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1.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 241-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001326

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

2.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 206-212, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967551

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal seeding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is incurable and has poor prognosis. A 68-year-old man underwent surgical resection for a 3.5 cm single nodular HCC at the tip of segment 3 and transarterial chemoembolization for a 1.5 cm-sized recurrent HCC at the tip of segment 6. 3 months later, an increasing 1 cm pelvic nodule on the rectovesical pouch warranted radiotherapy. Although it stabilized, a new 2.7 cm-sized peritoneal nodule in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) omentum appeared 3.5 years after radiotherapy. Hence, omental mass and small bowel mesentery mass excision were performed. 3 years later, recurrent peritoneal metastases in the RUQ omentum and rectovesical pouch progressed. 33 cycles of atezolizumab and bevacizumab treatment elicited stable disease response. Finally, laparoscopic left pelvic peritonectomy was performed without tumor recurrence. Herein, we present a case of HCC with peritoneal seeding that was successfully treated with surgery after radiotherapy and systemic therapy, leading to complete remission.

3.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : S220-S227, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966597

ABSTRACT

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasing worldwide, including Asia. Most patients with NAFLD-related HCC are at a much-advanced stage and older age at the time of diagnosis than those with virus-related HCC because they have not undergone HCC surveillance. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in NAFLD, preventive strategies for NAFLDrelated HCC, and strategies for the surveillance of patients with NAFLD.

4.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 763-778, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) has shown promising results in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). However, whether TARE can provide superior or comparable outcomes to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with HCC and PVTT remains unclear. We compared the outcomes of TARE and TKI therapy in treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced HCC and segmental or lobar PVTT. @*Methods@#This multicenter study included 216 patients initially treated with TARE (n=124) or TKI (sorafenib or lenvatinib; n=92) between 2011 and 2021. Baseline characteristics were balanced using propensity score matching (PSM) or inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). The secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#In the unmatched cohort, the median OS of the TARE and TKI groups were 28.2 and 7.2 months, respectively (p<0.001), and the TARE group experienced significantly and independently longer OS compared to the TKI group (adjusted hazard ratio=0.41, 95% confidence interval=0.28–0.60, p<0.001). Similar results were observed in the study cohorts balanced with IPTW (p=0.003) or PSM (p=0.004). Although PFS was comparable between the two groups, the TARE group showed a trend of prolonged PFS in a subpopulation of patients with Vp1 or Vp2 PVTT (p=0.052). In the matched cohorts, the ORR of the TARE group was 53.0–56.7%, whereas that of the TKI group was 12.3–15.0%. @*Conclusions@#For patients with advanced HCC with segmental or lobar PVTT and well-preserved liver function, TARE may provide superior OS compared to sorafenib or lenvatinib.

5.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 521-541, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999969

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

6.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 252-262, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999941

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly prevalent and the third most common cause of cancer-related death in Asia. In contrast to the West, the main etiology of HCC in many Asian countries except Japan is chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Differences in the major causes of HCC lead to significant clinical and treatment differences. This review summarizes and compares guidelines on managing HCC from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. From oncology and socio-economic perspectives, factors such as underlying diseases, staging methods, government policies, insurance coverage, and medical resources contribute to varying treatment strategies among countries. Furthermore, the differences in each guideline are fundamentally caused by the lack of incontrovertible medical evidence, and even existing results of clinical trials can be interpreted differently. This review will provide a complete overview of the current Asian guidelines for HCC in recommendations and in practice.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 158-165, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919601

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The immunomodulatory effects of thalidomide (TM) and dexamethasone (DX) on immune cells and their co-stimulatory, co-inhibitory molecules in vitro and in vivo have been previously reported. The current study investigated the effects of TM and the combinatorial treatment with DX on immune cells using a murine cardiac allograft transplantation model. @*Materials and Methods@#Intraabdominal transplant of cardiac allografts from BALB/c (H-2d ) donors to C57BL/6 (H-2b ) recipients was performed. After transplantation, mice were injected daily with TM or DX or a combination of both TM and DX (TM/DX) by intraperitoneal route until the time of graft loss. CD4+ T cell subsets and CD11c+ cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and spleen were examined and quantified with flow cytometry. Serum IL-6 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 7. @*Results@#The mean graft survivals were 6.86 days in the untreated group, and 10.0 days in the TM/DX group (p<0.001). The TM/DX treatment affected the CD4+ T cell subsets without suppressing the total CD4+ T cell population. The CD4 + FOXP3+ /CD4+ CD44hi T cell ratio increased. Increase in cell counts and median fluorescence intensity on CD11c+ CD85k+ with TM/DX were observed. The inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 was also observed. @*Conclusion@#These outcomes suggest the immunomodulating effect of the TM/DX combinatorial treatment. In conclusion, TM/ DX combination may be a promising immunomodulatory approach for preventing allograft rejection and improving graft survival by inducing tolerance in transplantation.

8.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 63-68, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926064

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus extending to the inferior vena cava (IVC) is extremely poor. Herein, we present a rare case of advanced HCC that was treated with sorafenib and radiotherapy, leading to complete remission. This patient had a 9 cm infiltrative HCC occupying almost the entire left lobe with a tumor thrombus extending through the hepatic vein, IVC, and left portal vein. The patient received 400 mg sorafenib twice daily. One year after the start of sorafenib, intensity-modulated radiation therapy for viable HCC and tumor thrombus was performed with a dose of 5,500 cGy. Twenty-seven months after the starting date of sorafenib, there was no intratumoral arterial enhancement, which suggested a complete response according to the modified RECIST criteria. This case suggests that the combination of sorafenib and radiotherapy might provide clinical benefits in patients with advanced HCC with IVC tumor thrombus.

9.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 17-30, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913982

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects approximately 250 million patients worldwide, resulting in the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which are serious public health problems. Although universal vaccination programs exist, they are only prophylactic and not curative. In the HBV life cycle, HBV forms covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), which is the viral minichromosome, in the nuclei of human hepatocytes and makes it difficult to achieve a complete cure with the current nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon therapies. Current antiviral therapies rarely eliminate cccDNA; therefore, lifelong antiviral treatment is necessary. Recent trials for antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B have been focused on establishing a functional cure, defined by either the loss of hepatitis B surface antigen, undetectable serum HBV DNA levels, and/or seroconversion to hepatitis B surface antibody. Novel therapeutic targets and molecules are in the pipeline for early clinical trials aiming to cure HBV infection. The ideal strategy for achieving a long-lasting functional or complete cure might be using combination therapies targeting different steps of the HBV life cycle and immunomodulators. This review summarizes the current knowledge about novel treatments and combination treatments for a complete HBV cure.

10.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 535-552, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897691

ABSTRACT

Although patients with cirrhosis are known to be in a state of “rebalance” in that pro- and anticoagulant factors increase the risk for both bleeding and thrombosis, the prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis can be up to 26%. Therefore, physicians should consider anticoagulation for the prevention and management of PVT in patients with cirrhosis who are at high risk of PVT. Vitamin K antagonist or low molecular weight heparin is suggested as the standard treatment for PVT in cirrhosis. With the advent of new direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), there is a paradigm shift of switching to DOACs for the treatment of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. However, the safety and efficacy of DOACs in the treatment of PVT was not well-known in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this review focused on the current knowledge about the efficacy, safety concerns, and hepatic metabolism of DOACs in patients with cirrhosis and PVT.

11.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 257-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897654

ABSTRACT

There is some dissatisfaction with the term “nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),” which overemphasizes alcohol and underemphasizes the importance of metabolic risk factors in this disease. Recently, a consensus recommended “metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)” as a more appropriate term to describe fatty liver diseases (FLD) associated with metabolic dysfunction. During the definition change from NAFLD to MAFLD, subjects with FLD and metabolic abnormalities, together with other etiologies of liver diseases such as alcohol, virus, or medication who have been excluded from the NAFLD criteria, were added to the MAFLD criteria, while subjects with FLD but without metabolic abnormality, who have been included in the NAFLD criteria, were excluded from the MAFLD criteria. This means that there is an emphasis on the metabolic dysfunction in MAFLD which may underestimate the prognostic value of hepatic steatosis itself, whereas the MAFLD criteria might better identify subjects who are at a higher risk of hepatic or cardiovascular outcomes. However, non-metabolic risk NAFLD subjects who are excluded from the MAFLD criteria are missed from the diagnosis, and their potential risk can be the cause of future diseases. Although huge controversies remain, this review focused on summarizing recent studies that compared the clinical and prognostic characteristics between subjects with NAFLD and MAFLD.

12.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 535-552, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889987

ABSTRACT

Although patients with cirrhosis are known to be in a state of “rebalance” in that pro- and anticoagulant factors increase the risk for both bleeding and thrombosis, the prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis can be up to 26%. Therefore, physicians should consider anticoagulation for the prevention and management of PVT in patients with cirrhosis who are at high risk of PVT. Vitamin K antagonist or low molecular weight heparin is suggested as the standard treatment for PVT in cirrhosis. With the advent of new direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), there is a paradigm shift of switching to DOACs for the treatment of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. However, the safety and efficacy of DOACs in the treatment of PVT was not well-known in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this review focused on the current knowledge about the efficacy, safety concerns, and hepatic metabolism of DOACs in patients with cirrhosis and PVT.

13.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 257-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889950

ABSTRACT

There is some dissatisfaction with the term “nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),” which overemphasizes alcohol and underemphasizes the importance of metabolic risk factors in this disease. Recently, a consensus recommended “metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)” as a more appropriate term to describe fatty liver diseases (FLD) associated with metabolic dysfunction. During the definition change from NAFLD to MAFLD, subjects with FLD and metabolic abnormalities, together with other etiologies of liver diseases such as alcohol, virus, or medication who have been excluded from the NAFLD criteria, were added to the MAFLD criteria, while subjects with FLD but without metabolic abnormality, who have been included in the NAFLD criteria, were excluded from the MAFLD criteria. This means that there is an emphasis on the metabolic dysfunction in MAFLD which may underestimate the prognostic value of hepatic steatosis itself, whereas the MAFLD criteria might better identify subjects who are at a higher risk of hepatic or cardiovascular outcomes. However, non-metabolic risk NAFLD subjects who are excluded from the MAFLD criteria are missed from the diagnosis, and their potential risk can be the cause of future diseases. Although huge controversies remain, this review focused on summarizing recent studies that compared the clinical and prognostic characteristics between subjects with NAFLD and MAFLD.

14.
Immune Network ; : e11-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740217

ABSTRACT

During virus infection, T cells must be adapted to activation and lineage differentiation states via metabolic reprogramming. Whereas effector CD8⁺ T cells preferentially use glycolysis for their rapid proliferation, memory CD8⁺ T cells utilize oxidative phosphorylation for their homeostatic maintenance. Particularly, enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity promotes the memory T cell response through different pathways. However, the level of AMPK activation required for optimal memory T cell differentiation remains unclear. A new metformin derivative, IM156, formerly known as HL156A, has been reported to ameliorate various types of fibrosis and inhibit in vitro and in vivo tumors by inducing AMPK activation more potently than metformin. Here, we evaluated the in vivo effects of IM156 on antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells during their effector and memory differentiation after acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Unexpectedly, our results showed that in vivo treatment of IM156 exacerbated the memory differentiation of virus-specific CD8⁺ T cells, resulting in an increase in short-lived effector cells but decrease in memory precursor effector cells. Thus, IM156 treatment impaired the function of virus-specific memory CD8⁺ T cells, indicating that excessive AMPK activation weakens memory T cell differentiation, thereby suppressing recall immune responses. This study suggests that metabolic reprogramming of antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells by regulating the AMPK pathway should be carefully performed and managed to improve the efficacy of T cell vaccine.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cell Differentiation , Fibrosis , Glycolysis , Immunologic Memory , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Memory , Metformin , Oxidative Phosphorylation , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 1-11, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765710

ABSTRACT

Systemic target therapeutic drugs, such as sorafenib, lenvatinib, or regorafenib are the only drugs that are known to be effective against advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these agents show a limited efficacy in killing residual tumors. Immunotherapy is an alternative approach to this treatment and has been used to successfully treat different cancers, including HCC. HCC is an inflammation-induced cancer and represents a very interesting target for immunotherapeutics. Immunotherapies aim to reverse the immune tolerance and suppression found in tumor microenvironments and include approaches, such as adoptive cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibition, and cancer vaccination. Adoptive cell therapy uses autologous natural killer or cytokine-induced killer cells by cultivating them ex vivo and subsequently reinfusing them into the patient. Immune checkpoint inhibitors reactivate tumor-specific T cells by suppressing checkpoint-mediated inhibitory signaling. Cancer vaccination induces a tumor-specific immune response by activating effector T lymphocytes. A wide range of potential immunotherapy-related adverse events occur; therefore, a multidisciplinary collaborative management is required across the clinical spectrum. This review summarizes the current status of immunotherapy for HCC and provides a perspective on its future applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells , Homicide , Immune Tolerance , Immunotherapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Oncolytic Viruses , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment , Vaccination
16.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 66-73, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A recent study reported that entecavir had inferior efficacy in nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients compared to NA-naïve patients. We sought to compare the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in NA-experienced and NA-naïve CHB patients. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 252 consecutive patients who had a serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level greater than 2,000 IU/mL at the initiation of TDF treatment and who received TDF for at least 6 months. Complete virologic suppression (CVS) was defined as undetectable serum HBV DNA. We generated a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard model to examine predictive factors that were independently associated with time to CVS. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 48.2 years, and the cohort included 181 NA-naïve patients and 71 NA-experienced patients. The median duration of TDF treatment was 14.4 (interquartile range, 9.5-17.8) months. A total of 167 (92.3%) of 181 NA-naïve patients achieved CVS, and 60 (84.5%) of 71 NA-exposed patients achieved CVS. Forty-nine (89.1%) of 55 patients who previously took an NA aside from adefovir and 11 (68.8%) of 16 adefovir-experienced patients achieved CVS. In multivariable analysis, previous adefovir exposure significantly influenced time to CVS (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.72; P=0.003), after adjusting for HBeAg positivity, baseline HBV DNA level and cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Tenofovir had inferior efficacy in adefovir-experienced CHB patients compared to NA-naïve patients. The response of patients with previous adefovir exposure to TDF monotherapy should be monitored closely.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , DNA , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir
17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 261-268, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver transplantation offers the only definite cure for cirrhosis but lacking donors is problem. Stem cell therapy is attractive in this setting. In this study, we aimed to explore the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous portal transplantation of peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC) in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A total of nine decompensated cirrhotic patients were randomized into three groups: group 1 (n = 3) was control group, group 2 (n = 3) received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization for 3 days, and group 3 (n = 3) received G-CSF mobilized PBMCs by leukapheresis and PBMC transplantation through ultrasound-guided percutaneous portal vein puncture. Liver function and clinical features were evaluated. RESULTS: At baseline, the Child-Turcotte-Pugh and the model for end-stage liver disease scores were comparable in study groups. Compared with group 1, there was a tendency to improve liver function in group 3 at 6 months after treatment. Treatment was tolerable and no complications were encountered related to the G-CSF mobilization or percutaneous portal administration of PBMCs. Imaging studies showed patent portal veins at the end of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Autologous PBMC transplantation through ultrasound-guided percutaneous portal vein puncture could be considered as a safe alternative treatment for decompensated cirrhotic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibrosis , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Leukapheresis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Monocytes , Portal Vein , Punctures , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
18.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 286-291, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56138

ABSTRACT

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is effective against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and its use is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, it has been established that TDF is associated with renal toxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, while severe or symptomatic TDF-associated nephrotoxicity has rarely been reported in patients with CHB. Here we present two patients with TDF-associated nephrotoxicity who were being treated for CHB infection. The first patient was found to have clinical manifestations of proximal renal tubular dysfunction and histopathologic evidence of acute tubular necrosis at 5 months after starting TDF treatment. The second patient developed acute kidney injury at 17 days after commencing TDF, and he was found to have membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubular injury. The renal function improved in both patients after discontinuing TDF. We discuss the risk factors for TDF-associated renal toxicity and present recommendations for monitoring renal function during TDF therapy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Microscopy, Electron , Necrosis , Risk Factors , Tenofovir/adverse effects
19.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 150-157, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Overlap syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (AIH-PBC overlap syndrome) is a rare disease that has not been clearly characterized in Korean patients. This study investigated the clinical features of AIH-PBC overlap syndrome compared with those of AIH and PBC alone. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 158 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as AIH (n=61), PBC (n=81), or AIH-PBC overlap syndrome (n=9) based on the Paris and the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) criteria from 2001 to 2011 in Korea. We compared the clinical features of these three groups retrospectively, including their biochemical characteristics, treatments, responses, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients exhibited biochemical characteristics of both AIH and PBC, and showed a similar response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) monotherapy as for the PBC patients. However, the response of AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients to UDCA and steroid combination therapy was worse than the response of AIH patients to steroid-based therapy (P=0.024). Liver cirrhosis developed more rapidly in AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients than in AIH patients group (P=0.013), but there was no difference between AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients and PBC patients. The rates of developing hepatic decompensation did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients exhibited a worse response to UDCA and steroid combination therapy and a faster cirrhotic progression compared with AIH patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Steroids/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 657-664, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Quantification of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is an emerging serologic test and may be useful for identifying treatment strategies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to evaluate HBsAg titers during the natural course of CHB and identify correlations between HBsAg titers and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA concentrations across different CHB phases measured using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). METHODS: CHB phases were defined on the basis of HBV DNA concentrations, the presence of hepatitis B e antigen/antibody (HBeAg/Ab) and serum alanine aminotransferase levels. Serum HBsAg titers and paired HBV DNA concentrations in the different phases of CHB were compared using 627 serum samples. RESULTS: Mean HBsAg titers were significantly higher in the immunotolerant (IT) phase and immunoreactive (IR) HBeAg-positive phase than in the low-replicative (LR) and HBeAg-negative CHB (ENH) states. The correlation between HBsAg titers and HBV DNA concentrations was modest in the IT (n=36, r=0.804, p<0.001) and IR (n=48, r=0.773, p<0.001) phases, and it was poor in the LR state (n=116, r=0.289, p=0.002); however, no significant correlation was observed in the ENH state (n=67, r=0.146, p=0.237) or in the oral nucleos(t)ide analogue-treated group (n=267). CONCLUSIONS: HBsAg quantification using IRMA might be useful for discriminating different CHB phases and different stages of chronic liver disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , DNA, Viral/blood , Disease Progression , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Immunoradiometric Assay , Seoul , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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