and possible substitution reaction types. Therefore,we constructed predictive ion pairs to rapidly identify the chemical constituents of Artemisiae Scopariae Herba. After comparison with control products,discussion on fragmentation pattern,and access to relevant information from literature and databases,a total of 139 components were detected and structurally annotated by matching the obtained spectral data with the information of authentic compounds. Above all,RPLC-HILIC-p MRM could be used as an eligible analytical tool for the chemical profiling of HMs.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Chemistry , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773229

ABSTRACT

Bile acids( BAs),the major constituents of bile,are also known to be potential biomarkers of various diseases,especially liver disease. The systematic analysis of BAs is believed to be of great importance towards the clarification of the effective material basis for bile-type medicines,and the diagnosis and therapy of related diseases as well. As a part of systematic study on bile-type medicine ongoing in our group,this study lays emphasis on the isomer discrimination,and the improvement of analytical method of BAs. Further,this method was subsequently applied to elucidate in depth the chemical profile of BAs in yak bile. Regarding isomer discrimination for BAs,we constructed relative response-collision energy curves( RRCECs) by high performance liquid chromatographyion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry( HPLC-IT-TOF-MS) in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry( HPLC-Qtrap-MS). As a result,both the optimum collision energy( OCE) and CE_(50) exhibited great correlations with structural characteristics,thus enabling the isomer distinguishing,such as unconjugated BAs,glycine-conjugated BAs,and taurine-conjugated BAs. According to information provided by mass spectrometry,the comparison of OCE and CE_(50),retention time matching,combined with reference substances and database retrieval,a total of 30 bile acid derivatives were observed and identified in yak bile. The newly developed method could serve as a feasible tool for the in-depth characterization of BAs in bile and biological samples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Chemistry , Bile Acids and Salts , Chemistry , Cattle , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Mass Spectrometry , Taurine
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689885

ABSTRACT

As a famous tonic medicine, Cistanche tubulosa has been honored as "ginseng of the deserts" for centuries. Aiming to address the resource shortage as well as the wild resource protection towards this herbal medicine, wide cultivation has been achieved in the southern Xinjiang. Herein, in-depth chemome comparison was conducted between cultivated and wild plants using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy that is capable of comprehensively providing qualitative and quantitative information of given complicated matrices. Multivariate statistical analysis was employed to process the dataset as well as to consolidate that the cultivated plants are comparable to those wild ones in term of chemome. ¹H-NMR spectra of both wild and cultivated plants were acquired in parallel after extraction. Following direct overlaying, great similarity occurred between these two groups. A total of 28 compounds were tentatively identified by referring to authentic compounds together with those available databases, such as HMDB and BMRB. Following principal component analysis, none significant difference was observed between wild and cultivated groups. Above all, from the viewpoint of chemical profile, the cultivated plants were almost equal to the wild plants; therefore, the cultivated plants are able to take the load of wild plants in clinical usage. Moreover, ¹H-NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for chemical profiling traditional Chinese medicines because of the potential towards simultaneously exhibiting both quantitative and qualitative information for complicated matrices.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689856

ABSTRACT

As a holoparasitic plant, Cistanche deserticola is one of the two original sources of Cistanches Herba that is one of the most famous tonic medicines, in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The succulent stems are used for medicinal usage, whereas those lignified stems as well as flowers of less pharmacological importance are usually deserted, suggesting extensive resource waste. Herein, chemical characterization of the flowers along with lignified stems was conducted using HPLC-IT-TOF-MS aiming to explore the medicinal valu of those non-medicinal parts. Following ultrasonication-assisted extraction with 50% aqueous methanol, either flower or lignified stem extract was subjected onto LC-IT-TOF-MS equipped with a Capcell core ADME column to acquire both MS¹ and MSº spectra, and gradient elution was carried out with combinatory 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. Both positive and negative ionization polarities were deployed, resulting in the observation of 62 components, in total. Thirty-nine signals were structurally annotated, including phenylethanoid glycosides, iridoids, lignans and saccharides according to matching with authentic components and literature information, as well as applying the proposed mass fragmentation rules. A total of 62 ones were putatively identified. Above all, lignified stems and flowers should not the qualified substitutes for the succulent stems attributing to the significant differences between the medicinal portion and those parts with less medicinal values.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687419

ABSTRACT

Two new polypeptides were isolated and purified from the extract of deer bone (constitutive part of Cucumis and Cervus polypeptide injection) by various column chromatography including C₄ 300Å and Sephadex G-50, as well as semipreparative HPLC. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences were identified by De Novo sequencing on the basis of MALDI-TOF-MS data and Explorer™ software. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of polypeptides were identified as NH₂-Gly-Pro-Val-Gly-Pro-Thr-Gly-Pro-Val-Gly-Ala-Ala-Gly-Pro-Ser-Gly-Pro-Asp (Mei18 peptide, 1) and NH₂-Ala-Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Pro-Asp-Ser-Try-Asp (Mei23 peptide, 2), respectively. Mei18 and Mei 23 peptides are new polypeptides.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690493

ABSTRACT

Echinacoside (ECH) is one of the active ingredients in Cistanche Herba and the principal effective component of Memoregain© as well. Moreover, a new agent namely Naoqing Zhiming tablet, derived from ECH has been licensed for clinical trials. However, the knowledge regarding the stability of is limited, till now, initiating a significant barrier for its further development along with the clinical trials. Herein, we aim to in depth characterize the transformation pattern of ECH in methanol. When ECH was stored in methanol, two primary products (P1 and P2) could be observed in HPLC chromatogram. A home-made automated fraction collector was configured via employing two 2-phase/6-port electronic valves to prepare P1 and P2. Following ¹H-NMR and LC-MS/MS assays, P1 and P2 were unambiguously identified as acteoside and cistanoside A, respectively. Moreover, the existences of cis-ECH, cis-acteoside, and cis-cistanoside A were claimed after careful analysis of the ¹H-NMR spectra of ECH, P1 and P2. Above all, the primary transformation pathways of ECH in methanol included methylation as well as hydrolysis, and mild transformation could also be initiated by cis/trans- configuration transferring for the caffeoyl group. The findings obtained in current study are envisioned to provide useful insight for the further development of ECH and the impurity detection of Naoqing Zhiming tablet. Moreover, the automated fraction collector configured in current study is able to serve as a versatile tool for the collection of signals-of-interest within phytochemical evaluations and impurity isolation.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307154

ABSTRACT

Organic acids are widely distributed in plants and related products, and participate in a wide range of metabolic pathways (e.g. tricarboxylic acid cycle), showing diverse pharmacological activities. As a widely used Chinese patent medicine, its adverse reactions are often reported. Therefore, we should further clarify the chemical components of Shenfu injection, and prepare strict quality standards to ensure the safety and effectiveness of its clinical use. Shenfu injection is prepared from red ginseng (steamed roots of Panax ginseng) and black prepared lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii (Heishunpian) by using modern extraction process, and organic acids are regarded as one of its main components. In current study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with mass spectrometric method (HILIC-LC-MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 14 organic acids, including cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid, L-(+)-lactic acid, adipic acid, fumaric acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, D-malic acid, (-)-shikimic acid, D-tartaric acid, and quinic acid in Shenfu injection. Satisfactory retention and separation were achieved for all organic acids on HILIC chromatographic column. Except cinnamic acid (231 μg•L⁻¹), lactic acid (113 μg•L⁻¹) and malonic acid (32.5 μg•L⁻¹), the limit of quantitation for the remaining 11 compounds were less than 10 μg•L⁻¹. D-Malic acid, malonic acid, quinic acid, L-(+)-lactic acid, and cinnamic acid were observed to have higher contents in Shenfu injection (>1.89 mg•L⁻¹), whereas caffeic acid and adipic acid were undetectable in all batches. Above all, the developed method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in Shenfu and some other traditional Chinese medicine injections.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350635

ABSTRACT

To explore the alternative material for the stems of Evodia lepta used in clinic, the leaves extract of E. lepta was chemically investigated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC and the structures of the compounds were identified mainly by spectroscopic methods. Ten known compounds 4-hydroxy-4, 7-dimethyl-1-tetralone (1), (6R, 7E) -4, 7-megastigmadien-3, 9-dione (2), 4-megastigmen-3, 9-dione (3), formononetin (4), daidzein (5), oroxylin A (6), wogonin (7), 5, 7-dihydroxy-3, 4'-dimethoxyflavone (8), N-trans-coumaroyltyranine (9) and (E) -p-hydroxycinnamic acid (10), have been obtained and identified. All these compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. The results revealed that there is a considerate chemical difference between the stems and leaves of E. lepta.


Subject(s)
Evodia , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
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