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Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 354-360, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014547


Sleep disorder, migraine, cognitive and behavioral disorders, anxiety and depression are common comorbidities of epilepsy. The comorbidity rate of epilepsy patients is eight times that of the general population, which affects the prognosis and quality of life of epilepsy patients. Perampanel (PER), as a third-generation antiseizure medication, has shown promising clinical research and application in the treatment of comorbidities in epilepsy. PER can improve the total sleep time, sleep latency and sleep efficiency of patients with epilepsy comorbid sleep disorder. PER also shows good efficacy in reducing seizure and migraine attacks of patients with epilepsy comorbid migraine. Meanwhile, the impact of PER on overall cognitive characteristics is neutral, with no systematic cognitive deterioration or improvement, but behavioral changes are one of the most common adverse events related to PER. For patients with comorbid anxiety and depression, PER does not exacerbate the anxiety and depression of epilepsy patients, and the severity of anxiety and depression in some patients will improve. This article will review the mechanism of action and clinical treatment research progress of PER on comorbidities of epilepsy.

Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 34-40, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012690


ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on learning and memory abilities of amygdala electrical kindling-induced epilepsy in rats and its mechanism. MethodMale SD rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, intervention group (model+25 mg·kg-1 EGCG), and EGCG group (25 mg·kg-1 EGCG). Rats in the EGCG group were only given EGCG intraperitoneal injection, those in the normal group were only given electrode implantation, and those in the other experimental groups were given amygdala electrical kindling stimulation to establish a chronic kindling epilepsy model. EGCG was injected intraperitoneally daily before electrical stimulation. Twenty-four hours after the last electrical stimulation, the escape latency and percentage of target quadrant were recorded by the Morris water maze. Twenty-four hours after the behavioral test, rats in each group were sacrificed by decapitation. The number of hippocampal neurons was observed by Nissl staining. The thickness of postsynaptic density in the hippocampus, synaptic cleft, length of active zone and the curvature of synaptic interface were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expressions of synapse-related proteins synaptotagmin (Syt), postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and Kalirin-7 in the hippocampus were examined by Western blot. ResultCompared with those in the normal group, the escape latency was significantly prolonged (P<0.05, P<0.01) and the target quadrant ratio was significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.05). The number of hippocampus neurons decreased significantly (P<0.01). The synaptic cleft of the hippocampus was widened significantly, and the length of active zone and the thickness of postsynaptic density were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expressions of synapse-related proteins Syt, PSD-95 and Kalirin-7 in the hippocampus were significantly decreased (P<0.05,P<0.01). Compared with those in the model group, the escape latency was significantly shortened and the percentage of target quadrant was significantly increased in the intervention group (P<0.05, P<0,01). The number of hippocampal neurons significantly increased (P<0.01). The synaptic cleft of the hippocampus was significantly shortened, and the length of active zone and postsynaptic density were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expressions of synaptic related proteins Syt, PSD-95 and Kalirin-7 were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionEGCG can effectively improve cognitive dysfunction after epilepsy. Its protective effect may be achieved by protecting the ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses and regulating the expressions of synapse-related proteins Syt, PSD-95 and Kalirin-7.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(6): e2022, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520246


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate using optical coherence tomography angiography the macular and optic nerve head blood flow in pediatric patients with epilepsy treated with levetiracetam for at least 12 months. Methods: This study included 33 pediatric patients with epilepsy and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteer children were included in the study. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used to evaluate the optic nerve head and macular perfusion changes. The mean ocular perfusion pressures were also calculated. Patients who were using multiple antiepileptic drugs or had a prior history of using different drugs were excluded. Results: The choriocapillaris flow area was significantly lower in the Study Group than in the Control Group (p=0.006). However, the foveal avascular zone and vessel densities of the macula in the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and optic nerve head of the study group were not significantly different from those of the control group (p>0.05). Moreover, no significant difference in means of mean ocular perfusion pressure was found between the two groups (p=0.211). No obvious correlation was found between treatment duration and optical coherence tomography angiography parameters or mean ocular perfusion pressure. Conclusion: Choroidal perfusion was reduced in children taking levetiracetam compared with that in the control group, whereas retinal perfusion was not affected in this optical coherence tomography angiography study.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar através de angiotomografia de coerência óptica o fluxo sanguíneo macular e da cabeça do nervo óptico em pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia tratados com levetiracetam por pelo menos 12 meses. Método: Trinta e três pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia e 30 crianças voluntárias saudáveis pareadas por sexo e idade foram incluídos no estudo. A angiotomografia de coerência óptica foi utilizada para avaliar as alterações da perfusão da cabeça do nervo óptico e da macular. As médias das pressões de perfusão ocular também foram calculadas. Pacientes em uso de múltiplas drogas antiepilépticas ou com história prévia de uso de diferentes drogas foram excluídos do estudo. Resultado: A área do fluxo coriocapilar foi significativamente menor no Grupo Estudo do que no Grupo Controle (p=0,006). Entretanto, a zona avascular foveal e as densidades vasculares no plexo capilar superficial e profundo da região macular e na cabeça do nervo óptico não foram significativamente diferentes daquelas de olhos saudáveis (p>0,05). Também não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em relação às médias da pressão de perfusão ocular (p=0,211). Nenhuma correlação aparente foi encontrada entre a duração do tratamento e os parâmetros da angiotomografia de coerência óptica ou a média da pressão de perfusão ocular. Conclusão: Em crianças usando levetiracetam, a perfusão coroidal mostrou-se reduzida em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto a perfusão retiniana não foi afetada neste estudo com angiotomografia de coerência óptica.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(5): e20231333, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558929


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effects of leptin, cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor agonist ACEA and antagonist AM251, and the interactions between leptin and CB1 receptor agonist/antagonist on oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and pedunculus cerebri tissue samples were investigated in the penicillin-induced epileptic model. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats (n=56) were included in this study. In anesthetized animals, 500 IU penicillin-G potassium was injected into the cortex to induce epileptiform activity. Leptin (1 μg), ACEA (7.5 μg), AM251 (0.25 μg), and the combinations of the leptin+ACEA and leptin+AM251 were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) after penicillin injections. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured in the cerebral tissue samples and plasma with the ELISA method. RESULTS: MDA levels increased, while SOD and GPx levels decreased after penicillin injection in the cerebrum and cerebellum. The efficacy of penicillin on SOD, MDA and GPx levels was further enhanced after leptin or AM251 injections. Whereas, ACEA decreased the MDA levels and increased GPx levels compared with the penicillin group. Administration of AM251+leptin did not change any oxidation parameter compared with the AM251. Furthermore, co-administration of ACEA and leptin significantly increased oxidative stress compared with the ACEA-treated group by increasing MDA and decreasing GPx levels. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that leptin reversed the effect of ACEA on oxidative stress. Co-administration of AM251 and leptin did not change oxidative stress compared with the AM251-treated group suggesting AM251 and leptin affect oxidative stress using the same pathways.

REVISA (Online) ; 13(1): 102-113, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531982


Objetivo:Compreender o cenário atual da ELT-HS, caracterizado por sua fisiopatologia, manifestações clínicas, métodos diagnósticos e tratamentos. Método:Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, com caráter descritivo, de artigos indexados no Sistema de Análise e Recuperação da Literatura Médica Online MEDLINE/Pubmed, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde LILACS, e nas bases de dados Científicas Electronic Library Online (SciELO), pesquisados na período compreendido entre outubro de 2022 e março de 2023. Foram incluídos artigos em português e inglês que contemplassem os objetivos da revisão, publicados nos últimos dez anos (2011-2021).Resultados: Inicialmente foram encontrados 144 artigos nas bases de dados, que após a leitura, foramselecionados na pesquisa 40 artigos que correspondiam ao objetivo proposto. Os artigos analisados correspondem aos anos de 2011 a 2021. Conclusão:O tratamento cirúrgico da ELT-HS tem se mostrado eficaz para resolução completa das crises na maioria dos pacientes. O conhecimento sobre sua fisiopatologia, manifestações clínicas, diagnóstico e tratamentos são de fundamental importância para os médicos que atendem pacientes com epilepsia.

Objective: To understand the current scenario of TLE-HS, characterized by its pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatments. Method:This is an integrative literature review with descriptive character, of articles indexed in the Medical Literature Analysis And Retrieval System Online MEDLINE/Pubmed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences LILACS, and Scientic databases Electronic Library Online (SciELO), researched in the period between october 2022 and march 2023. Articles in Portuguese and English that contemplated the objectives of the review, published in the last ten years (2011-2021), were included. Results:Initially, 144 articles were found in the databases, which after reading, 40 articles were selected in the research that corresponded to the proposed objective. The articles analyzed are equivalent to the years 2011 to 2021. Conclusion:The surgical treatment of TLE-HS has been shown to be effective for the complete resolution of crises in most patients. Knowledge about its pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatments are of fundamental importance for physicians who treat patients with epilepsy

Objetivo: Comprender el escenario actual de la TLE-HS, caracterizado por su fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, métodos diagnósticos y tratamientos. Método: Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con carácter descriptivo, de artículos indexados en el Sistema de Análisis y Recuperación de Literatura Médica en Línea MEDLINE/Pubmed, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud LILACS, y bases de datos Scientic Electronic Library Online (SciELO), investigados en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2022 y marzo de 2023. Se incluyeron artículos en portugués e inglés que contemplaran los objetivos de la revisión, publicados en los últimos diez años (2011-2021). Resultados:Inicialmente se encontraron 144 artículos en las bases de datos, de los cuales luego de la lectura se seleccionaron 40 artículos en la investigación que correspondía al objetivo propuesto. Los artículos analizadoscorresponden a los años 2011 a 2021. Conclusión:El tratamiento quirúrgico del ELT-HS se ha mostrado eficaz para la resolución completa de las crisis en la mayoría de los pacientes. El conocimiento sobre su fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamientos es de fundamental importancia para los médicos que tratan pacientes con epilepsia

Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Epilepsy , Hippocampal Sclerosis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(1): s00441779298, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533838


Abstract Background Patients with epilepsy (PWE) frequently have comorbid psychiatric disorders, the most common of which are depression and anxiety. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) is also more frequent among PWE, though that condition has been scarcely studied among the adult PWE population. Objective This study aimed to compare the presence of ADHD symptoms between adult PWE and the general population. Methods This was an observational case-control study. Ninety-five adult PWE from a tertiary center in southern Brazil were compared with 100 healthy controls. All subjects were submitted to three structured scales: 1) the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale version 1.1 (ASRS); 2) the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) the Adverse Events Profile (AEP). Dichotomic variables were analyzed through chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, as appropriate, and non-parametric variables were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Medians and interquartile ranges (IR) were: 1) ASRS: 26.00 (IR: 18 to 38) among PWE versus 17.00 (IR: 11 to 24) among controls, p< 0.001; 2) HADS: 14.00 (IR: 8 to 21) among PWE versus 11.00 (IR: 8 to 16) among controls, p= 0.007; 3) AEP: 3800 (IR: 31 to 49) among PWE versus 33.00 (IR: 23 to 43) among controls, p= 0.001. Conclusion PWE showed a higher burden of symptoms of ADHD, depression, and anxiety when compared with controls, which replicates in the Brazilian population the findings of current literature that point toward a higher prevalence of such disorders among PWE.

Resumo Antecedentes Pacientes com epilepsia (PCE) frequentemente apresentam comorbidades psiquiátricas, principalmente depressão e ansiedade. O transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) também é mais frequente nos PCE, porém foi pouco estudado na população adulta de PCE. Objetivo Comparar a presença de sintomas de TDAH entre PCE adultos e a população geral. Métodos Noventa e cinco PCE adultos de um centro terciário no Sul do Brasil foram comparados a 100 controles saudáveis. Todos os sujeitos foram submetidos a três escalas estruturadas: 1) a Escala Autorrelatada de TDAH em Adultos da Organização Mundial da Saúde, versão 1.1 (ASRS); 2) a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão (HADS); e 3) o Perfil de Eventos Adversos (AEP). Variáveis dicotômicas foram analisadas através dos testes chi-quadrado e exato de Fisher, conforme apropriado, e as variáveis não paramétricas foram analisadas através do teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados As medianas e os intervalos interquartis (IIQ) foram: 1) ASRS: 26.00 (IIQ: 18 a 38) em PCE versus 17.00 (IIQ: 11 a 24) nos controles, p< 0,001; 2) HADS: 14.00 (IIQ: 8 a 21) em PCE versus 11.00 (IIQ: 8 a 16) nos controles, p= 0,007; 3) AEP: 38.00 (IIQ: 31 a 49) em PCE versus 33.00 (IIQ: 23 a 43) nos controles, p= 0,001. Conclusão PCE apresentaram uma maior carga de sintomas de TDAH, depressão e ansiedade quando comparados aos controles, o que replica na população brasileira os achados da literatura atual, que apontam para uma maior prevalência de tais transtornos entre PCE.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(2): e20230742, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529382


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is the most common cause of death in young patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in interictal electrocardiogram parameters and sympathetic skin responses as markers of autonomic dysfunction in patients with epilepsy and to determine their effects on the type and duration of epilepsy, frequency of seizures, and responses to treatment. METHODS: A total of 97 patients with epilepsy and 94 healthy controls were recruited. We recorded their clinical and demographic characteristics and analyzed sympathetic skin response latency and amplitude, electrocardiogram recordings, and seven cardiac rhythm parameters: P-wave duration, PR segment, QRS duration, QT interval, QT interval distribution, Tpe duration, and Tpe/QT interval ratio. RESULTS: P-wave durations, T-wave durations, QT and QT interval durations, and Tpe and sympathetic skin response latency were significantly longer among patients with epilepsy than the controls, and their heart rate was significantly lower. However, sympathetic skin response latency and heart rate were negatively correlated, and T-wave duration, QT duration, QT interval duration, and Tpe were positively correlated. CONCLUSION: Our results from interictal electrocardiograms indicate clinically significant arrhythmias among patients with epilepsy and the correlation of such arrhythmias with sympathetic skin responses. Thus, noninvasive tests that evaluate the autonomic system should be used to predict the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy among patients with epilepsy.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(2): s00441779269, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550039


Abstract Background Epilepsies are among the most prevalent chronic neurological diseases, usually beginning in childhood. About 30% of children with epilepsies develop seizures that are difficult to control with medication. Recurrent epileptic seizures hinder diet intake, impairing the nutritional status. Although non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., ketogenic diet therapy) can improve epileptic seizure frequency, few studies analyzed their impact on the nutritional status of children and adolescents with epilepsies. Objective The aim was to evaluate the effects of a ketogenic diet on the nutritional status and clinical course of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Methods This cross-sectional study included patients under 18 years of age followed up at the Ketogenic Diet Ambulatory Clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira between December 2015 and December 2021. Socioeconomic, clinical, nutritional, and laboratory data were collected from medical records at different time points during the ketogenic diet. Results The sample comprised 49 patients aged between 5 months and 17 years (median = 4.4 years), mostly male (62.1%), and from Recife and the metropolitan region (51%). Underweight patients (BMI-for-age) improved their nutritional status in six months. However, patients who were normal weight and overweight maintained their nutritional status. Dyslipidemia was a common and short-term adverse effect. Moreover, the treatment decreased epileptic seizure frequency and antiseizure medication intake. Conclusion The ketogenic diet prevented malnutrition from worsening and reduced epileptic seizures and antiseizure medication intake.

Resumo Antecedentes A epilepsia, uma das doenças neurológicas crônicas mais prevalentes, tem geralmente início na infância. Cerca de 30% das crianças com epilepsia desenvolvem crises de difícil controle medicamentoso. As crises epilépticas recorrentes dificultam a ingestão alimentar, prejudicando o estado nutricional. Intervenções não farmacológicas, como a terapia com dieta cetogênica, podem melhorar a frequência das crises epilépticas, mas existem poucos estudos sobre a repercussão no estado nutricional da criança/adolescente. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da terapia cetogênica sobre o estado nutricional e a evolução clínica da epilepsia fármaco-resistente. Métodos Estudo tipo corte transversal envolvendo menores de 18 anos acompanhados no Ambulatório de Dieta Cetogênica do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira entre dezembro de 2015 e dezembro de 2021. Dados socioeconômicos, clínicos, nutricionais e laboratoriais foram coletados nos prontuários dos pacientes em vários momentos da terapia cetogênica. Resultados A amostra foi composta por 49 pacientes com idades entre cinco meses e 17 anos (mediana = 4,4 anos), a maioria do sexo masculino (62,1%) e procedentes de Recife e região metropolitana (51%). Pacientes com baixo peso (de acordo com o IMC para idade) melhoraram seu estado nutricional em seis meses. No entanto, os pacientes com peso adequado e com sobrepeso mantiveram seu estado nutricional. A dislipidemia foi um efeito adverso frequente e de curta duração. Além disso, o tratamento reduziu a frequência de crises epilépticas e a dose de fármacos anticrises. Conclusão A dieta cetogênica preveniu o agravamento da desnutrição e reduziu as crises epilépticas e a dosagem de fármacos anticrises.

Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 59(4, supl.1): 27-31, out.- dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552694


This narrative review addresses the world of artists who linked their creative journeys alongside their battles with epilepsy, a neurological condition engineered by recurrent epileptic seizures, with multifaceted implications in biopsychosocial domains. By examining the lives and works of celebrated artists such as Vincent Van Gogh and contemporary painters, particularly those possibly affected by epilepsy, a narrative transcends clinical elucidations, investigating historical contexts, artistic expressions, and therapeutic interventions. The focus is on uncovering the transformative influence of engaging in artistic activities for individuals struggling with epilepsy. It investigates the profound impact of artistic pursuits on people affected by epilepsy, showing the resilience of the human spirit in harnessing adversity as a source of creativity. This exploration illuminates the potential of art, not only as a means of self-expression, but also as a therapeutic medium in the setting of epilepsy and associated neurorehabilitation.

Esta revisão narrativa aborda o mundo dos artistas que associaram as suas jornadas criativas paralelamente às suas batalhas contra a epilepsia, uma condição neurológica caracterizada por ataques epilépticos recorrentes, com implicações multifacetadas em domínios biopsicossociais. Ao examinar as vidas e obras de artistas célebres como Vincent Van Gogh e pintores contemporâneos, particularmente aqueles possivelmente afetados pela epilepsia, a narrativa transcende as elucidações clínicas, investigando contextos históricos, expressão artística e intervenções terapêuticas. O foco está em desvendar a influência transformadora do envolvimento em atividades artísticas para indivíduos que lutam contra a epilepsia. Ele investiga o profundo impacto das atividades artísticas nas pessoas afetadas pela epilepsia, mostrando a resiliência do espírito humano ao aproveitar a adversidade como uma fonte de criatividade. Esta exploração ilumina o potencial da arte, não apenas como meio de autoexpressão, mas também como meio terapêutico no cenário da epilepsia e da neurorreabilitação associada.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(6): 890-899, dic. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558414


Resumen Introducción : La epilepsia mioclónica juvenil (EMJ) es un síndrome epiléptico de inicio en la infancia y ado lescencia con mioclonías, convulsiones tónico-clónicas generalizadas y ausencias. Los estímulos reflejos como la sensibilidad a la luz o fotosensibilidad, la apertura y cierre palpebral y la inducción por praxias producen descargas epileptiformes y crisis. Estos desencadenan tes reflejos no son todos sistemáticamente estudiados. Objetivo : Examinar los rasgos reflejos en pacientes con EMJ. Métodos : Se evaluaron en forma consecutiva 100 adolescentes y adultos con EMJ que recibían diferentes tratamientos anticrisis. Se realizó un electroencefalogra ma standard con un protocolo de estimulación luminosa intermitente (ELI) y otro para la evaluación de las pra xias a través de una actividad neurocognitiva (ANC). El análisis estadístico fue descriptivo y de correlación. Se consideró significativa una p > 0.05. Resultados : La edad actual fue de 28+/-11 (14-67). Las crisis comenzaron a los 15 años +/-3 (Rango 8-25 años). EL 58% presentaron mioclonías y convulsiones tónico clónicas generalizadas. El 50% recibían ácido valproico y el 31% continuaban con crisis. Descargas epileptiformes en reposo 20%; hiperventilación 30%; apertura y cierre palpebral 12%; respuesta fotoparoxística en la ELI 40%; ANC 23%. Mayor porcentaje de descargas y demora en la realización de la ANC en los que presentaban crisis. El ácido valproico comparado con los otros fármacos no demostró superioridad en el control de las crisis. Conclusiones : Estos hallazgos confirman la importan cia del estudio de los rasgos reflejos para el diagnóstico, seguimiento y el control terapéutico.

Abstract Introduction : Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is an epileptic syndrome with onset in childhood and adolescence with myoclonus, absences, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Reflex stimuli such as sensitivity to light or photosensitivity, eyelid opening and closing, and praxis induction produce epileptiform discharges and seizures. These reflex triggers are not all system atically studied. Objective : Examine reflex features in patients with JME. Methods : One hundred adolescents and adults with JME who received different anti-seizure treatments were evaluated consecutively. A standard electroen cephalogram was performed with an intermittent light stimulation (SLI) protocol and another for the evaluation of praxias through neurocognitive activity (CNA). The statistical analysis was descriptive and of correlation with a p > 0.05. Results : Current age was 28+/-11 (14-67). The seizure began at 15 years +/-3 (Range 8-25 years). They pre sented myoclonus and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 58%. 50% received valproic acid and 31% continued with seizures. Epileptiform discharges at rest 20%; hy perventilation 30%; eyelid opening and closing 12%; photoparoxysmal response in SLI 40%; CNA 23%. Higher percentage of discharges and delay in performing CNA in those who presented seizures. Valproic acid com pared to other drugs did not demonstrate superiority in seizure control. Conclusions : These findings confirm the importance of studying reflex traits for diagnosis, follow-up, and therapeutic control.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(12): 1146-1151, Dec. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527911


Abstract Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) include a series of neoplasms that commonly occur in children, adolescents, or young adults, have an astrocytic or glioneuronal lineage, are histologically benign (WHO grade1) with a neocortical localization predominantly situated in the temporal lobes. Clinically, chronic refractory epilepsy is usually the unique symptom. Gangliogliomas (GG) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) are the most common representative entities besides pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and angiocentric gliomas (AG). Recent molecular studies have defined new clinicopathological entities, which are recognized by the WHO 2021 classification of brain tumors. Some of them such as diffuse astrocytoma MIB or MYBL1 altered, polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY), and multilocular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) are currently considered LEATs. The relationship between LEATs and epilepsy is still a matter of debate, and there is a general agreement about the beneficial effects of an early neurosurgical intervention on the clinical outcome.

Resumo Tumores associados a epilepsia de longa duração constituem uma série de neoplasias asatrocitárias ou glioneuronais que comumente incidem em crianças, adolescentes e jovens adultos e que são histologicamente benignos (OMS grau 1), de localização neocortical e predominantemente situados nos lobos temporais. Clinicamente, a epilepsia crônica refratária é, de modo geral, o único sintoma. Gangliogliomas (GG) e tumores neuroepiteliais disembrioplásticos (DNT) são as entidades mais representativas associadas a astrocitomas pilocíticos (AP) e gliomas angiocêntricos (GA). Estudos moleculares recentes permitiram a definição de novas entidades clínico-patológicas reconhecidas pela classificação de tumores cerebrais da OMS 2021. Algumas delas, como o astrocitoma difuso MIB ou MIBL1 alterados, o tumor neuroepitelial polimorfo do jovem (PLNTY) e o tumor neuronal multilocular e vacuolizado (MVNT) são atualmente considerados tumores associados a epilepsia de longa duração. A relação entre este grupo de tumores e epilepsia é ainda debatida e há um consenso geral sobre o benefício prognóstico de intervenção cirúrgica precoce.

Medisur ; 21(6)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550567


Fundamento: la escala de trastorno de ansiedad generalizado es útil para evaluar esta afección psiquiátrica en pacientes con epilepsias; sin embargo, no ha sido adaptada ni lingüística ni culturalmente para pacientes con esta enfermedad en el contexto cubano. Objetivo adaptar lingüística y culturalmente la escala de trastorno de ansiedad generalizado para pacientes con epilepsias en el contexto cubano. Métodos trabajo de desarrollo tecnológico I+D+i, realizado en tres etapas: adaptación lingüística y cultural, evaluación por criterios de expertos en el tema y pilotaje en pacientes con epilepsias. Se combinaron técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas: consulta a lingüistas y expertos, pilotaje, debriefing, alfa de Cronbach (α) y análisis de eliminación de los ítems. Resultados los lingüistas propusieron cambios semánticos mínimos a dos ítems de la escala. El debriefing arrojó que la escala puede administrarse en menos de cinco minutos, con ítems adecuados e inofensivos. El α = 0,83 del pilotaje evidenció buena fiabilidad del test. No fue necesario eliminar ningún ítem de la escala y las correlaciones ítem total se mantuvieron por encima del nivel mínimo (>0,300). Conclusiones: la adaptación semántica y cultural de la escala al español, como se habla en Cuba, preserva equivalencia con la versión original. Se recomienda comprobar la fiabilidad y validez de la escala GAD-7 en una muestra representativa de pacientes con epilepsias en el contexto cubano.

Foundation: the generalized anxiety disorder scale is useful to evaluate this psychiatric condition in patients with epilepsy; however, it has not been adapted linguistically or culturally for patients with this disease in the Cuban context. Objective: linguistically and culturally adapt the generalized anxiety disorder scale for patients with epilepsy in the Cuban context. Methods: I+D+i technological development work, carried out in three stages: linguistic and cultural adaptation, evaluation by criteria of experts on the subject and trial in patients with epilepsy. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were combined: consultation with linguists and experts, trial, debriefing, Cronbach's alpha (α) and item elimination analysis. Results: the linguists proposed minimal semantic changes to two items of the scale. The debriefing showed that the scale can be administered in less than five minutes, with appropriate and harmless items. The α = 0.83 of the trial showed good reliability of the test. It was not necessary to eliminate any items from the scale and the item-total correlations remained above the minimum level (>0.300). Conclusions: the semantic and cultural adaptation of the scale to Spanish, as spoken in Cuba, preserves equivalence with the original version. It is recommended to verify the reliability and validity of the GAD-7 scale in a representative of patients with epilepsy in the Cuban context.

Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 59(4, supl.1): 40-44, out.- dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552696


This narrative review explores the diverse representations of epilepsy in art across different historical periods, examining the intersection of artistic expression with evolving cultural, medical, and societal perceptions. Beginning with ancient and medieval depictions intertwined with religious symbolism, the paper progresses through the Renaissance, and Baroque, and transitions into modern and avant-garde movements. Each period reflects changing attitudes towards epilepsy, from divine interpretations, and religious concerns to anatomical realism and, later, explorations of psychological themes. The contemporary lens focuses on inclusive and empathetic portrayals, utilizing digital media to challenge stigmas and foster understanding.

Esta revisão narrativa explora as diversas representações da epilepsia na arte em diferentes períodos históricos, examinando a intersecção da expressão artística com a evolução das percepções culturais, médicas e sociais. Começando com representações antigas e medievais entrelaçadas com simbolismo religioso, o artigo avança através da Renascença e do Barroco, e transita para movimentos modernos e de vanguarda. Cada período reflete mudanças de atitudes em relação à epilepsia, desde interpretações divinas e preocupações religiosas até o realismo anatômico e, mais tarde, explorações de temas psicológicos. A lente contemporânea centra-se em representações inclusivas e empáticas, utilizando meios digitais para desafiar estigmas e promover a compreensão.

Rev. chil. enferm ; 5(2): 57-68, dic. 2023. 3 tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526473


Introducción: Ser cuidador informal de pacientes pediátricos con epilepsia, implica una serie de desafíos que pueden repercutir en su salud, uno de ellos es el nivel de sobrecarga que experimenta. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de sobrecarga, características sociodemográficas y de cuidado del cuidador informal de pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de epilepsia. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, transversal. Participaron 89 cuidadores de pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de epilepsia durante el 2021. Se aplicó una encuesta que consultaba datos sociodemográficos, del cuidado y la Escala de Zarit para medir el nivel de sobrecarga del cuidador. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva para presentar resultados. Resultados: Existe predominio del género femenino en un 97% para el cuidado del paciente pediátrico con diagnóstico de epilepsia. La mayoría de las cuidadoras perciben bajos ingresos económicos y dedican más de 8 horas al cuidado, además de no tener apoyo permanente en el rol de cuidado. Seis de diez cuidadores poseen algún nivel de sobrecarga. Conclusiones: Los cuidadores de pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de epilepsia están sometidos a sobrecarga, ya sea ligera o intensa. El perfil de los cuidadores es género femenino, estado civil de soltera, ingreso económico por bajo el sueldo mínimo de Chile, alto porcentaje de ausentismo laboral y falta de apoyo para el cuidado. Se identifica desigualdad de género en materia de este cuidado y la imperiosa necesidad de reformar las actuales políticas públicas de cuidado enfatizando el apoyo a los cuidadores informales.

Introduction: Informal caregivers of pediatric patients with epilepsy confront a myriad of challenges that may adversely affect their health, with one prominent challenge being the magnitude of the burden they experience. Objective: This study aims to ascertain the level of burden, sociodemographic characteristics, and caregiving attributes among informal caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with epilepsy. Methodology: A descriptive, quantitative, and cross-sectional study was conducted, involving the participation of 89 caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with epilepsy in 2021. A survey was administered to gather sociodemographic and caregiving-related information, along with the application of the Zarit Scale to quantify the caregiver burden. Descriptive statistics were employed to present the findings. Results: Among the caregivers of pediatric patients with epilepsy, 97% were female. The majority of caregivers had a low income, dedicated more than 8 hours to caregiving responsibilities, and lacked consistent support in their caregiving role. Six out of ten caregivers reported experiencing some degree of burden. Conclusions: Caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with epilepsy encounter varying degrees of burden, ranging from mild to intense. The prevalent caregiver profile is characterized by females, often single, with incomes below the Chilean minimum wage, high rates of absenteeism, and insufficient support in their caregiving responsibilities. Gender disparities in caregiving are evident, emphasizing the urgent need to reform current public policies on caregiving, with a particular focus on bolstering support for informal caregivers.

Introdução: Ser um cuidador informal de pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia envolve uma série de desafios que podem ter repercussões em sua saúde, sendo um deles o nível de sobrecarga experimentado. Objetivo: Determinar o nível de sobrecarga, as características sociodemográficas e de cuidado dos cuidadores informais de pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de epilepsia. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, quantitativo e transversal. Oitenta e nove cuidadores de pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de epilepsia durante 2021 participaram. Foi aplicada uma pesquisa que consultou dados sociodemográficos e de cuidados e a Escala Zarit para medir o nível de sobrecarga do cuidador. Estatísticas descritivas foram usadas para apresentar os resultados. Resultados: 97% dos cuidadores eram do sexo feminino, e 97% eram do sexo feminino quando cuidavam de pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia. A maioria dos cuidadores tem baixa renda e gasta mais de 8 horas no cuidado, além de não ter apoio permanente na função de cuidador. Seis em cada dez cuidadores apresentam algum nível de sobrecarga. Conclusões: Os cuidadores de pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de epilepsia estão sujeitos a sobrecarga, seja ela leve ou intensa. O perfil dos cuidadores é do sexo feminino, solteiros, com renda inferior ao salário-mínimo chileno, uma alta porcentagem de absenteísmo e falta de apoio para o cuidado. É identificada a desigualdade de gênero no cuidado e a necessidade urgente de reformar as políticas públicas atuais sobre o cuidado, com ênfase no apoio aos cuidadores informais.

Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533508


Introducción: La epilepsia es un desorden caracterizado por la predisposición a generar crisis epilépticas, mientras que el síndrome de apnea del sueño (SAOS) ha sido reconocido como un desorden crónico de colapso intermitente de la vía aérea que genera hipoxia recurrente. En este trabajo se aplicó la escala de trastornos del sueño (Sleep Apnea Scale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire SA-SDQ), previamente validada en inglés para pacientes con epilepsia, a fin de determinar su capacidad para detectar apnea de sueño en nuestra población. Materiales y métodos: En una primera etapa se realizó la adaptación transcultural de la escala SA-SDQ en castellano, provista por los autores, al español colombiano. Luego se recopiló la información de los pacientes en quienes se realizó polisomnografía entre mayo y agosto del 2022 y se determinó el valor de corte para diagnosticar SAOS con la escala SA-SDQ. Resultados: Cuarenta pacientes pudieron realizarse la polisomnografía, de los cuales 30 (75 %) tuvieron índices de apnea-hipopnea superiores a 5, lo que indica SAOS. El área bajo la curva fue 0,790 y la puntuación SA-SDQ de 21 proporcionó una sensibilidad del 73,3 % (IC 53,83-87,02 %) y una especificidad del 80 % (IC 44,2-96,5 %). La consistencia interna fue aceptable (α = 0,713). Conclusiones: La escala SA-SDQ es un instrumento útil para tamizar SAOS en la población colombiana que padece epilepsia. Nuestros resultados indican que los puntos de corte sugeridos anteriormente (2936 para hombres y 26-32 para mujeres) pueden ser demasiado altos para nuestra población. Sugerimos un punto de corte de 21 para ambos.

Introduction: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by a predisposition to have epileptic seizures, while sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been recognized as a chronic disorder of intermittent collapse of the airway that generates recurrent hypoxia. In this work, the sleep disorders scale (SA-SDQ) previously validated in English for patients with epilepsy was applied to determine its ability to detect sleep apnea in our population. Materials and methods: In the first stage, the cross-cultural adaptation of the SA-SDQ scale in Spanish provided by the authors was carried out into Colombian Spanish. then the information of the patients in whom polysomnography was performed between May and August 2022 was collected and the cut-off value was determined to diagnose OSAS with the SA-SDQ scale. Results: 40 patients were able to undergo polysomnography, of which 30 (75 %) had apnea-hypopnea indices greater than five, indicating OSAS. The area under the curve was 0.790 and the SA-SDQ score of 21 provided a sensitivity of 73.3 % (CI 53.83-87.02 %) and a specificity of 80 % (CI 44.2-96, 5 %). The internal consistency was acceptable (α = 0.713). Conclusions: The SA-SDQ scale is a useful instrument for screening OSAS in the Colombian population suffering from epilepsy. Our results indicate that the previously suggested cut-off points (29-36 for men and 26-32 for women) may be too high in our population. We suggest a cutoff of 21 for both.

Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Epilepsy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(11): 956-960, Nov. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527888


Abstract Background The perception of family support in chronic disease can be relevant. Objective To assess the perception of family support in adult patients with epilepsy (PWEs) and relate it to quality of life (QoL) and clinical aspects. Methods Data from the Perceived Family Support Inventory (IPFS) of 130 PWEs were related to the clinical variables, QOLIE-31 scores, and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) with statistical tests, with p < 0.05. Results The mean age was 49.9 ± 17.2 years, and the duration of epilepsy was 20.8 ± 15.4 years. The presence of depression (scores ≥ 15) was associated with lower family support. Being married and non-occurrence of depression were the variables associated with a higher IPFS score (R = 0.2112), in the multiple linear regression. Conclusion The perception of greater family support was associated with demographic aspects, the absence of depression, and better QoL. Family relationships may play an essential role in health adjustment behaviors and QoL in epilepsy.

Resumo Antecedentes A percepção do suporte familiar nas doenças crônicas pode ser relevante. Objetivo Avaliar em pacientes adultos com epilepsia (PCE) a percepção do suporte familiar e relacioná-la com os aspectos clínicos e com a qualidade de vida (QV). Métodos Os dados do Inventário de Percepção de Suporte Familiar (IPSF) de 130 PCE foram relacionados com as variáveis clínicas, os escores do QOLIE-31 e com o Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), com testes estatísticos, com p < 0.05. Resultados A idade média foi 49.9 ± 17.2 anos e o tempo de epilepsia foi de 20.8 ± 15.4 anos. Escores ≥ 15 no NDDI-E (presença de depressão) associaram-se a menor suporte familiar. Ser casado e não ter depressão são as variáveis associadas a maiores escores no IPSF (R = 0.2112), na regressão linear múltipla. Conclusão A percepção de maior suporte familiar associou-se à aspectos demográficos, a ausência de depressão e a melhor QV. As relações familiares podem ter papel essencial nos comportamentos de ajustamento na saúde e na QV na epilepsia.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(supl.4): 9-12, oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521195


Resumen La epilepsia es un trastorno neurológico caracterizado por crisis epilépticas recurrentes no provocadas, en el cual la genética tiene un factor etiológico importante. Durante las últimas décadas se ha logrado encontrar genes específicos involucrados en la patogénesis de esta condición. Actualmente existen múltiples exámenes disponibles en la práctica clínica para el diagnóstico genético, siendo los más útiles los paneles multi-genes y la secuenciación del exoma completo por medio de next generation sequencing (NGS). El tener un diagnósti co genético puede mejorar la calidad de vida de cada paciente y su familia, al mismo tiempo que nos ayuda a individualizar el tratamiento haciéndolo más eficaz. Algunos ejemplos en los que el diagnóstico genético puede modificar la conducta terapéutica incluyen el gen SCN1A en que se recomienda no utilizar medicamentos bloqueadores de canales de sodio y el gen SLC2A1 en el que se recomienda el inicio de la dieta cetogénica. El futuro de la investigación en medicina de precisión en epilepsia es muy prometedor, con el objetivo de que cada paciente reciba un tratamiento acorde a su etio logía genética.

Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is known that genetics play an important etiology roll. During the last decades it has been possible to find specific genes involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. There are currently multiple studies available in clinical practice for genetic diagnosis, the most useful being the next generation se quencing (NGS) techniques with multi-gene panels and whole exome sequencing. Having a genetic diagnosis can help improve the quality of life of each patient and their family, while it helps us to individualize the treatment, making it more effective. Some examples in which ge netic diagnosis can modify therapeutic conduct include the SCN1A gene, in which it is recommended not to use drugs that block Sodium channels, and the SLC2A1 gene, in which starting ketogenic diet is recommended. The future of precision medicine research in epilepsy is very promising, with the goal that each patient receives treatment according to their genetic etiology.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(supl.4): 31-39, oct. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521199


Resumen Las crisis convulsivas tienen una alta incidencia en la etapa neonatal, representando la principal manifes tación de disfunción neurológica. Ciertas condiciones fisiológicas del cerebro neonatal facilitan su aparición. Su diagnóstico puede ser un reto debido a que su semio logía no es tan clara comparado con niños mayores, y además, es necesario la confirmación por medio de EEG continuo o aEEG. Su reconocimiento oportuno es muy importante para un adecuado tratamiento y así evitar un impacto negative en el pronóstico a largo plazo. En la siguiente revisión, recapitulamos la fisiopatología, las causas y la clasificación de las crisis convulsivas neo natales, además de su correcto abordaje y las mejores opciones terapéuticas para su tratamiento dependiendo de la causa.

Abstract Seizures have a high incidence in the neonatal stage, being the main manifestation of neurological dysfunc tion. Certain physiological conditions of the neonatal brain facilitate its appearance. Its diagnosis can be a challenging because its semiology is not as clear as in older children, furthermore, confirmation by either EEG or aEEG is necessary. Its timely recognition is very im portant for adequate treatment and thus avoid a nega tive impact on the long-term outcome. In the following review, we recapitulate the pathophysiology, causes, and classification of neonatal seizures, as well as their correct approach and the best therapeutic options for their treatment depending on the cause.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(supl.4): 57-62, oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521203


Resumen Las Epilepsias Focales Autolimitadas de la Infancia (SELFEs - siglas en inglés) son los síndromes electroclíni cos más prevalentes en edad pediátrica, cuya evolución típica, con inicio y remisión dependientes de la edad, ha permitido que el Grupo de Trabajo de Nosología y Definiciones de la ILAE (2022) las defina como "Epilep sias focales autolimitadas de la infancia", estableciendo así, criterios de alerta y exclusión para estandarizar su diagnóstico. Dentro de estos síndromes se incluyen: la Epilepsia Autolimitada con Espigas Centrotemporales (previamente Epilepsia Rolándica), Epilepsia Autolimi tada con Crisis Autonómicas. (previamente Síndrome de Panayiotopoulos), Epilepsia Visual Occipital Infantil (previamente Síndrome de Gastaut), y Epilepsia Fotosen sible del Lóbulo occipital. Ya no se recomienda utilizar el término "benignas" para referirse a ellas, ya que esto haría caso omiso de las comorbilidades que padecen algunos individuos. Asimismo, el término "idiopático" sólo se utiliza ahora para denominar a los síndromes clasificados como Epilepsias Generalizadas Idiopáticas.

Abstract Self-limited Focal Epilepsies of Childhood (SELFEs) are the most prevalent electroclinical syndromes in pe diatric age, whose typical evolution, with age-dependent onset and remission, has allowed the ILAE Nosology and Definitions Working Group (2022) to define them as "Self-limited Focal Epilepsies of Childhood", thus establishing alert and exclusion criteria to standardize their diagno sis. These syndromes include: Self-limited Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (previously Rolandic Epilepsy), Self-limited Epilepsy with Autonomic Seizures (previ ously Panayiotopoulos Syndrome), Childhood Occipital Visual Epilepsy, (previously Gastaut Syndrome), and Photosensitive Occipital Lobe Epilepsy. Using the term "benign" to refer to them is no longer recommended, as this would ignore the comorbidities some individuals suffer. Also, the term "idiopathic" is now only used to refer to the syndromes classified as Idiopathic General ized Epilepsies.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(supl.4): 63-68, oct. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521204


Resumen Este artículo no tiene como objetivo el presentar una descripción detallada de cada una de las encefalopatías epilépticas y del desarrollo, sino más bien discutir cam bios recientes en la terminología y criterios diagnósticos de ciertas encefalopatías, en base a una revisión actua lizada de los últimos 10 años. Se analizan cambios importantes en definiciones de síndromes específicos y nuevos tratamientos que han demostrado eficacia en el manejo de crisis convulsivas en estos pacientes. En conclusión: Las nuevas terapias de modulación genética, contribuirán no solo a reducir la carga de crisis epilépticas, sino también a mejorar el pronóstico cognitivo, y por lo tanto la calidad de vida.

Abstract It is not the intend of this article to present a de tailed description of each developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, but to discuss recent changes in the terminology and diagnostic criteria of specific disorders, based on an updated review of the last 10 years. Important changes in the definitions of specific syn dromes and new treatments that have shown efficacy in the management of seizures in these patients are analyzed. In conclusion: New gene modulation therapy will likely improve not only seizure frequency, but also cog nitive outcome and therefore quality of life.