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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941594


Objective: To investigate hypertriglyceridemia and hepatomegaly caused by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (FSS) and Schisandra chinensis Fructus (FSC) oils in mice. Methods: Mice were orally administered a single dose of Schisandrae Fructus oils. Serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG), triglyceride transfer protein (TTP), apolipoprotein B48 (Apo B48), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), alanine aminotransfease (ALT) and liver index were measured at 6-120 h post-dosing. Results: FSS and FSC oil caused time and dose-dependent increases in serum and hepatic TG levels, with maximum increases in the liver (by 297% and 340%) at 12 h post-dosing and serum (244% and 439%) at 24-h post-dosing, respectively. Schisandrae Fructus oil treatments also elevated the levels of serum TTP by 51% and 63%, Apo B48 by 152% and 425%, and VLDL by 67% and 38% in mice, respectively. FSS and FSC oil treatments also increased liver mass by 53% and 55% and HGF by 106% and 174%, but lowered serum ALT activity by 38% and 22%, respectively. Fenofibrate pre/ co-treatment attenuated the FSS and FSC oil-induced elevation in serum TG levels by 41% and 49% at 48 h post-dosing, respectively, but increased hepatic TG contents (by 38% and 33%, respectively) at 12 h post-dosing. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence to support the establishment of a novel mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia by oral administration of FSS oil (mainly increasing endogenous TG) and FSC oil (mainly elevating exogenous TG).

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350170


In this paper, the status of adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition, the National Specification of Chinese Materia Medica Processing, and the 29 provincial specification of Chinese materia medica was summarized, and the the status including general requirements, specific requirements, and quality standard in the three grade official specifications was collected and analyzed according to the "medicine-adjuvant homology" and "food-adjuvant homology" features of adjuvants. This paper also introduced the research situation of adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in China; In addition, analyzed and discussed the problems existing in the standard system of adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing, such as lack of general requirements, low level of standard, inconsistent standard references, and lack of research on the standard, and provided suggestions for the further establishment of the national standards system of adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229560


Cancer immunoediting consists of three sequential phases: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. For colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, the adenoma dysplastic progression may represent an equilibrium phase and the cancer stage as escape phase. Immune system eliminates transformed enterocytes by destroying them at first, sculpts them at the same time and selects the variants subsequently that are no longer recognized and insensitive to immune effectors, and finally induces immunosuppressive state within the tumor microenvironment that facilitates immune escape and tumor outgrowth. Immunosuppression and inflammation are the two crucial features of Pi (Spleen)-deficiency. Classic quotations, immune evidence and clinical observations suggest that Spleen (but not other organs) deficiency is the key pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) microenvironment. Weakness of old age, immunosuppressive cytokines from chronic inflammation, tumor-derived immunosuppressive factors and surrendered immune cells-regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) constitutes CRC microenvironment of Pi-deficiency. Furthermore, excess in superficiality, such as phlegm stagnation, blood stasis and toxin accumulation are induced by chronic inflammation on the basis of asthenia in origin, an immunosuppressive state. Great masters of Chinese medicine emphasize that strengthen Pi is the chief therapeutic principle for CRC which receives good therapeutic effects. So, Pi-deficiency based syndrome is the pivotal pathogenesis of tumor microenvironment. The immunosuppressive microenvironment facilitates immune escape which play an important role in the transition from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. There are some signs that strengthen Pi based treatment has potential capacity to ameliorate tumor environment. It might be a novel starting point to explore the mechanism of strengthen Pi based therapy in the prevention and treatment of CRC through regulation of tumor environment and immunoediting.

Colorectal Neoplasms , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunosuppression Therapy , Spleen , Allergy and Immunology , Syndrome , Tumor Microenvironment , Allergy and Immunology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262794


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of captopril on the histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in neonatal rats exposed to hyperoxia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty term neonatal Wistar rats were randomly assigned into Air control, Model, Normal saline control and Captopril-treated groups (n=10 each). The Air control group was exposed to air (FiO2=0.21). The remaining three groups were continuously exposed to hyperoxia (FiO2=0.90) . During exposure the Captopril-treated group received intragastric captopril (60 mg/kg daily) and the Normal saline control group was administered with normal saline. The Model group had no treatment. At the 14th and 21st days of exposure, the subjects were sacrificed. The lung coefficient and the protein contents and inflammatory cells in BALF were determined. The changes of lung histomorphology were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The lung coefficient and the protein contents, the total number of cells and the percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils in BAFL increased significantly in the Model and Normal saline control groups on the 14th and 21st days of exposure compared with those of the Air control group. Captopril treatment significantly reduced the lung coefficient and the protein contents, the total number of cells and the percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils in BALF. On the 14th day the lung coefficient decreased from 9.72 +/- 0.67 mg/g to 8.63 +/- 0.35 mg/g (P < 0.05); the protein contents in BALF from 0.619 +/- 0.023 g/L to 0.486 +/- 0.027 g/L (P < 0.05); and the total number of cells in BALF from (80.57 +/- 9.28)x10(4)/mL to (48.62 +/- 1.53)x10(4)/mL (P < 0.01) compared with the Model group. On the 21st day the lung coefficient decreased from 10.67 +/- 0.87 mg/g to 8.76 +/- 0.89 mg/g (P < 0.05); the protein contents in BALF from 0.978 +/- 0.012 g/L to 0.759 +/- 0.042 g/L (P < 0.05); and the total number of cells in BALF from (92.86 +/- 10.32) x10(4)/mL to (35.52 +/- 3.89) x10(4)/mL (P < 0.05) compared with the Model group. There were however significant differences in these results between the Captopril-treated and Air control groups. The histopathological examination demonstrated different degrees of alveolitis, broaden interstitium and reduced alveolar quantity in the Model and Normal saline control groups. The pathological changes were markedly alleviated after captopril treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Captopril may have protective effects on lung injury induced by hyperoxia.</p>

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemistry , Cell Biology , Captopril , Pharmacology , Female , Hyperoxia , Pathology , Lung , Pathology , Male , Proteins , Rats , Rats, Wistar