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1.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 94(2): 169-173, Apr.-Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556913

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Presentar la experiencia en un país andino con el dispositivo OcclutechTM Duct Occluder para el cierre del conducto arterioso persistente. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, de corte transversal con análisis estadístico básico. Periodo: diciembre/2014 a diciembre/2022. Datos: historia clínica, informes de laboratorio de cateterismo. Resultados: Cuarenta y seis pacientes; de sexo femenino 71.3%, de sexo masculino 28.7%; edad: 0.6-38 años (mediana [Me]: 5.2); peso: 6.3-60 kg (Me: 16.5). Procedencia: andina 91.3%, costa 8.7%. Tipos de conducto arterioso persistente: E 54.4%, A 32.6%, D 13%. Diámetro ductal mínimo: 1.8-11.8 mm (Me: 3.5). Presión media de la arteria pulmonar previo a la oclusión: 14-67 mmHg (Me: 27). Índice de resistencias vasculares pulmonares previo a la oclusión: 0.28-4.9 UW/m2 (Me: 1.3). Fueron catalogados como conductos arteriosos persistentes hipertensivos seis de ellos. Tasa de oclusión: inmediata el 47.8%, a las 24 horas el 81%, a los seis meses el 100%. Tiempo de fluoroscopia: 2-13.8 minutos (Me: 4). Complicaciones: un dispositivo migrado. Seguimiento: 1-6.5 años. Conclusiones: El dispositivo OcclutechTM Duct Occluder fue efectivo y seguro para el cierre de conducto arterioso persistente tipo E, A y D en habitantes de baja y alta altitud, ya sea que estos hubieran sido niños o adultos, incluso cuando estos conductos arteriosos fueron hipertensivos.


Abstract Objective: To communicate the experience in an Andean country with the OcclutechTM Duct Occluder device for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Method: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study with basic statistical analysis. Period: December/2014 to December/2022. Data: medical chart, reports of catheterization. Results: Forty-six patients, female 71.3%, male 28.7%; age: 0.6-38 years-old (median [Me]: 5.2); weight: 6.3-60 kg (Me: 16.5). Origin: andean 91.3%, coast 8.7%. Types of patent ductus arteriosus: E 54.4%, A 32.6%, D 13%. Minimum ductal diameter: 1.8-11.8 mm (Me: 3.5). Mean pulmonary artery pressure prior to occlusion: 14-67 mmHg (Me: 27). Pulmonary vascular resistance index prior to occlusion: 0.28-4.9 WU/m2 (Me: 1.3). Six of them were classified as hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus. Occlusion rate: 47.8% immediate, 81% at 24 hours, 100% after six months. Fluoroscopy time: 2-13.8 minutes (Me: 4). Complications: a migrated device. Follow-up: 1-6.5 years. Conclusions: OcclutechTM Duct Occluder device was effective and safe for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus type E, A and D in low-altitude and high-altitude dwellers, whether they were children or adults, even when these ductus arteriosus were hypertensive.

2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(2): 189-195, Mar.-Apr. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558300

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aim was to estimate the pubertal growth height of children and adolescents living in a high-altitude region of Peru using the Preece-Baines model 1 (1 PB). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in schoolchildren from the department of Puno (Peru) between 3841 and 3874 masl. The age range was between 4 and 17 years. Standing height was evaluated. 1 PB was used to infer the mathematical and biological parameters of stature. Results: Mathematical parameters estimated by the 1 PB model reflected small residual standard error (RSE) values in both sexes (0.25 in boys and 0.27 in girls). In boys, the age at which peak velocity was reached (APHV) was estimated at 13.21 ± 0.33years. While in girls it was 9.96 ± 0.26years (p < 0.05). In general, girls reached APHV (y) 3.25 years earlier than boys. On the other hand, the growth velocity of maximum height [APHV (cm/y)] of boys was higher (6.33 ± 6.06 cm/y) relative to girls (6.06 ± 0.32 cm/y). Estimated final adult height (EFAH) in boys was reached at 166.020 ± 0.99 cm and height at maximum growth velocity (HPHV) was 153.07 ± 0.67 cm, while in girls they were significantly lower (EFAH; 153.74 ± 0.44 cm and HPHV: 139.73 ± 0.84 cm). Conclusions: This study showed that girls living in Puno at a high altitude in Peru reached APHV 3 years earlier than boys and at the same time reflected slower PHV. These results suggest that pubertal growth at high altitudes is slower in both sexes and especially in girls. Thus, modeling physical growth may be an important step in understanding the onset of puberty at different latitudes.

3.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(2): 11-20, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La COVID-19 ha provocado diversas consecuencias en el mundo, actualmente se siguen estudiando sus factores predisponentes y consecuencias. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el estado de salud y la frecuencia de los factores de riesgo para COVID-19 grave en estudiantes, docentes y administrativos universitarios. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se aplicó un cuestionario virtual. Se recopiló información epidemiológica personal y del entorno cercano, grupo sanguíneo, hacinamiento en administrativos, peso y talla. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo la información de 209 docentes, 103 administrativos y 1556 estudiantes. En docentes el 49.52% tiene alguna enfermedad crónica, el 29% tuvo COVID-19. En administrativos, el 56.31% tiene alguna enfermedad crónica, el 29% tuvo COVID-19. En estudiantes el 30% tiene enfermedad crónica, el 24.42% tuvo COVID-19. La mayoría de los docentes tiene sobrepeso, principalmente el sexo masculino desde los 51 años. El 50% del personal administrativo presenta sobrepeso, en igual proporción en ambos sexos y a partir de 41 años. En estudiantes la mayoría tiene un estado nutricional normal, el 27,9% presenta sobrepeso, siendo mayor en el sexo femenino y en el grupo de 20 a 25 años de edad. CONCLUSIONES: Son factores frecuentes en docentes y administrativos la edad, enfermedad crónica, grupo sanguíneo diferente de 0Rh positivo y sobrepeso.


INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has caused various consequences in the world, its predisposing factors and consequences are currently being studied. The objective of this study was to determine the state of health and the frequency of risk factors for severe COVID-19 in university students, teachers, and administrators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study, a virtual questionnaire was applied. Personal epidemiological information and information about the immediate environment, blood group, overcrowding in administrative offices, weight and height were collected. RESULTS: Information was obtained from 209 teachers, 103 administrators and 1556 students. In teachers, 49.52% have some chronic disease, 29% had COVID-19. In administrative, 56.31% have some chronic disease, 29% had COVID-19. In students, 30% have a chronic disease, 24.42% had COVID-19. Most of the teachers are overweight, mainly the male sex from the age of 51. 50% of the administrative staff is overweight, in equal proportion in both sexes and from 41 years of age. In students, the majority have a normal nutritional status, 27.9% are overweight, being higher in the female sex and in the group of 20 to 25 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent factors in teachers and administrators are age, chronic illness, blood group other than 0Rh positive, and overweight


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Nutrition Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
4.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(2): 21-26, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537813

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: describir el estado ácido base en pacientes obstétricas críticamente enfermas a muy alta altitud, al momento de su ingreso a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: estudio descriptivo transversal. Se incluyen todas las pacientes obstétricas internadas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Adultos del Hospital del Norte de la ciudad de El Alto, La Paz a 4150 metros sobre el nivel del mar, ingresadas en el periodo enero 2019-enero 2022. RESULTADOS: se ingresaron 79 pacientes, con media de edad de 29 años (desviación estándar 8.06 años), 52 casos (66%) por preeclampsia severa, 14 casos (18%) por hemorragia obstétrica, 8 casos (10%) por sepsis obstétrica y 5 (6%) por diagnósticos diversos como taquicardia supraventricular e intoxicaciones, existieron 8 pacientes fallecidas (10% de mortalidad) destacando la sepsis obstétrica con mayor fallecimiento y mayor tiempo de internación. CONCLUSIÓN: los cambios fisiológicos propios del embarazo, la convierten en una paciente de riesgo, identificando la diferencia de iones fuertes aparente y abreviada como posibles factores pronóstico en la paciente obstétrica en estado crítico. PALABRAS CLAVE: estado acido-base, obstetricia crítica, gran altitud


OBJECTIVE: to describe the acid base status in critically ill obstetric patients at very high altitude, at the time of admission to the Intensive Care Unit. METHODOLOGY: retrospective descriptive study. All obstetric patients admitted to the Adult Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital del Norte in the city of El Alto, La Paz at 4150 meters above sea level, in the period January 2019-January 2022, are included. RESULTS: 79 patients were admitted, with a mean age of 29 years (standard deviation 8.06 years), 52 cases (66%) due to severe preeclampsia, 14 cases (18%) due to obstetric hemorrhage, 8 cases (10%) due to obstetric sepsis. and 5 (6%) due to various diagnoses such as supraventricular tachycardia and poisoning, there were 8 deceased patients (10% mortality), highlighting obstetric sepsis with the highest death rate and longest hospital stay. DISCUSSION: the physiological changes during pregnancy make her a risk patient, identifying the apparent and abbreviated strong ion difference as possible prognostic factors in the critically ill obstetric patient


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pregnancy , Intensive Care Units
5.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(2): 27-35, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537845

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el síndrome metabólico es una entidad compleja, compuesta por factores de riesgo cardiaco como: Obesidad, Diabetes. Hipertensión, dislipemia etc. OBJETIVO: determinar la frecuencia de síndrome metabólico en adultos mayores de la ciudad El Alto, durante la gestión 2019. METODOLOGÍA: investigación transversal cuantitativa, se evaluaron a 124 individuos, reclutados en Auki Utas por el gobierno autónomo municipal de El Alto, mediante coordinación con la Unidad de Protección al Adulto Mayor, durante la gestión 2019. Previo consentimiento informado, se determinó antropometría, tensión arterial, toma de muestra de sangre venosa, para procesamiento de pruebas bioquímicas, (glucemia, triglicéridos, colesterol total, HDL colesterol y LDL colesterol). RESULTADOS: el 62% (77/124) de la población estudiada se encuadra dentro del diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico, presentando datos alterados en por lo menos tres de los criterios evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: la población estudiada presenta altos porcentajes de síndrome metabólico, con mayor tendencia a la obesidad e hipertensión, por lo que es importante la promoción y prevención, ya que el sobrepeso y obesidad son factores de riesgo para la resistencia a la insulina, determinante de los demás criterios (marcadores), actividades de promoción y prevención son necesarias en la ciudad de El Alto, para evitar morbimortalidad por síndrome metabólico


INTRODUCTION: metabolic syndrome is a complex entity, composed of cardiac risk factors such as: obesity, diabetes. hypertension, dyslipidemia, etc. OBJECTIVE: determine a baseline regarding metabolic syndrome in older adults in the El Alto city, which can be used in the future to carry out potential preventive interventions. METHODOLOGY: quali-quantitative research, studied 124 individuals, recruited in Auki Utas by the Autonomous Municipal Government of El Alto city, through coordination with the Protection Unit for the Elderly, during the 2019 administration. Prior informed consent, anthropometry was determined blood pressure, venous blood sampling, for processing biochemical tests (blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL). RESULTS: 62% (77/124) of the studied population falls within the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, presenting altered data in at least three of the evaluated entities. CONCLUSIONS: the population studied presents high percentages of metabolic syndrome, with a greater tendency to obesity and hypertension, so promotion and prevention is important, since overweight and obesity are risk factors for insulin resistance, a determinant of the other criteria (markers), promotion and prevention activities are necessary in the El Alto city, to avoid morbidity and mortality due to metabolic syndrome


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Aged , Blood Specimen Collection
6.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 41: 89-102, ago. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557702

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: realizar ejercicio en altitudes elevadas merece consideraciones especiales a la hora de determinar las necesidades de líquidos en los deportistas y más aún en las tropas de montaña del ejército. Mantener un estado de euhidratación durante la actividad física es imprescindible para evitar complicaciones en la salud. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar el estado de hidratación en los soldados de la Brigada de Montaña VIII del Ejército Argentino con asiento en Mendoza, Argentina en el año 2021. Materiales y método: estudio descriptivo, observacional, longitudinal. La muestra fue conformada por 87 soldados masculinos. Los datos recopilados incluyeron la cantidad y tipo de ingesta de líquidos, la gravedad específica urinaria mediante un refractómetro manual, el porcentaje de cambio de peso y la percepción subjetiva de sed. El análisis estadístico para variables cualitativas se realizó con la prueba χ2 y con IC 95%, las cuantitativas se compararon mediante la prueba t-Student. Resultados: el 96,5% de los soldados se hidrataron con agua. La ingesta media de líquidos fue 1,34±0,74 litros (L), con una ingesta máxima de 4 L y un mínimo de 0,5 L. El 36% de la muestra presentó una pérdida de peso corporal superior al 2% al finalizar la actividad, la diferencia relativa referida al peso inicial medio fue 1,7±1,4%. Al finalizar, el 43% clasificó como euhidratado y 29% como hipohidratado severo según la gravedad específica urinaria. Según la percepción subjetiva de sed al finalizar solo un 14% de los soldados no tenía sed. Conclusión: el estudio reflejó que el 64% de los soldados mantuvo una estrategia de reposición de líquidos óptima, dado que las pérdidas de peso se limitaron a lo esperable.


Abstract Introduction: exercising at high altitudes deserves special considerations when it comes to determining fluid requirements in athletes, especially in Army mountain troops. Maintaining a state of euhydration during physical activity is essential to avoid health complications. The aim of this research is to identify the hydration status of soldiers of the VIII Mountain Brigade of the Argentine Army based in Mendoza, Argentina in 2021. Materials and method: descriptive, observational, longitudinal study. The sample consisted of 87 male soldiers. The data collected included the amount and type of fluid intake, urinary specific gravity by using a manual refractometer, percentage of weight change and subjective perception of thirst. Statistical analysis for qualitative variables was done with the χ2 test and 95% CI, quantitative variables were compared using the t-Student test. Results: 96.5% of soldiers hydrated themselves with water. The mean fluid intake was 1.34±0.74 liters (L), with a maximum intake of 4 L and a minimum of 0.5 L. 36% percent of the sample presented a body weight loss of more than 2% at the end of the activity, the relative difference referred to the mean initial weight was 1.7±1.4%. At the end, 43% were classified as euhydrated and 29% as severely hypohydrated according to specific urinary gravity. According to the subjective perception of thirst at the end, only 14% of the soldiers were not thirsty. Conclusion: the study showed that 64% of the soldiers maintained an optimal fluid replacement strategy, given that weight losses were limited to what was expected.

7.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(1): 58-62, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451241

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso clínico de una paciente de 66 años de edad masculino que acude a nuestro hospital (COOSMIL), después de hacer una anamnesis donde el paciente manifiestas molestias como tos, regurgitación y mal alientos (halitosis) y se le hace exámenes complementarios y se llega a un diagnóstico de divertículo faringo-esofágico o Zenker. Esta patología no es muy frecuente, pero se presenta en ancianos por una alteración anatomo-funcional que es un debilitamiento del músculo esofágico Hay tres divertículos esofágicos de los cuales el divertículo de Zenker es el más común aunque es relativamente raro que se presente, en la mayoría de las personas en edad seniles. Después de analizar el tamaño y forma del divertículo de este paciente se toma la decisión de una intervención quirúrgica el más acertado por el tamaño que mide es la diverticulectomia este tratamiento quirúrgico actualmente se continúa realizando en esta patología y con buen pronóstico de vida del paciente. Actualmente, el paciente se encuentra en buen estado salud y su recuperación es favorable desde la operación hasta el momento.


A case of a male patient of 66 years old was referred to our hospital (COSSMIL), after making an anamnesis in which the patient manifested cough, regurgitation and bad breath (halitosis). After further examination a the diagnosis is pharyngo-esophageal diverticulum or Zenker. This condition is rare, but sometimes it happens in elders due to an anatomical and functional alteration caused by is an esophagus muscle weakening. There are three esophageal diverticula in which the Zenker diverticulum is the most common but relatively rarely to occur in elder people. Before analyzing the size and shape of the diverticulum in this patient, the decision is proceed with surgery, the most recommended solution for measuring the size of the diverticulectomy. is The surgical treatment is still being applied in this pathology, with a high probability of success. Currently, the patient is in good health and the recovery from surgery is favorable so far.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged
8.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(1): 62-66, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451250

ABSTRACT

Los riesgos asociados a la neumonía por (SARS-CoV-2) es la generación de insuficiencia respiratoria secundaria que en algunos casos desencadenara al tan temido síndrome de distres respiratorio (SDRA); Informes sobre atención clínica, indican que tiene una incidencia (SDRA) de 3-10 % con necesidad de Asistencia Respiratoria Mecánica (ARM) en pacientes hospitalizados; por lo que dispositivos de oxigenación no invasivos siguen siendo una opción atractiva, de forma inicial. Caso clínico: mujer de 47 años con insuficiencia respiratoria secundario a neumonía por COVID-19, por la gravedad se indica su ingreso a terapia intensiva, pero por razones de falta de unidad es manejada en unidad respiratoria, con el uso de dispositivos de oxigenación de armado ARTESAL, de manera exitosa, con la utilización de CNAF-artesanal, se pretende mejorar el trabajo respiratorio, índices de oxigenación, mientras se da tratamiento a la infección por el COVID-19; el objetivo del presente caso es reportar el presente caso con evolución favorable a la literatura disponible. Discusión: El uso de terapia de oxigenación con dispositivo de Cánula Nasal de Alto Flujo, aún no ha sido normatizado en pacientes con COVID-19, pero existe evidencia clínica sobre los efectos beneficiosos en la insuficiencia respiratoria en neonatos mas no en adultos. Conclusión: El uso temprano de la CNAF-artesanal en la insuficiencia respiratoria resulta muy atractivo, más aún con dispositivo de confección artesanal, da una opción más al paciente fuera de UTI, pudiendo apoyar en evitar la intubación y su ingreso a ventilación mecánica.


The risks associated with pneumonia (SARS-CoV-2) is the generation of secondary respiratory failure that in some cases will trigger the much feared respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); Reports on clinical care indicate that it has an incidence (ARDS) of 3-10% with the need for Mechanical Respiratory Assistance (ARM) in hospitalized patients; so non-invasive oxygenation devices remain an attractive option, initially. Clinical case: a 47-year-old woman with respiratory failure secondary to covid-19 pneumonia. Due to the severity, her admission to intensive care is indicated, but for reasons of lack of unity, she is managed in a common room, with the use of high-pressure oxygenation devices. ARTISAL assembly, successfully, with the use of CNAF-artisanal, is intended to improve the work of breathing, and oxygenation indices, while treating the infection by COVID-19; The objective of this case is to report the present case with a favorable evolution based on the available literature. Discussion: The use of oxygenation therapy with a High Flow Nasal Cannula device has not yet been standardized in patients with COVID-19, but there is clinical evidence on the beneficial effects in respiratory failure in neonates but not in adults. Conclusion: The early use of the artisan HFNC in respiratory failure is very attractive, even more so with an artisanal device, it gives the patient another option outside the ICU, being able to help avoid intubation and admission to mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Apr; 71(4): 1483-1487
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224952

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare the function and morphology of the meibomian glands and the ocular surface of individuals from highland and lowland. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. The study was performed with 104 individuals (51 individuals from the highland and 53 individuals from the lowland). Detailed eye examinations comprising tear meniscus height, lipid layer grading, non?invasive Keratograph tear breakup time (NIKBUT), and scoring of the meibomian glands from the upper and lower eyelids of the individuals were performed by Keratograph 5M (OCULUS, Wetzlar, Germany). Symptoms related to dry eye disease were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Results: In the highland group, tear meniscus height was lower (P = 0.024), lipid layer grade, as well as all the meiboscores were higher (P < 0.05) than that in the lowland group. The OSDI (P = 0.018) and the percentage of dry eye disease were also higher as compared to that of the lowland group (P = 0.032). The first NIKBUT and average NIKBUT did not differ significantly between groups. The frequency of plugged meibomian gland orifices was greater in the lowland group compared to the highland group (P = 0.036). Conclusion: It was observed that dry eye disease was more common in the highland group. The morphological changes of meibomian gland dropout were significant in highlanders as demonstrated objectively with Keratograph 5M. Our study may raise a concern for environmental influences on ocular surface changes

10.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 93(1): 37-43, ene.-mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429703

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las cardiopatías congénitas son los trastornos congénitos más frecuentes en la población mundial, se manifiestan generalmente después del nacimiento. Las altitudes entre 2,500 y 3,500 metros sobre el nivel del mar se han relacionado con la alta incidencia de cardiopatías congénitas como el ductus arterioso persistente, los defectos del septum auricular y los defectos del septum ventricular. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y sociodemográficamente los pacientes con diagnóstico de cardiopatías congénitas procedentes de altitudes bajas, moderadas y altas en un hospital regional de Colombia. Metodología: Estudio observacional, descriptivo retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes menores de 18 años con diagnóstico de cardiopatías congénitas, atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja entre el 2015 y 2021. Resultados: El 51.9% de los pacientes eran de sexo masculino, el 16.3% tenían antecedente de prematurez y el 9.1% tenían diagnóstico de síndrome de Down. Las cardiopatías más frecuentes fueron: ductus arterioso persistente (35.1%), seguido de comunicación interventricular (21.6%) y comunicación intrauricular (19.7%). Conclusiones: Se deben establecer estrategias como el tamizaje y diagnóstico oportuno de las cardiopatías congénitas en poblaciones de riesgo con el fin de mejorar el pronóstico de vida de los pacientes y desenlace de la enfermedad.


Abstract Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are the most common congenital disorders in the world population, they generally manifest after birth. Altitudes between 2,500-3,500 meters above sea level have been linked to the high incidence of congenital heart diseases such as patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septum defects, and ventricular septum defects. Objetives: To characterize clinically and sociodemographically the patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease from low, moderate and high altitudes in a regional hospital in Colombia. Methodology: Observational, descriptive retrospective study. All patients under 18 years of age with a diagnosis of congenital heart disease, treated at the San Rafael de Tunja University Hospital between 2015 and 2021, were included. Results: 51.9% of the patients were male, 16.3% had a history of prematurity and 9.1% had a diagnosis of Down syndrome. The most frequent heart diseases were: persistent ductus arteriosus 35.1%, followed by ventricular communication representing 21.6% and intra-atrial communication with 19.7%). Conclusions: They must eestablish strategies such as screening and timely diagnosis of congenital heart disease in at-risk populations in order to improve the life prognosis of patients and the outcome of the disease.

11.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(2): 37-39, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444103

ABSTRACT

En las alturas, sobre todo a 2500 metros sobre el nivel del mar, la cantidad absoluta de oxígeno va decreciendo y por lo tanto la cantidad disponible para el intercambio gaseoso disminuye, produciéndose una vasoconstricción hipóxica pulmonar (VHP). La VHP asociada a la hipoxia hipobárica de la altura produce un aumento de la presión pulmonar que es mayor en los lactantes y a mayores alturas. No hay valores únicos de saturación de oxígeno (SatO2) en la altura, porque ésta va disminuyendo según el mayor nivel de altura, aumenta con la edad, y la brecha entre la vigilia y sueño es grande (sobre todo en los primeros meses de vida). El 25% de los niños sanos que viven en altura tienen valores de SatO2 significativamente menores que el 75% restante. Los valores normales de los índices de apnea/hipopnea son distintos a los de nivel del mar. El edema pulmonar de las alturas es una patología frecuente, que se produce por un incremento desproporcionado en la VHP reflejando una hiperactividad del lecho vascular pulmonar ante la exposición aguda a la hipoxia hipobárica. Tiene cuatro fenotipos, es infrecuente en menores de 5 años y rara vez es mortal, la sospecha clínica y el manejo oportuno con oxigeno es la clave. Finalmente, en la altura los valores normales de la función pulmonar de la espirometría, oscilometría de impulso y capacidad de difusión son distintos que a nivel del mar.


At high altitude, especially > 2,500 meters above sea level, the absolute amount of oxygen decreases and therefore the amount available for gas exchange decreases, producing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (VHP). VHP associated with high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia produces an increase in pulmonary pressure that is greater in infants and at higher altitudes. There are no single values of oxygen saturation (SatO2) at altitude, because it decreases with the highest level of altitude, increases with age, and the gap between wakefulness and sleep is large (especially in the first months of life). Around 25% of healthy children living at altitude have SatO2 values significantly lower than the remaining 75%. The normal values of the apnea/hypopnea indices are different from those at sea level. High altitude pulmonary edema is a frequent pathology that is produced by a disproportionate increase in VHP reflecting hyperactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed in the face of acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, it has four phenotypes, it is uncommon in children under 5 years of age, and it is rarely fatal, the clinical suspicion and timely management with oxygen is the key. Finally, at high altitude, the normal values of lung function from spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and diffusing capacity are different from those at sea level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Altitude , Altitude Sickness/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Oxygen Saturation , Hypoxia/physiopathology
12.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 422023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508221

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To identify the frequency of anemia in pregnant women at different geographical altitudes in the Arequipa region of Peru. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, and retrospective study was carried out. The study population consisted of 35,725 pregnant women living in the Arequipa Region at different altitudes. Data on age, gestational age, weight, height, province of residence, altitude, hemoglobin were collected. Results: Using World Health Organization altitude adjusted hemoglobin values, anemia prevalence in pregnant women between 2018-2019 was 13.7 percent in the Arequipa Region, while using unadjusted hemoglobin, the overall prevalence was 4.1 percent. When analyzed by altitudes, the frequency of anemia was 9.77 percent below 1 000 m 13.1 percent between 1 000-1 999 m, 13.1 percent between 2.000-2.999 m, 31.5 percent between 3.000-3.999 and 47.1 percent between 4.000-4.999. Nevertheless, when using unadjusted hemoglobin values rates were 6.67 percent for the 1.000-1.999 range, 2.39 percent for ranges between 2.000-2.999 m and 3.000-3.999 m, and 5.19 percent for altitudes above 4.000 m. Conclusions: There is a directly proportional correlation in the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and higher altitude (p<0.01) as well as levels of anemia during the last trimester of pregnancy. Adjusting the hemoglobin values by altitude results in triple the prevalence of anemia. A throughout revision of the suitability of current guidelines to diagnose and prevent anemia at high altitude is recommended (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de anemia en gestantes de diferentes altitudes geográficas en la región Arequipa, Perú. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y retrospectivo. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 35 725 gestantes residentes en la Región Arequipa a diferentes altitudes. Se recogieron datos de edad, edad gestacional, peso, talla, provincia de residencia, altitud, hemoglobina. Resultados: Utilizando los valores de hemoglobina ajustados por altitud de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la prevalencia de anemia en gestantes entre 2018-2019 fue de 13,7 por ciento en la Región Arequipa, mientras que utilizando la hemoglobina no ajustada, la prevalencia global fue de 4,1 por ciento. Al analizar por altitudes, la frecuencia de anemia fue de 9,77 por ciento por debajo de 1 000 m 13,1 por ciento entre 1 000-1 999 m, 13,1 por ciento entre 2 000-2 999 m, 31,5 por ciento entre 3 000-3 999 y 47,1 por ciento entre 4 000-4 999. Sin embargo, cuando se utilizaron valores de hemoglobina no ajustados, las tasas fueron del 6,67 por ciento para el intervalo de 1 000-1 999, del 2,39 por ciento para los intervalos entre 2 000-2 999 m y 3 000-3 999 m, y del 5,19 por ciento para altitudes superiores a 4 000 m. Conclusiones: Existe una correlación directamente proporcional en la prevalencia de anemia en embarazadas y mayor altitud (p<0,01), así como niveles de anemia durante el último trimestre del embarazo. Ajustando los valores de hemoglobina por la altitud se triplica la prevalencia de anemia. Se recomienda una revisión en profundidad de la idoneidad de las directrices actuales para diagnosticar y prevenir la anemia a gran altitud(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hemoglobins/analysis , Pregnant Women/ethnology , Anemia/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
13.
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 29(1): 20-25, 2023. Cua
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450160

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La adaptación a grandes altitudes implica cambios evolutivos que conllevan respuestas adaptativas, como a la hipoxia. Los andinos desarrollaron fenotipos eritroides diferentes en relación con otras poblaciones a gran altitud que pueden variar dependiendo la altitud. Objetivo. Determinar las variaciones fenotípicas de hemoglobina (Hb), saturación de oxígeno (SpO2), P50 y lactato en andinos bolivianos con radicatorias entre 400, 4000 y 5000 msnm. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de tipo prospectivo. Se recolectó sangre venosa periférica de andinos bolivianos (n=124) nacidos a 4000 m, pero con radicatoria en altitudes diferentes (400 m, 4000 m, 5000 m), así como de aquellos con eritrocitosis patológicas. Adicionalmente, se recolectó muestras de europeos residentes a 4000 m (n=11). Se realizó estudios de hemograma, oximetría y gasometría. La P50 fue calculada con fórmula de Lichtman. Resultados. Los andinos sanos, comparados entre distintas altitudes, reflejaron aumento de Hb al ser mayor la altitud (p: 0,001), empero disminución de SpO2 (p: 0,001) y P50 (p: 0,001); sin variaciones en lactato. Los europeos a 4000 m, en relación con andinos a la misma altitud, presentaron Hb incrementada (p: 0,01), SpO2 y P50 sin variaciones, pero lactato significativamente aumentado (p: 0,001). Los pacientes con eritrocitosis comparados con sujetos sanos, a 4000 m y 5000 m respectivamente, presentaron Hb aumentada (p: 0,001); SpO2 disminuida (p: 0,001); P50 sin variaciones, pero lactato incrementado (p: 0,01). El lactato elevado en sujetos a 5000 m con eritrocitosis fue llamativo (1,7 mmol/L). Conclusiones. Las variaciones fenotípicas observadas entre andinos en diferentes altitudes constituyen una expresión de una adaptación parcial a la altura.


Introduction. Human adaptation to high altitude involves evolutionary changes leading adaptive responses, such as to hypoxia. Andeans developed different erythroid phenotypes in relation to other populations at high altitude, which can vary depending on the altitude. Objective. To determine the phenotypic variations of hemoglobin (Hb), oxygen saturation (SpO2), P50 and lactate in Bolivian Andeans residing between 400, 4000 or 5000 masl. Material and methods. Prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Peripheral venous blood from Bolivian Andeans (n=124) born at 4000 m, but residing at different altitudes (400 m, 4000 m, 5000 m), likewise from those with pathological erythrocytosis were collected. Additionally, samples from Europeans residing at 4000 m (n=11) were collected. CBC, oximetry and blood gas studies were performed. P50 was calculated using the Lichtman formula. Results. Healthy Andeans, compared between different altitudes, reflected an increased Hb (p: 0.001), but a decreased SpO2 (p: 0.001) and P50 (p: 0.001) as the altitude was higher; without variations in lactate. Europeans at 4000 m, related to Andeans at the same altitude, presented increased Hb (p: 0.01), SpO2 and P50 without variations, but significantly increased lactate (p: 0.001). Patients with erythrocytosis compared to healthy subjects, at 4000 m and 5000 m respectively, depicted increased Hb (p: 0.001); decreased SpO2 (p: 0.001); P50 without changes, but increased lactate (p: 0.01). Increased lactate in subjects with erythrocytosis at 5000 m was remarkable (1.7 mmol/L). Conclusion. The phenotypic variations observed among Andeans residing at different altitudes constitute an expression of partial adaptation to altitude.


Subject(s)
Polycythemia
14.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 300-308, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005760

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To assess the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated influencing factors among residents in Ali so as to provide reference for local prevention and control of chronic diseases. 【Methods】 Stratified cluster random sampling was used to investigate the prevalence of chronic diseases and their influencing factors among permanent residents over 18 years of age in Aili. 【Results】 Totally 606 subjects were included, with a prevalence of chronic diseases of 39.93% and the highest prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis of 14.03%. The prevalence of chronic diseases was significantly different among ethnicity, age, education, occupation, personnel category, family living standard, amateur physical exercise, fuel type and self-rated health (P<0.05). Logistic regression showed that the risk of chronic diseases among the residents aged 50 years and above was 2.656 (95% CI: 1.439-4.901) times higher than that of residents under 30 years; the risk of chronic diseases among the residents with elementary school education and below was 3.528 (95% CI: 1.519-8.197) times higher than that of residents with college education and above; housework personnel could reduce the risk of chronic diseases (OR=0.365, 95% CI: 0.161-0.828); residents with poor self-rated health had 5.814 (95% CI: 3.243-10.423) times higher risk of chronic diseases than those with good self-rated health; and those with a weight gain of more than 2.5 kg in the past year could increase the risk of chronic diseases (OR=2.029, 95% CI: 1.226-3.358). 【Conclusion】 The prevalence of chronic diseases is high in residents of Ali. Attention should be paid to the elderly population with poor self-rated health and tendency of weight gain. Personalized behavioral lifestyle health education is helpful in preventing the occurrence of chronic diseases.

15.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 935-939, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004725

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To validate the performance of a nucleic acid testing(NAT) system for blood screening in the high-altitude Nagqu region of Tibet, in order to assess the capability of NAT in high-altitude areas and further enhance blood safety. 【Methods】 Various methods were employed to evaluate the analytical sensitivity, reproducibility, ability to prevent cross-contamination, and comparison between different NAT systems. 【Results】 The NAT system in the Nagqu region of Tibet achieved a 100% detection rate for high-concentration HBV DNA and HIV-1 RNA samples, and over 90% for medium-concentration samples. PROBIT analysis revealed the lower limits of detection (LOD) for HBV DNA and HIV-1 RNA to be 8.29 IU/mL (95% CI, 5.88~20.55 IU/mL) and 40.52 IU/mL (95% CI, 30.26~85.92 IU/mL), respectively. For HCV RNA genotype 2a, the LOD was 97.14 IU/mL (95% CI, 71.00~182.67 IU/mL), all of which were lower than the declared minimum detectable concentrations in the instructions. Reproducibility analysis demonstrated a 100% level of consistency within the system. Cross-contamination performance verification showed a strong ability to resist cross-contamination. Comparative analysis of repeated testing of low-concentration HBV DNA samples and multi-system testing in plain areas revealed consistency rates of 77.78%(14/18) and 77.27%(17/22), respectively, indicating certain differences between the NAT system in Nagqu region and other systems. 【Conclusion】 The NAT system exhibited excellent performance in blood screening at high altitudes. The results of performance validation in high-altitude blood screening NAT systems were largely consistent with those in plain areas, providing a reliable basis for enhancing blood safety in high-altitude regions.

16.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 1391-1402, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014576

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is one of the factors restricting the survival of people at high altitudes, which can cause various symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, palpitations, shortness of breath and acute coma. About 80% of patients with acute mountain sickness have at least one symptom of a gastrointestinal distress (e. g., anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, etc.). The pathological characteristics, pathogenesis and drug treatment of intestinal injury caused by high-altitude hypoxia were studied, which is conducive to the diagnosis and treatment of plateau gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, by summarized relevant literature and systematically expounds the related researches on intestinal damage caused by high altitude hypoxia. We summarized the changes of intestinal morphology, intestinal cells, intestinal flora and other intestinal homeostasis caused by high altitude hypoxia, the mechanism of intestinal inflammation and oxidative damage, and the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine, which provide reference and information for reference for scientific research workers and clinicians.

17.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1740-1745, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013952

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the important role of HDAC5 in P-gp expression in rats in high-altitude low oxygen environment and its effect on phenytoin sodium pharmacokinetics. Methods Wistar rats were transported to Batang, Yushu, Qinghai, at an altitude of 4010 m, with 6 rats in each group, divided into 1 d and 3 d groups. Different groups were given phenytoin, phenytoin combined with hypericin, and phenytoin combined with verapamil. Plasma and liver tissues were collected at different time after taking the drug in the plateau area. The concentration of phenytoin sodium in plasma was determined by UFLC-MS method. Changes in protein expression were detected by Western blot. Results The results of UFLC-MS showed that the AUC

18.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 65-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013879

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the effect of salidroside on the learning and memory ability of mice under high altitude hypoxia. Methods Forty-eight C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into plain control group, plateau model group and salidroside group according to their body weight, with 16 mice in each group. The animals in each group were given prophylactic doses for three days and then rushed to a plateau with an altitude of 4 010 m. After one day of hypoxia exposure, Morris water maze was performed to test the learning and memory ability of mice; malondialdehyde(MDA), hydrogen peroxide(H

19.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 923-928, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the risk factors of different types of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in Tibetan patients at high altitude, as to provide reference for correctly identifying high-risk patients.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was used to analyze the 304 HSP patients admitted to Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital from April 2014 to March 2022. The gender, age, allergic history, family history, clinical type, laboratory indexes (hemoglobin, platelet count, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, complement C3 and C4) were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis to screen for risk factors affecting different types of HSP.@*RESULTS@#Renal HSP patients showed higher IgA [(9.2±1.7) g/L vs. (6.4±2.4) g/L, P=0.015], lower complement C3 [(203.3±21.6) mg/dL vs. (301.1±19.5) mg/dL, P=0.043], and complement C4 [(33.5±2.3) mg/dL vs. (53.0±7.2) mg/dL, P=0.032]. The patients with abdominal HSP showed lower levels of hemoglobin [(119.6±19.6) g/L vs. (146.6±47.3) g/L, P=0.038] and plasma albumin [24.8 (22.1, 33.9) g/L vs. 32.6 (24.6, 35.1) g/L, P=0.045]. The patients with articular HSP exhibited higher CRP [13.5 (0.2, 20.6) g/L vs. 7.5 (0.1, 15.2) g/L, P=0.036] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) [24 (5, 40) mm/h vs. 15 (4, 30) mm/h, P=0.049]. Elevated IgA and decreased complement C4 were risk factors for renal HSP, anemia and decreased plasma albumin were risk factors for abdominal HSP, and elevated CRP was a risk factor for articular HSP.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical characteristics of different types of HSP in plateau areas were different. Patients with high IgA, low complement C4, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and significantly elevated CRP should be highly vigilant. Early and effective intervention can improve the clinical efficacy, avoid severe development, and improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tibet/epidemiology , Complement C3/analysis , IgA Vasculitis/complications , Altitude , Complement C4 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Immunoglobulin A , Risk Factors , Anemia , Hemoglobins/analysis , Serum Albumin/analysis
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 426-432, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981957

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the effects of a simulated high-altitude environment on the reproductive system of prepubertal male rats and the reversibility of these effects upon return to a normal environment. Three-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups that were exposed to different conditions: a normal environment for 6 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively, hypobaric hypoxia for 6 weeks, and hypobaric hypoxia for 6 weeks followed by a normal environment for 6 weeks. Multiple pathophysiological parameters were evaluated at the histological, endocrine, and molecular levels. Hypobaric hypoxia exposure for 6 weeks during the prepubertal phase significantly altered physiological parameters, body functions, blood indices, and reproductive potential. Six weeks after returning to a normal environment, the damaged reproductive functions partially recovered due to compensatory mechanisms. However, several changes were not reversed after returning to a normal environment for 6 weeks, including disorders of body development and metabolism, increased red blood cells, increased fasting blood glucose, abnormal blood lipid metabolism, decreased testicular and epididymis weights, abnormal reproductive hormone levels, excessive apoptosis of reproductive cells, and decreased sperm concentration. In summary, a hypobaric hypoxic environment significantly impaired the reproductive function of prepubertal male rats, and a return to normal conditions during the postpubertal phase did not fully recover these impairments.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Wistar , Altitude , Semen/metabolism , Hypoxia/pathology , Genitalia, Male
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